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Ca^-'M.  Si .  A-.  \o 

0  rorrrroiB    Ciek-.kice   iki:ea:d   g>t  tits    :PL.vrE, 

'       (Xv/v^   ^W<y,  ^'//r     J4/\^y//^^  J^r/Hr   ^///^/  7/a//^- 

oOVMIS      1-AS*    VAIIICUS 

LindM  rrin/.-J   -ir    J/,-  ,f,-cAmi^  J-AiUiJtJ.  *  Cf 







By    O'CONNOR. 

The  Ring  of  Baal. 

VOL.  L 



Printed  by  J.  M'GowaD, 
OfMt  Windmill-Street. 



My  Friknd, 
Wh  e  n  in  accordance  with  my  desire  that  you  should  have 
the  evidence  of  your  own  senses,  wherefrom  to  form  your 
own  judgment  of  the  length,  depth,  and  complexion  of  the 
last  conspiracy  against  my  life  and  honour,  by  agents  of  an 
oHgarchy,  whose  every  act  is  working  a  mighty  revolution  in 
all  the  countries  subject,  and  subjected  to  their  fell  dominionj 
you  came  to  Ireland ;  at  which  time  you  consulted  me  as  to 
the  best  account  of  my  ill-fated  country ;  I  requested  of  you 
to  content  yourself  for  the  present  with  reading  the  book 
that  lay  open  before  you,  the  dimensions  thereof  wide  as 
the  land,  whereon  you  would  see  marks  of  the  iron-hand  erf" 
despotism;  the  time  of  pressure  to  be  calculated  from  the 
woeful  havoc  it  had  made  ;  and  I  promised  that  I  would,  as 
soon  as  could  be,  present  you  with  a  true  and  faithful  history 
of  my  country,  from  the  earliest  times,  whic^i  would  clearly 
explain  those  causes  that  had  produced  the  effects  you  syna- 
pathetically  deplored. 

I  now  come,  late  as  to  time,  but,  as  you  knoM>',  quickly, 
when  the  manifold  afflictions  and  consequent  ill-health  under 

which  I  laboured,  ave  taken  into  account,  to  fulfil  the 
promise  1  then  made  ;  not  to  lay  at  your  feet,  but  to  place 
in  your  hands,  the  most  ancient  Chronicles  of  the  people 
whose  descendants  you  saw,  and  whose  melancholy  condition 
brought  many  a  tear  from  your  manly,  pitying  eye. 

In  selecting  you  as  executor  of  this  legacy  which  I  be- 
queath to  those  that  now  be,  and  to  those  who  are  yet  to 
come,  for  an  everlasting  possession,  it  is  necessary  that  I  tell 
posterity  the  reason  that  hath  actuated  me  to  commit  lo  you 
tiiis  trust,  which  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  exemplary  manner 
in  which  you  have  carried  yourself  in  all  the  relations  of 
private  life;  nor  because  of  your  acquirements  in  the  walks 
of  literature  ;  nor  in  the  many  proofs  I  have  had  of  yoiir 
friendship  through  a  series  of  nearly  thirty  years ;  nor  yet 
for  the  extension  of  your  full  and  fostering  hand  towards 
my  children,  whom  you  have  made  partakers  of  a  portion 
of  your  wealth,  since  persecution,  in  varied  shapes,  and  the 
success  of  diabolical  machinations  of  a  perfidious  traitor, 
taking  advantage  of  the  situation  in  which  I  had  been 
placed  by  that  persecution,  had' deprived  their  father  of  the 

Had  it  not  been  for  you,  my  gallant  boy,  into  whose  hands 
you  gave  his  first  sword,  with  instructions  how  to  use 
the  destroying  weapon  in  support  of  the  rights  of  man, 
against  tyranny  and  oppres-ion,  tempering  justice  with 
mercy  ;  into  whose  ear  you  poured  lessons  of  wisdom,  pre- 
cepts of  humanity  ; — had  it  not  been  for  you,  the  career  of 
glory,  wherein  his  actions  have  shed  additional  lustre  even  on 
our  names,  had  been  cut  short,  and  he  had  been  deprived  of 
his  fair  proportion  of  tlierenown  of  these  brave  warriors  who 
have  established  the  independence  of  the  republic  of  Colum- 
bia, all  of  whom  are  loud  in  his  praise.     Even  tlicse  powerful 

causes  united,  would  not  be  of  sufficient  weight  to  induce 
me  to  constitute  you  tlie  trustee  of  such  a  charge  :  these 
things  appertain  to  private  life,  and  I  feel  pride  in  pro- 
claiming to  the  world  my  thanks  therefor. 

These  reasons  and  many  more  do  combine  to  cause  me  to 
admire  you,  to  have  an  affection  for  you,  and  to  retain  a 
friendship  for  you  of  a  nature  whidi  few  but  faithful  Irish- 
inen  can  feel ;  which  when  sincere,  nothing  can  destroy, 
though  a  tremendous  blast  may  shake  ;  its  position  regained, 
when  founded  on  a  rock,  as  my  friendship  is  for  you. 

My  motive  is,  that  having  had  opportunities,  for  seven 
and  twenty  years,  of  knowing  you  to  the  core,  having  stu- 
died you ,  having  watched  you  with  an  eye  of  circumspection 
and  of  a  true  friend,  who  would  have  found  fault  if  he  saw 
cause,  I  cannot  call  to  my  recollection  one  act  in  your  rela- 
tion with  the  public  that  I  do  not  appi-ove,  I  cannot  think 
on  any  one  occasion,  that  you  have  betrayed  the  trust  reposed 
in  you  by  them ;  whilst  your  never-failing  advocacy  and 
vindication  of  the  Irish  people,  has  endeared  you  to  all  our 

At  sometimes  ^-ou  have  said,  that  it  was  most  discouraging 
to  attempt  to  improve  the  condition  of  the  state ;  you  have 
compared  the  inutiUty  of  your  continued  efforts  to  the  con- 
stant drawing  up  of  empty  buckets  from  a  well :  pardon 
me,  Sir,  be  assured  the  buckets  you  have  drawn  up,  have 
not  been  empty  ; — nay,  they  have  been  brim-full,  and  the 
people  are  refreshing  themselves  with  the  contents.  'Tis 
true,  your  eloquence  and  the  proclamation  of  your  just 
principles,  have  made  no  impression  on  the  self-nominated 
and  predetermined  assembly  of  St.  Stephens,  amongst  whom 
the  rule  is,  that  what  they  call  private  honour,  should  super- 
sede public  duty:  but  not  so  with  the  people;  the  senti- 

ments  you  l.ave  uttered  within  llie  walls  ul'  that  liouae,  have 
been  disseminated  far  and  wi<le,  and  produced  enquiries 
tending  to  the  most  beneficial  results  for  your  country,  to 
promote  the  true  interests  of  which,  your  labours  have  been 

Your  name  is  identified  with  the  history  of  your  times  ; — 
a  majestic  column  is  erecting  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of 
Burdett  of  Foremark .  May  long  time  pass  ere  it  be  com- 
pleted ;  and  when  completed,  it  will  be  of  the  most  chaste 
and  simple  order,  all  its  members  in  perfect  correspon- 
dence, the  characters  in  the  universal  language  of  nature,- 
spea-king  to  all  the  nations  of  the  earth. 

Behold  the  reward  of  a  grateful  people^  to  the  incorruptibh 
Pufriot,  the  Just  Steward,  the  true  and  Jaithful  Represen- 
tative, the  eloquent  Orator,  the  intrepid  Assertor  of  the  liber- 
ties of  mankind,  the  MAN  who  dared  to  be  honeat  in  the 
worst  of  times,  and  7oho  scorned  to  court  that  popular  ap- 
plause, which  it  7t'as  liis  chief  est  ambition  to  deserve ! 
1  ar.i, 

Wiih  sincere  respect  for  your  many  virtues,- 
Your  faithful  friend, 



THIS  IS  the  fourth  effort  which  I  have  made,  to  present 
to  the  world  a  faithful  history  of  my  country. 

Whilst  I  was  immured  in  a  prison  in  Dublin,  during  parts 
of  the  years  1798  and  1799,  charged  by  the  oligarchy  of 
England  with  the  foul  crime  of  treason,  because  I  would  not 
disgrace  my  name  by  the  acceptance  of  an  earldom  and  a 
pension,  to  be  paid  by  the  people  whom  I  was  courted  to 
desert,  and  because  I  resisted  their  every  art  to  induce  me 
to  become  a  traitor  to  my  beloved  Eri,  I  employed  my 
time  in  writing  a  history  of  that  ill-fated  laud,  which  I  had 
brought  down  to  a  very  late  period,  when  an  armed  force  of 
Buckinghamshire  militia  men  entered  my  prison,  and  all  the 
result  of  my  labours,  with  suth  ancient  manuscripts  as  I  had 
then  by  me,  were  outrageously  taken  away,  and  have  never 
since  been  recovered. 

Having  beeu  removed  from  Dublin  in  March  1799, 
and  taken  off  to  Fort  George  in  Scotland,  in  the  very  teeth 
of  the  provisions  of  the  Habeas  Corpus  x\ct,  because  I  would 
not  become  a  party  to  a  compromise,  whereby  I  should  have 
destroyed  my  own  fame,  and  justified  the  multitudinous  acts 
of  tyranny  exercised  towards  me ;  in  that  military  fortress 
1  was  occupied,  when  health  permitted,  in  again  writing  the 
history  of  my  native  land,  which  I  had  brought  dov/n  to 

the  last  moment  that  I  remained  in  that  part  of  Scotland, 
where  I  was  detained  until  the  commencement  of  1801,  and 
from  whence  I  was  brought  away  a  prisoner. 

A  part  of  my  family  and  myself  reached  Forres,  the  first 
night  after  our  departure,  and  the  ladies  having  left  their 
muffs  in  the  room  of  the  Inn  in  which  we  sat,  they  found  on 
the  succeeding  morning  tiiat  the  messenger  had  ripped  the 
linings,  under  the  suspicion,  no  doubt,  of  communications 
from  my  fellow  prisoners  to  their  friends,  whom  I  had  left 
behind,  being  there  secreted,  in  ignorance  that  I  had  given 
an  assurance  to  governor  Stewart,  that  neither  I,  nor  any 
of  my  family,  would  be  the  bearers  of  any  papers  from  tliem. 

This  occurrence,  added  to  the  circumstance  of  my  manu- 
scripts having  been  accidentally  left  behind  at  Meldrum,  for 
which  I  had  to  send  back  a  few  miles,  made  my  family 
apprehensive  that  if  the  messenger  should  lay  his  hands 
upon  them,  my  captivity  would  be  prolonged  ;  and  having 
passed  a  day  of  festivity  at  Aberdeen,  with  the  officers  and 
wives  of  a  regiment  of  native  Scots,  who  had  been  quartered 
at  Fort  George,  during  a  part  of  the  time  of  my  abode 
there,  and  from  whom  my  family  and  myself  had  experienced 
something  more  warm  than  mere  attention  ;  the  scene 
brought  back  to  our  recollection  days  of  former  times,  and 
the  partner  of  my  secret  thoughts  being  entitled  to  command 
any  sacrifice  that  she  would  ask,  having  requested  of  me  to 
suffer  her  to  commit  my  writings  to  the  flames,  I  could  not 
do  otherwise  than  yield ;  Thus  j^erlshed  the  fruits  of  my 
labour  in  Fort  George. 

Having  regained  my  liberty  shortl)-  after  my  arrival  in 
London,  so  far  as  going  abroad,  I  did  not  resume  my  favou- 
rite object  during  my  abode  in  England,  which  was  till  1803, 
when  1  returned  to  mvown  country,  and  having  availed  mv- 
sclf  of  the  earliest  opportunity  of  reclaiming  from  tiie  Ixiwels 

of  the  earth  the  most  ancient  maniisciipts  of"  the  History  of 
Eri,  I  recommenced  my  pursuit  upon  a  moie  enlarged  scale, 
and  had  completed  the  work  down  to  the  memorable  era  of 
1315,  since  Christ,  (when  the  five  kings  of  Eri,  laying  aside 
their  jealousies^  invited  Edward  Bruce,  a  prince  of  their  own 
race,  to  accept  of  the  sovereignty  of  the  land,)  when  it,  and 
almost  all  my  most  valuable  effects,  to  a  great  amount, 
perished  in  the  flames  which  consumed  all  but  the  bare  walls 
-of  the  castle  of  Dangan,  in  the  year  1809. 

Were  I  a  fatalist,  assuredly  I  would  have  thought  that  it 
had  been  decreed,  that  an  authentic  history  of  Inisfail,  the 
Isle  of  Destiny,  was  never  to  see  the  light.  Havitig,  for 
some  time  afterwards,  been  kept  fully  occupied  by  agents  of 
the  oligarchy  of  England,  in  defending  my  property  and  life  ; 
— liberty  we  wild  Irish  have  none  to  lose, — I,  for  a  while, 
abandoned  my  project,  and  until  the  arrival  of  Sir  Francis 
Burdett  in  Ireland  in  1817,  meant  to  defer  its  execution ; 
when  I  promised  to  present  to  him,  at  as  early  a  day  as  pos- 
sible, an  history  of  Ireland  on  the  truth  of  which  he  could 
rely :  which  promise  I  now  fulfil.  This  history  is  a  literal 
translation  into  the  English  tongue,  (from  the  Phcenican  dia- 
lect of  the  Scythian  language,)  of  the  ancient  manuscripts 
which  have,  fortunately  for  the  world,  been  preserved 
through  so  many  ages,  chances  and  vicissitudes. 

Should  any  captious  person  be  inclined  to  entertain  sus- 
picion of  the  antiquity  of  these  manuscripts,  I  beg  leave 
to  observe,  that  I  do  not  presume  to  affirm  that  the  very 
skins,  whether  of  sheep  or  of  goats,  are  of  a  date  so  old  as 
the  events  recorded ;  but  this  I  will  assert,  that  they  must  be 
faithful  transcripts  from  the  most  ancient  records ;  it  not 
being  within  the  range  of  possibility,  either  from  their  style, 
language,  or  contents,  that  they  could  have  been  forged. 


So  fully  sensible  was  a  man  of  Ireland,  who  far  surpassed 
all  his  contemporaries,  and  in  truth,  most  men,  I  allude  to 
Henry  Flood,  that  if  encouragement  were  given  to  bring  to 
light  and  investigate  ancient  records  of  Ireland,  still  existing, 
they  would  be  the  means  of  diffusing  great  knowledge  of  the 
antique  world  ;  and  which,  with  the  memoiials  of  the  east 
that  even  still  remain,  would  illuminate  all  the  intermediate 
spaces  of  the  earth  ;  so  convinced  was  he,  I  say,  of  this  Tact, 
by  means  of  the  deep  researches  which  his  penetrating  mind 
had  made,  that  he  bequeathed  the  whole  of  his  large  pos- 
sessions for  the  purpose  of  instituting  professorships  in  the 
University  of  Dublin,  for  the  perpetuation  of  the  Irish  lan- 
guage, and  the  purchase  of  manuscripts  therein.  In  this 
magnificent  design,  his  views  were  uniortunately  frustrated 
by  the  contemptible  policy  of  the  incubus  that  hath  long 
over-lain  unhappy  Eri  ;  for,  a  claimant  was  set  up  to  the 
estates  of  the  philosophic  donor,  to  whom  they  were  accord- 
ingly decreed!  Had  his  bequest  been  suffered  to  take  effect, 
there  is  no  doubt  but  that  very  many  manuscripts,  of  great 
antiquity  and  value,  which  now  are  mouldering  in  a  neglected 
state,  would  have  been  brought  forth. 

It  is  not  possible,  nor  would  it  be  proper  if  it  were,  to 
anticipate  exceptions  which  peradvcnture,  may  be  taken  to 
the  chronicles  of  Eri.  If  such,  however,  should  be  made, 
and  of  value  sufficient,  the  objectors  may  rely  upon  it,  that 
satisfactory  answers  shall  be  given  to  all  doubts  and  suspi- 
cions, which  hitherto  have  invariably  been  found  to  be  pro- 
portionate with  the  ignorance  which  at  this  moment  pervades 
the  people  of  England,  with  regard  to  the  history,  ancient 
and  modern,  of  this  celebrated  land. — once  the  scat  of 
learning,  and  equal  and  just  laws,  now  of  demoralization  and 

It  remains  that  I  now  acquaint  the  world,  that  I  shall  in- 
stantly resume  my  work  for  the  purpose  of  continuing  the 
history  of  Eri,  the  next  volume  of  which,  to  be  brought 
down  to  the  year  of  the  Christian  era,  1169  ;  I  hope  to  com- 
plete so  as  to  be  ready  for  publication  in  the  month  of  March 
next ;  and  if  I  live,  I  will  prepare  the  Chronicles  of  Ireland 
to  the  day  of  my  birth  in  another  volume ;  and  then  I  will 
give  the  history  of  my  own  times  in  one  other,  the  con- 
cluding volume  of  the  whole  ;  which  five  volumes  will  be  a 
complete  continued  history  of  this  noble  island,  under  the 
names  of  Eri,  to  the  year  1169,  and  of  Ireland  from  that 
epoch,  from  the  most  remote  time  to  the  instant  on  which  I 
shall  drop  my  pen. 


Paris,  1821. 


PAllT  r. 

Oires  the  traditionary  account  of  the  origin  of  the  Scythians— the  emi- 
gration of  a  tribe  of  that  race  from  their  original  land  to  the  south- 
ward of  the  river  Oxu^• — their  passage  of  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates— 
their  dominion  of  western  Asia — the  invasion  of  their  land  by  the 
Assyrians — the  building  of  Babel  by  the  Assyrians — the  flight  of  Ard- 
fear  or  Noah,  the  supreme  chief  of  the  Scythians  to  Ardmenia — his 
death  and  burial— the  reign  of  Japheth  in  Ardmenia — the  election  of 
Og,  son  of  Japheth — the  emigration  of  a  colony  from  Ardmenia  to 
Thrace,  Sec. — the  «onq\iest  of  Iberia  by  Og — the  emigration  of  a  colony 
from  Ardmenia  to  the  north  of  Caucasus — and  to  Numidia  in  Africa — 
and  from  thence  to  Spain  ;  from  v/hich  time  it  gives  the  authentic  his- 
tory of  the  emigration  of  a  tribe  from  Iberia  to  Spain — of  the  introduc- 
tion of  the  Phoeiician  letters  into  Galicia,  in  Spain,  by  Eolus — of  the 
institution  of  t!;e  order  of  01am  teachers,  or  wise  men — of  the  emigra- 
tion of  a  tribe  from  Gallicia  to  Aquitania — of  the  regulation  of  the 
priesthood — of  the  discovery  of  Britain  by  the  Phoenicians — of  the  sepa- 
ration of  the  isles  of  Scilly  from  the  main  land — of  the  invasion  of  Spain 
by  Sesostri,-;  of  Egypt,  the  battle  of  Samur,  and  the  fall  of  Eocaid  Golam 
— of  the  departure  of  the  Prince  Ith  from  Galicia  to  explore  an  island 
westward  of  B:i;ain — of  his  death — and  the  return  of  his  son  with 
the  survivors — Lugad's  relation  of  the  adventure — of  the  emigration 
of  the  king,  princes,  nobles,  01am,  and  a  colony  from  Breoccean,  in 
Galicia,  to  the  western  island. 


Gives  an  account  of  the  arrival  of  this  colony  on  the  western  Isle — 
their  conquest  of  the  island,  which  they  call  Eri — their  covenant  with 
the  preceding  rulers,  by  which  they  retained  the  sovereignty  of  the 
country  now  called  Connaught — the  establishment  of  the  aborigines 
on  the  borders  of  Loc  Erne — the  division  by  lot  of  the  remainder  of 
the  island  amongst  the  two  sons,  and  one  grandson  of  Eocard  Golam 
— the  present  Munster,  Leinster,  and  Ulster— the  contention  of  the 
kings  of  Deas  and  Gaelen,  the  battle  of  Cesiol,  fall  of  the  king  of  Deas, 
and  the  usurpation  of  the  title  of  Erimionn  by  the  king  of  Gaelen — 
the  arrival  of  a  company  of  PhtEnicians — the  attempt  to  introduce 
image  worship  into  Eri — its  failure— the  death  of  Er,   king  of  the 

north,  and  tlie  i'.ii;)osition  of  the  name  of  UUad  on  his  kingdom— the 
buildhig  of  Dun  Sobairce  and  Dunciermna  the  first  stone  edefice  of 
this  tri!)e  in  Eri,  or  elsewhere — the  invasion  of  Gaelen  by  the  Danan 
and  Firgiieat — unsuccessful — the  name  of  Deas  changed  to  that  of 

The  legislation  of  Eocaid  01am  Fodla,  [wliereby  Eri  became  a  con- 
federation of  the  three  kingdoms  of  Numain,  Ullad,  and  Gaelen  ;  the 
king  of  Ullad  being  chosen  ardri,  or  chief  king — the  building  of  Teac- 
Mior,  Oil  Tobrad,  where  the  national  assembly  of  Eri,  consisting  of  all 
the  kings,  prince.>,  and  nobles,  deputies  from  the  olam,  and  heads  of 
the  people,  and  the  cliief  and  eight  of  the  nobles  of  the  Danan,  met 
every  fourth  year  to  legislate,  and  transact  the  affairs  of  the  nations — 
the  tale  of  Leafail — the  laws  of  Eri  promulgated — the  death  of  Eocaid 
Olam  Fodla,  the  wise  legislator  of  Eri — contention  between  the 
princes  of  Ullad  for  the  first  time,  whereby  the  office  of  ardri,  which 
had  been  continued  in  the  person  of  the  kings  of  Ullad  for  aJiout  130 
years,  was  vested  in  another. 


The  king  of  Gaelen  chosen  ardri — a  noble  of  the  Brigantes,  in  Britain^ 
comes  on  an  embasy  to  Ullad — mines  are  worked  on  the  southern  ex- 
tremity of  Eri. 


The  building  of  Aodmagnmaca — jMaca,  a  woman,  reigns  ! ! ! — a  king  of 
Gaelen  re-assumes  the  title  of  Erimionn — a  tribe  of  Peucini,  from  Scan- 
dinavia, arrive  in  Eri — depart — return — procure  women  by  co/enant, 
that  the  sons  of  daughters,  not  of  sons,  shall  succeed  to  the  throne  of 
Caledonia — IMaon,  a  young  prince  of  Gaelen,  flies  to  Caledonia — re- 
turns— kills  the  murderer  of  his  father  in  battle — the  tale  of  Maon  and 
Moriat — JNIaon  introduces  foreign  troops,  who  are  violent  and  over- 
bearing— a  conspiracy  against  him  and  them — both  he  and  they  slain 
— Gaelen  called  Laigean,  from  the  long  spears  borne  by  these  foreigners 
— Imbior  Slaigne  now  had  its  name  of  Loc  Garman  from  them  also 
— the  affecting  relation  of  Aongus  and  Ainc — the  title  of  Chief  King 
changed  from  Erimionn  to  Ardri — the  permission  of  Ruidruide-mor  to 
Aongus  for  his  son  by  his  daughter  to  a  portion  in  Ullad — the  institu- 
tion of  the  Clauda  Ruid-ruide  in  Ullad. 

Errata. — In  the  head-lines  of  all  the  pages  from  the  cojiclusinn  of 
the  Sixth  Chapter,  to  the  end  of  Part  the  First,  for  The  Writing  op 
EoLus,  read  Curoniclbs  of  Gaelag. 


Pait  I.       A   Deirioiiitratioii   of  the  Original    Seat,  Nations,  and 
Tribes  of  the  Scythian  race  .        .         .        - 

II.  From   the  earliest  Accounts  of  the   Existence  of  this 

Earth,  to  the  founding  of  Ba-bel         ...  iv 

III.  From  the  dismemberment  of  the  ancient  Scythian  Em- 

pire, and  the  building  of  Ba-bel  by  the  Assyrians, 
in  25^46,  to  the  expulsion  of  the  shepherd  chiefs 

from  Egypt,  and  their  arrivaJ  iu  Pelasgia  and  Cero- 

peia,  about  1 100  before  Clirist     ....  xv 

IV.  Of  all  the  Scy  thian   tribes  that  emigrated  to  the  Isles 

of  the  Gentiles,  south  of  the  Ister,  from  the 
Euxine,  East,  to  the  Rhoetiaii  Alps,  and  Panonia 
West  to  liie  extremity  of  Greece  South,  from  the 
year  2170,  fo  the  birth  of  Christ.       ...  xxi 

V.  Of  the  Scythian  tribes  that   e-.^ionized   the   districts   of 

Europe,  from  the  v»estei-:i  extremity  of  Italy,  and 
the  Rhoetian  Alps,  to  the  Germau  Ocean,  between 
tlie  rivers  Danube,  and  Ri '>ne,  north  and  ihe  Gar- 
ronne  south         .......  \\ 

VI.  Of  the  Goths -         .  liii 

VII.  Of  the  Scythian  Sidoiiians  in  Spain  -         -         •  xcii 
VIII.  Of  the  Ib-er-ian  Scytiiiaiis  :;  Spain           -        -        -           xciv 

IX.    Of  the  Scythian  Tribes  in  \\':t  Isle  of  Britain    •        -        xcviii 
X.    Of  all  the   Nations  of  Europe,  antecedently  to  the 

invasions  of  the  Scyltiia-ra  ....  ci 

XI.  Of  the  Manners,  Custon.s,  Original  Institutions,  and 

Religion,  of  the  Scythian  race  ...  cviii 

XII.  Of  the  Language  of  the  Scythian  Race           -        -         cxliii 
Conclusion     -        ^ cccxlix 

Directions  for  placing  the  Engravings. 


Map  of  Wibtcni 


of  Greece 

of  Span. 

of   Britain 

VOL.  T. 



cxlix       of   Demonstration 
clxviii     of  Ditto 
ccxliii     of  Ditto 

ccUvi     of  Ditto 

VOL.  II. 
Interior  of  the  Higli  Chamber  -  Frontispiece 

Map  of  Ejri  to  fwce  page  I 

Roll  of  the  Law; 

A  Demonstration  of  the  Original  Seat,  Nations,  and 
Tribes  of  the  Scythian  race. 


X  HE  Chronicles  of  Er-i,  about  to  be  presented  to  you,  re- 
late to  events  so  very  remote,  I  have  thouglit  (it  not  to  confide 
the  illustration  of  passages  rendered  obscure  by  time,  to  an- 
notations solely,  but  to  lay  before  you  such  previous  informa- 
tion, as  may  enable  you  to  see  your  way  yet  more  distinctly, 
and  as  experience  teaclieth,  that  the  surest  method  of  explain- 
ing truth,  detecting  and  exposing  error,  saving  time  by  the 
avoidance  of  repetitions,  and  preventing  confusion,  is  to  com- 
mence with  the  origin  of  a  subject,  it  is  my  intention  to  go  as 
far  back  as  the  first  syllable  of  recorded  time,  detaining  you  at 
the  source,  and  through  the  different  stages  in  our  descent,  no 
longer  than  will  suffice  for  the  forming  your  judgment  with 

The  main  scope  of  my  design  is  to  elucidate  the  history  of 
that  branch  of  the  great  Scytldan  family,  at  this  day  languish- 
ing on  the  emaciated  bosom  of  unhappy  Er-i,  which  is  so 
blended  with  the  history  of  a  considerable  portion  of  Asia, 
and  a  great  pari  of  Europe,  that  it  will  be  indispensable  to 
point  out  their  original  seat,  from  whence  to  trace  not  only 
them,  but  all  those  tribes  in  any  way  connected  with  them, 
and  this  I  purpose  to  do  from  the  evidence  of  the  writings  of 
the  Scythian  tribe  of  the  Hebrews  intelligibly  expounded.  Of 
EoluSf  one  of  ancient  days,  of  whom  you  have  not  heretofore 
heard,  and  on  the  authority  of  the  concurrent  testimony  of 
antiquity,  by  means  of  similarity  of  manners  and  customs,  in- 
stitutions, laws,  religion,  and  above  all,  by  perfect  identity  of 
language,  and  this  so  clearly  as  to  admit  of  no  doubt,  or 
farther  question ;  and  as  Geography  is  the  finger.  Chronology 
the  eye.   Etymology   the  tongue  of  antiquity,  I  will  annex 


charts  of  the  countries,  tables  of  times,  and  a  glossary  of  words, 
to  facilitate  our  progress  in  the  long,  and  I  expect  instructive 
voyage  to  which  I  invite  you,  companion  of  my  way. 

But  whilst  I  am  indulging  the  hope  that  you  are  marching 
with  me,  your  faculties  directed  to  the  attainment  of  objects  of 
this  eai'th,  within  the  scope  of  the  reason  of  man  ;  should  your 
mind  be  winging  its  way  on  pinions  of  miracle  and  mystery,  in 
the  regions  of  air,  the  illimitable  domain  of  fancy,  and  her 
elfish  train,  wedded  to  dogmas  to  which  it  became  attached, 
you  know  not  how,  nor  when,  mere  effect  of  casualty  of  place 
of  birth,  from  which  in  consequence  of  obstinacy,  or  indiffer- 
ence you  will  not  endeavour  to  divorce  your  understanding, 
be  not  offended  with  me  when  I  say,  though  you  may  have 
made,  or  be  capable  of  making  the  greatest  progress  in  the 
beaten  track  of  literature,  tlie  Goal  of  icisdom  you  can  never 

Think  me  not  unreasonable  then,  if  I  request,  in  return  for 
the  pains  I  have  taken  for  your  edification,  that  you  will  do 
your  utmost  to  disencumber  your  intellect  from  any  prejudices 
it  may  have  imbibed  :  to  proceed  in  this  interesting  investiga- 
tion with  full  confidence  in  the  extent  of  your  own  powers; 
not  to  decide  hastily  against  the  proofs  about  to  be  submitted 
to  you,  because  dates,  and  facts,  or,  to  speak  more  correctly, 
the  style  of  nan-ating  them,  should  differ  from  those  on  the 
authority  of  which,  you  may  hitherto  perhaps  have  been  in  the 
habit  of  relying,  nor  yet  to  imagine  that  relations  are  authentic, 
because  of  their  antiquity ;  doth  not  the  knowledge  of  the 
days  as  they  pass,  lay  open  the  grossest  errors  of  times  gone 

As  it  is  my  intention  to  study  brevity,  as  far  as  may  be  con- 
sistent with  perfect  clearness,  it  cannot  be  expected  that  this 
demonstration  should  be  extended  to  notices  of  ancient  writers 
at  variance  with  each  other,  and  not  unfrcquently  with  them- 
selves, and  to  comparisons,  and  refutations  of  the  many  schemes 
of  modern  system  builders,  each  contending  for  the  support  of 
antiquity,  according  to  the  plan  he  may  happen  to  have  pre- 
conceived, drawing  conclusions  from  probabilities,  and  plausi- 


ble  conjectures,  pressing  into  his  service  every  scrip  of  author- 
ity favorable  to  his  cherished  hypothesis,  discarding  every  ex- 
pression of  the  same  authority  militating  against  it,  attempting 
to  deduce  effects  from  causes  which  never  existed,  and  to  qua- 
lify ignorance  by  the  abuse  of  what  an  ignorant  doth  not 
understand;  now  building  on  a  name  as  on  a  rock,  then  shun- 
ning it  as  a  quicksand ;  at  one  time  eulogizing,  at  another 
time  vilifying  the  self  same  individual,  and  when  driven  to  the 
last  extremity,  reference  to  common  sense  exhausted,  recourse 
is  had  to  divine  inspiration,  and  infallibility  of  sacred  penmen, 
whose  words  to  be  taken  now  literally,  then  figuratively,  ge- 
nerally bearing  diverse  meanings  requiring  explanation,  are  to 
be  considered  most  entitled  to  respect,  when  most  irreconcile- 
able  to  right  reason,  and  least  understood ;  practices  disingenu- 
ous and  unworthy.  For  myself  I  neither  have,  nor  would  I 
condescend  to  have  any  scheme,  system,  or  theory  to  serve  a 
purpose,  my  sole  object  being  to  deliver  what  I  conceive  on 
the  most  diligent  investigation,  in  my  well  weighed  judgment 
to  be  the  truth.  What  glory  can  my  country  derive  from  an 
origin  deduced  through  thousands  of  ages,  of  what  avail  is  it 
in  any  point  of  view,  whether  our  ancestors  were  ScytJiianSf 
expelled  by  tlie  Assyrians  from  the  land  of  Shinar,  fled  to 
Ardmenia,  settled  in  Ib-cr-ia,  emigrated  to  Spain,  and  from 
thence  were  driven  by  Sesostris  to  Er-i.  Or  Aborigines  of 
the  continent  of  Europe,  or  of  the  Isle  of  Bri-tain,  were  chased 
from  thence  by  the  Celtce  or  Belga:  to  Er-i.-  Why  may  not 
this  latter  tale,  for  the  propagation  and  establishment  of  which, 
the  hired  scribes  of  England  have,  from  motives  of  policy, 
labored  these  three  hundred  years,  as  pro  aris  et  focis,  be 
suffered  to  stand  over  our  mighty  fall  ?  Why  ?  because  im- 
mortal truth  avouches  the  reverse,  as  you  will  find  by  a  care- 
ful perusal  of  the  following  pages,  whereby  you  will  be  enabled 
to  distinguish  Asiatic  from  European, — the  adoration  of  Baal, 
from  Druidisw,  and  the  idolatry  of  M annus, — the  Scythian 
lettered  language  from  the  Ger-mannic  speech, — and  the 
Celtic  tongue,  by  a  chain  of  proofs,  which  though  they  may 
fail  to  impress  ethereal  fancy,  must  convince  the  reason  of  all 
who  delight  in  wisdom  and  respect  truth. 


From  the  earliest  Accounts  of  the  Existence  of  this 
Earthy  to  the  founding  of  Ba-heL 

PART  11. 

xloWEVER  well  founded  the  pretensions  of  the  TatarSy 
Chinese,  Hindoos ,  Troglodites,  Egyptians^  Ethiopians,  Arabs, 
or  Assyrians,  maj  be  to  celebrity  in  ages  the  most  remote,  I 
shall  not  enquire  ;  this  demonstration  concerns  the  Scythians, 
other  people  no  farther  than  relates  to  them. 

Your  mind  will  readily  entertain  the  suggestion,  that  a  great 
length  of  time  must  have  passed,  before  a  people  acquire  the 
science  of  forming  figures  whereby  to  delineate  ideas.  When- 
ever these  means  of  transferring  the  recollection  of  past  occur- 
rences,- from  the  fallaciousness  of  memory,  to  the  more  certain 
record  of  letters  have  been  invented,  then  are  the  most  memo- 
rable transactions  compiled,  then  is  rudely  formed  the  history 
of  that  people,  the  most  early  portion  commencing  at  some 
imaginary  point  of  time,  the  whole  filled  with  marvels,  which 
being  from  time  to  time  passed  through  the  filtre  of  the  senses, 
rendered  by  experience  more  and  more  capable  of  separating 
truth  from  falsehood,  matter  too  gross  and  palpable  is  every 
now  and  then  rejected,  whilst  the  memorial  of  some  few  inci- 
dents of  the  most  remote  date  is  preserved,  and  pertinaciously 
adhered  to,  till  at  length  reluctantly  surrendered  to  reason,  and 
not  unfrequently  to  the  more  authentic  relations  of  some  other 
people,  who  had  acquired  the  knowledge  of  letters,  at  an 
earlier  period,  and  whose  history  was  in  some  wise  connected 
Avith  theirs. 

The  facts  are  universally  admitted,  that  the  Phanician^ 
were  the  first  people  (whose  history  is  connected  with  that  of 
Europe,)  who  became  acquainted  with  the  art  of  writing,  and 
had  not  attained  the  knowledge  of  printing ;  that  the  Phoeni- 
cian records  (manuscript  ol  course)  were  destroyed  by  the 


Romans^  or  shared  the  deplorable  fate  of  the  memorials  of  the 
east  as  far  as  our  limits,  in  the  flames  of  Alexandria,  from 
which  circumstances  it  hath  happened,  that  no  work  more 
ancient  than  the  writing  ascribed  to  Moses,  hath  escaped  to 
our  days ;  as  it  contains  an  account  of  the  world  from  the 
beginning  according  to  the  notions  of  the  Hebrews,  I  be" 
leave  to  lay  briefly  and  succinctly  before  you,  so  much  thereof 
as  is  applicable  to  our  present  subject, yrowz  the  commencement^ 
to  the  period  of  time,  whereto  this  section  is  brought  down. 

Moses  was  one  of  the  children  of  Israel,  the  man  who  conspi- 
ring with  his  afflicted  brethren,  formed  a  grand  confederacy  of 
his  nation,  which  by  uniting  their  force,  enabled  them  to  shake 
off  the  galling  yoke  of  servitude.      He  is  said  to  have  died 
about  one  thousand  four  hundred  and  fifty-one  years  before 
the  birth  of  Christ,   by  the  computation  of   the    Hebrews, 
according  to  which  he  was  not  in  existence  for  two  thousand 
four  hundred  and  thirty-three  years  from  the  commencement 
of  his  history,  nor  did  he  write  till  seven  hundred  and  twenty 
years   had  elapsed   from  the  time  of   the  founding  of  Ba- 
bel;   the  work  was  therefore    compiled   from   the  traditions 
above  mentioned,  and  hath  had  the  peculiar  fortune  of  not 
having  hitherto  yielded  up  its  manifold  absurdities  to  reason, 
on  the  contrary,  they  seem  to  have  gained  strength  and  con- 
sistency, principally  from  being,  if   I  may  so  say,  opposed 
thereto,  as  they  are  translated,  attempted  to  be  expounded, 
and  received.     For  this  great  man  though  I  have  ever  enter- 
tertained  the  highest  respect,  I  must  consider  his  supposed 
writings  as  those  of  any  other  individual  recording  traditions, 
orally  delivered  through  a  course  of  hundreds  of  ages,  the 
conservators  labouring  under   the  complicated  disadvantages 
of  revolutions,  emigrations,  slavery,  and  wanderings. 

On  the  authority  of  such  traditions,  the  youth  of  the  portion 
of  the  world  called  Christiandome  are  instructed  to  believe 

That  this  earth  being  ushered  into  light,  by  a  being  the 
prototype  of  man,  on  a  scale  of  dimensions  infinite,  attributes 
iocoinprehensible,    he  created   one  pair  of  the  human  kind 


from  the  elements  of  a  land  called  Eden,  situated  between 
the  Tigris  and  Euphrates. 

That  when  1656  years  had  elapsed,  the  Creator  did  forewarn 
an  individual  of  the  name  of  Noah,  the  son  of  Lantech,  who 
dwelt  on  Shinar  by  Euphrates,  to  prepare  a  vessel  for  the  pur- 
pose of  escaping  from  a  mighty  flood,  with  which  he  was 
about  to  deluge  the  whole  earth,  by  which  means  Noah,  his 
wife,  his  three  sons  and  their  wives,  did  escape  to  the  mountain 
of  Arrarat  in  Ardmenia. 

That  Noah  and  his  descendants  did  not  separate  for  the 
space  of  one  hundred  years,  when  as  they  were  journeying 
all  together  from  the  east,  they  Jbund  a  plain  in  the  land  of 
Shinar,  the  place  of  residence  of  Noah  before  the  food,  and 
they  abided  there. 

That  Nirnrod  the  gre^t  grandson  of  Noah  having  assayed 
to  build  a  city  and  tower  on  the  land  of  Shinar,  which  was 
displeasing  to  the  Creator,  he  prevented  the  prosecution  of  the 
work,  by  confounding  the  thitherto  one  and  only  language  of 
mankind,  so  that  no  individual  could  understand  another''s 

That  thereupon  the  people  were  scattered  from  thence  over 
the  face  of  the  whole  earth,  and  left  off  to  build  the  city. 

And  that  Noah  lived  for  the  course  of  three  hundred  and 
fifty  years  after  this  flood. 

Such  is  the  legendary  tale  of  the  Hebrews,  as  related  in 
the  first  ten  chapters,  and  the  nine  first  verses  of  the  eleventh 
chapter  of  Genesis,  of  the  principal  occurrences  between  the 
times  of  their  creation,  and  the  building  of  Ba-bel,  including 
a  space  of  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-six  years. 

Now  permit  me  to  make  you  acquainted  with  another  man 
of  ancient  days,  who  lived  about  50  years  later  than  Moses, 
and  hath  also  compiled  the  traditions  of  his  nation,  from  the 
earliest  point  of  time  noted,  whose  writing  bed-fellow  with  the 
mouldering  bones  of  the  illustrious  dead  for  ages,  hath  been 
rescued  from  the  tomb  by  me  his  son.  This  man  was  Eolus, 
chief  of  the  Gaal  o(  Sciot  o't  Ibcr  within  Gaelag,  between  tlie 


years  1568,  and  1335  before  Christ.  He  is  the  writer  of 
the  Chronicles,  of  this  tribe  of  the  Scythian  race  from  their 
origin,  and  during  158  years  of  their  sojourn  in  Gaelag ;  and 
though  you  will  presently  hear  himself  speak,  in  far  superior 
phrase  to  mine,  let  me,  in  pursuance  of  the  plan  I  have 
adopted  for  the  sake  of  precision,  be  permitted  here  to  lay  be- 
fore you  a  brief  summary  of  his  history  of  his  world,  if  not 
from  the  same  commencement  as  Moses,  yet  down  to  the  same 
ascertained  period,  the  founding  of  Ba-hel. 

From  Eoliis  we  are  given  to  understand, 

That  the  Scythian  race  of  mankind  was  formed  of  the 
elements  of  the  land  above  the  sources  of  the  great  waters, 
when,  he  doth  not  pretend  to  determine,  but  he  doth  say. 
That  of  times  marked  they  abided  in  their  original  place  for 
the  circuit  of  One  Thousand  and  eleven  yeai's. 

That  at  the  expiration  of  that  time,  they  moved  south,  and 
having  filled  all  the  lands  between  the  Sgeiiid,  the  Ocean,  and 
the  Teth-gris,  in  two  hundred  and  ninety-three  rings,  they 
then  passed  over  Teth^gris,  and  having  reached  the  waters  of 
Affreidg-eis,  occupied  lath-da-cal,  from  whence  they  crossed 
the  Affreidg-eis.  out-stretched  their  arms  over  all  nations, 
and  became  lords  of  the  earth,  maintaining  their  dominion 
during  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  nine  years. 

That  when  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  nine  years  were 
completed,  during  which  time  they  held  the  supremacy  of 
Western  Asia,  Ardfear,  the  Son  of  Am-laoc,  being  supreme 
chief  of  all  the  Scythian  nations,  having  his  tents  on  Mag- 
sean-ar,  by  Affreidg-eis, —Eis-soir  speaking  in  a  thousand 
divers  tongues,  poured  like  unto  a  mighty  flood  in  upon  lath- 
da-cal,  whereupon  Ardfear  escaped  by  the  waters  of  Affreidg- 
eis  to  Ardmionn. 

That  war  and  devastation  fBrevailed  for  one  ring,  then  there 
was  peace. 

That  Eis-soir  made  the  earth  on  which  had  stood  the  tents 
of  Ardfear  and  the  chiefs,  to  groan  with  the  weight  of  build- 
ings durable,  and  walls  round  about,  and  a  mighty  tower  to 
watch  the  land  on  every  side. 


And  that  Ardfear  abided  in  Ardmionn,  and  ruled  that 
land  in  person  for  the  circuit  of  one  score  and  eleven  rings, 
when  he  died,  and  was  buried  there,  his  spirit  invoked  by  the 
name  of  Na-oi^  borne  in  his  little  skiff,  on  the  bosom  of  the 
blessed  Affreidg-eis,  saved  by  Baal  for  the  preservation  of  the 
race  of  Ab-s-al,  and  the  glory  of  the  Gaal 

Such  is  the  relation  of  Eolus,  prince  of  Gaelag,  a  lineal 
descendant  of  Ardfear,  the  last  chief  of  the  ancient  Scythian 

Besides  these  memorials  of  the  traditions  of  the  Chaldean  (a) 
and  Ardtnenian  tribes  of  the  Scythian  race,  we  have  the  con- 
current testimony  of  antiquity. 

That  the  Scythians  and  Egyptians  in  the  days  of  Tanaus 
and  Vexoris  contended  for  the  dominion  of  Asiay  which  being 
gained  by  the  former,  the  Scythians  held  the  supremacy  there- 
of, for  1500  years,  when  a  people  called  Assyrians,  led  by 
Bel,  invaded  Mesopotamia,  overthrew  the  Scythians,  put  an 
end  to  the  tribute  to  which  they  had  subjected  Asia,  founded 
the  city,  walls,  and  tower  of  Babylon,  and  erected  the  Assxj- 
rian  on  the  ruins  of  the  Scythian  empire. 

Capellus,  in  the  15th  chapter  of  his  2d  book,  as  quoted  by 
Prideaux,  in  the  5th  book  of  the  1st  part  of  his  connection, 
hath  said :  "  In  historical  matters  it  is  not  to  be  regarded 
-what  the  Jews  write,  or  what  they  omit, That  of  all  na- 
tions in  the  world,  that  have  pretended  to  any  sort  of  learn- 
ing, they  have  taken  the  least  care  to  record  past  transactions, 
and  have  done  it  very  bunglingly,  and  in  a  manner  that  looks 
more  like  fable  than  truth,  wherever  they  have  attempted  it." 

That  Capellus  and  Prideaux  were  competent  judges  no  one 
will  deny,  and  here  assuredly  we  have  proof  of  the  correctness 
of  the  observation. 

What  though  the  book  of  Genesis  hath  been  silent  as  to  the 
1304  years  spoken  of  by  Eolus,  from  the  first  note  of  time,  to 
the  establishment  of  the  Scythian  empire  on  the  plain  of 
Shinar.  (b) 

What  though  it  hath  represented  the  Assyrian  invasion  by 
the  figure  of  a  flood,  and  separated  that  event  from  the 
founding  of  Barbel  by  the  intervention  of  one  hundred  years. 


Attributed  to  miracle  the  variety  of  languages  of  the  many 
nations  of  the  Assyrian  host. 

Represented  Noah  and  his  descendants  of  one  hundred 
years,  as  the  only  inhabitants  of  this  earth. 

Introduced  them  journeying  from  the  East,  no  mention 
made  of  their  quitting  Ardvienia  in  the  north-west, 

Ascribed  to  Noah  a  life  of  250  years  after  the  founding  of 
Barbel,  not  one  word  in  all  that  time  of  any  thing  said,  or 
done,  by  this  sole  monarch  of  their  universe ;  no  account  of 
the  place  of  his  residence,  of  his  death,  or  burial. 

What  though  the  Hebrews  have  asserted  that  Ba-bel  was 
founded  by  Noah  and  his  children,  yet  in  the  same  breath  that 
it  was  not]  built,  but  abandoned  in  an  unfinished  state :  the 
people  scattered  abroad  from  thence  over  the  face  of  all  the 
earth.  Notwithstanding  all  these  incongruities,  and  the  im- 
possibility of  reconciling  them  with  each  other,  as  they  stand 
in  their  chronicles,  by  any  rule  of  reason,  in  such  a  maze  of 
confusion  do  figures  of  airy  fancy,  miracles,  and  mysteries  fly, 
and  glide,  and  twine  through  them,  yet  by  disengaging  the 
Hebrew  narrative  from  these  deceptious  accompaniments,  will 
their  account  on  minute  inspection  be  found  in  agreement  with 
the  traditions  of  the  Ardmenian  Scythians,  recorded  by  Eolus, 
and  of  the  Grecian  and  Roman  tribes  of  the  Scythian  race,  all 
having  relation  to  the  same  remarkable  events,  the  recollection 
of  which,  time  the  great  innovator  did  but  disfigure  not  ob- 

The  Scythian  supremacy  of  Asia. 

The  irruption  of  a  multitudinous  people  from  the  East. 

The  dismemberment  of  the  Scythian  empire. 

The  discontinuance  of  the  payment  of  tribute. 

Shinar  the  seat  of  the  Scythian  government. 

Ardmcnia,  the  country  to  which  the  Scythian  chief  escaped. 

A  boat  the  means. 

Shinar,  the  scite  of  the  city  Ba-bel,  the  metropolis  of  the 
Assyrian  empire. 

The  great  variety  of  languages  of  those  employed  in  the 


The  erection  of  housea  durable,  lofty  walls,  and  a  stupen- 
dous tower.  Novel  exhibitions  to  the  eye  of  the  tented  Scy- 
thian ! 

Emigration  of  the  Scythians^  thereupon, 

All  accounts  synchronizing,  all  dating  these  memorable  oc- 
currences at  about  2246  years  before  Christ,  the  difference 
amongst  them  being  little  more  than  the  style  of  recording  the 
events.  The  traditions  of  the  Hebrews  charged  with  meta- 
phor and  miracle  according  to  the  invariable  practice,  the 
traditions  of  other  nations  delivered  plainly  and  simply,  the 
facts  so  stupendous,  so  impressive  as  never  to  be  forgotten, 
tho'  liable  to  be  exaggerated  and  misrepresented. 

Turning  away  my  ear  from  a  rhapsody  of  etherial  fancy, 
chaunted  in  notes  of  wildness  and  delusion,  1  will  speak  in  words 
of  soberness,  in  terms  intelligible,  touching  the  affairs  of  this 
nether  world,  whilst  I  lay  before  you  what  I  feel  myself 
warranted  to  consider  the  historic  facts. 

I  feeel  myself  warranted  to  say. 

That  the  original  seat  of  the  Scythian  race  of  mankind  was 
north  of  the  Oxus,  as  marked  on  the  annexed  chart,  from 
whence  colonies  moving  southward,  occupied  all  the  land 
between  the  Ind,  the  ocean,  and  the  Tigris. 

That  this  space  being  filled  in  the  course  of  293  years, 
tribes  passed  the  Tigris,  and  spreading  themselves  to  the 
Euphrates,  fixed  the  supreme  seat  of  the  Scythian  dominion 
on  the  plains  of  Shinar,  from  whence  emigrants  moved  west- 
ward to  the  Mediterranean,  and  north-west  to  Caucasus  and 
the  Euxine. 

That  when  three  hundred  years  had  elapsed  from  the  time 
of  their  establishment  on  Shinar  by  Euphrates,  Vexoris,  king 
of  Egypt,  having  contended  with  Tainaus,  chief  of  the  Scy- 
thians, for  supremacy,  was  vanquished,  from  which  time, 
though  the  traditions  of  some  ancient  people,  dated  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Scythian  empire,  the  Scythians,  according 
to  Eohis  considered  themselves  Lords  of  the  earth  309  years 

That  the  Scythians  having  held  the  dominion  of  Asia  from 


the  waters  of  Ind  to  the  confines  of  Arabia,  Egypt,  and 
Europe,  stranger  people  from  the  east,  called  by  the  Hehrexve 
Ai-shur,  by  Bolus  Eis-soir,  by  the  Romans  As-syr-ii,  and  in 
the  language  I  write  As-syr-ians  under  the  conduct  of  Bel, 
invaded  Messipotamia,  defeated  Noah  the  Scythian  chief, 
who  with  many  followers,  known  by  the  name  of  Noe-maid-eis, 
fled  to  Ardmenia,  whereupon  Bel  instantty  founded  the  city  of 
Barbel  on  the  plain  of  SJiinar,  and  established  the  Assyrian 
on  the  ruin  of  the  Scythian  empire,  which  let  it  have  com- 
menced when  it  may,  whether  1500  years,  according  to  some 
ancient  accounts — 1756  years  according  to  the  Hebrews — or 
1809  years  according  to  Eolus — terminated  as  before  men- 
tioned 2246  year  antecedently  to  the  Christian  era. 

I  feel  myself  warranted  to  say, 

That  Noah,  or  Not',  the  son  of  Lantech  of  the  Hebrews,  and 
Ard-fear  or  Naoi,  the  son  of  Am-laoc,  of  Eolus,  is  one  and  the 
same  person,  and  that  he  was  the  last  supreme  chief  of  the 
ancient  Scythian  empire. 

That  Nimrod  of  the  Hebrews,  and  Bel  is  one,  that  he  was 
chief  of  the  Assyrians,  not  the  son  of  Cush,  the  son  of  Sheni, 
the  son  of  Noah,  the  Scythian. 

That  AS'Shur,  of  the  Hebrews,  Eis-soir,  of  Eolus,  and  the 
Assyrians,  are  one  and  the  same  people. 

That  the  flood  of  the  Hebrews,  and  the  Assyrian  invasion  of 
Messipotamia,  as  related  by  Eolus,  and  other  ancients,  are 
one  and  the   same  transaction. 

That  Hiddekel,  of  the  Hebrews,  is  not  the  river  Tigris,  but 
the  country  between  the  rivers  Tigris  and  Euphrates  one  and 
the  same  as  lath-da-cal,  of  Eolus,  and  Messipotamia  of  the 
Grecian  Scythians. 

That  the  land  of  Shinar  of  the  Hebrews,  and  Magh  Sean- 
atuir  of  Eolus,  the  seat  of  the  ancient  Scythian  chiefs,  and  of 
the  first  metropolis  of  the  Assyrian  empire,  is  one  and  the 
same  place. 

That  the  city  of  Ba-bel  wds  funded  by  the  Assyrians,  not 
by  the  Scythians. 

That  the  difference  of  language  was  not  the  effect  of  mira 


cle,  as  whimsically  attributed  thereto  by  the  Hebrews^  but  of 
tlie  variety  of  nations,  of  which  the  Assyrian  host  was  com_ 

And  that  the  dispersion  of  mankind  in  the  days  of  Peleg, 
as  described  in  Grenesis,  and  ascribed  to  the  vengeance  of  the 
Creator,  for  the  presumption,  and  impiety  of  Noah  and  his 
family,  is  one  and  the  same  erent,  as  the  historial  fact  of  the 
flight  of  Noah,  and  the  emigrations  of  the  Nomades  from 
Messipotamia,  a  palpable  and  necessary  consequence  of  the 
Assyrian  invasion,  not  the  effect  of  divine  indignation,  and 
supernatural  agency. 

I  feel  myself  warranted  to  say, 

That  the  ancient  Scythian  empire  extended  from  the  Indy 
the  tribes  on  the  banks  of  which  river  were  called  Indo  Scyihce^ 
to  the  confines  of  Europe,  the  tribes  bordering  on  which  were 
denominated  Celto  Scythce,  circumstances  that  accurately 
point  out  their  limits. 

That  antecedently  to  the  overthrow  of  their  most  vast 
dominion,  there  were  three  celebratod  people  of  antiquity 
from  the  Ind,  to  the  Nile  and  the  Mediterranean.  Arabs, 
Scythians,  and  Egyptians.  That  after  that  event,  a  fourth 
people  called  Assyrians,  for  the  Jirst  time  made  their  appear- 
ance in  that  part  of  the  earth,  and  that  these  four  people 
were  totally  different  each  from  the  other,  in  manners,  cus- 
toms, institutions,  religion,  and  language;  the  variance  not 
growing  out  of  miracles,  and  the  dispersion  of  the  family  of 
the  man  Noah,  but  because  they  had  ever  been  from  the 
time  of  this  globe  becoming  a  member  of  this  solar  system, 
distinct  genera  of  the  species  of  the  animal  man. 

Though  these  events  shrouded  in  obscurity  for  so  many  ages, 
seem  to  be  of  no  moment  at  this  time,  it  is  not  so,  on  your 
acquaintance  with  these  facts  mainly  depends  your  capability 
of  clearly  understanding  what  is  to  follow,  for  these  events 
miraculous  causes  have  been  assigned  by  the  Hebrew  writers, 
the  relation  delivered  in  enigmas,  which  causes  are  considered 
at  this  hour  good  and  sufficient,  and  which  enigmas  have  re- 
ceived solutions  perfectly  satisfactory  to  immense  multitudes  of 


mankind,  if  •  judgment  can  be  formed  from  outward  appear- 

Not  to  enter  upon  an  enquiry  into  the  views  and  motives 
of  those,  who  have  taken  on  them  to  expound  the  writings 
of  the  Hebrews,  nor  of  the  description  of  persons  who 
impHcitly  or  affectedly  receive  their  expositions,  for  myself 
I  say,  though  all  the  world  in  ignorance  and  singleness  of 
heart,  should,  or  from  zeal  for  the  propagation  of  impious  and 
pious  frauds,  pretend  to  credit  tales  on  the  authority  of 
miracles  and  mysteries,  I  will  never  capitulate  with  such 
treacherous  foes  to  the  senses,  nor  surrender  my  reason,  which 
is  my  revelation,  upon  the  humiliating  terms  they  exact. 

Having  now  set  before  you  all  the  known  accounts  of  this 
earth,  from  the  most  remote  time  to  the  founding  of  Ba-bel^ 
permit  me  to  express  an  hope  that  you  will  do  justice  to  your 
understanding  by  removing  every  obstacle  that  may  prevent 
the  full  exercise  of  your  reason,  and  thereby  have  your  mind 
in  a  condition  to  form  a  dispassionate  judgment  on  the  facts 
submitted,  and  about  to  be  submitted  thereto. 

In  conclusion  of  this  part  of  our  subject,  I  beg  leave  to 
add  my  own  opinion,  founded  on  my  observations  on  the  in- 
vasion of  nations.  That  the  Arabs  were  the  aborigines  of  all 
the  lands  from  the  Oxus  to  the  Persian  ocean,  and  from  the 
Indus  to  the  Mediterrenean  sea ;  and  that  on  the  pouring  of 
the  Scythians  from  the  north  and  north-east  of  the  Caspian 
southward,  the  Arabs  retired  before  them  beyond  Etiphrates, 
into  the  regions  they  have  ever  since  occupied,  impregnable 
to  strangers  by  reason  of  their  situation,  and  natural  pro- 

NOTES    TO    PART    II. 
(a)  1  use  here  the  term  Chaldean  following  the  Hebrew  accounts. 
That  Abram,  their  progenitor,  was  from  Chaldea. 

(6)  From  Eolus  we  learn  that  his  tribe  of  the  Scythian  race  comtnenced 
their  noting  of  time  3113  years  antecedently  to  the  overthrow  of  their 
empire  by  the  Assyrians,  which  being  2246  years  before  the  Christian  era, 
he  whole  space  from  the  first  keeping  a  record  of  time  to  the  birth  of 
Christ,  is  5359  years  ;  now  by  the  vulgar  computation,  according  to  the 
Mosaic  accounts  always  adhered  to,  the  chronology  from  the  Creation  to 


the  bktfa  of  Chritt  is  4004  years  how  is  this  to  be  reconciled  to  the  follow- 
ing passage  in  Josephus  ? 

"  Those  antiquities  (meaning  the  antiquities  of  his  the  Jewish  nations* 
contains  the  history  of  Jive  thousand  years,  and  are  taken  out  of  our  sacred 
books  ;  but  are  translated  by  me  into  the  Greek  tongue."  Josephus  wrote 
his  antiquities  about  80  years  after  Christ,  which  time,  substracted  from 
5000,  leaves  4920,  more  by  916  than  the  sacred  writings  come  down  to  us 
declare,  whilst  Eolus  and  Josephus  differ  439  years,  not  one  moiety  of  the 
space  between  the  sacred  writings  of  our  days  and  Josephus.  This  plain 
fact  should  make  men  cautious  of  placing  implicit  confidence  in  all  writings 
of  very  high  antiquity,  subject  as  they  are  to  so  many  casualties. 

(c)  Mag-sean-tttam  is  pronounced  Ma-senar,  and  signifies  the  plains  of 
the  Old  Father. 


From  the  dhniemherment  of  the  ancient  Scythian 
Empire,  and  tJie  building  of  Ba-hel  by  the  Assij- 
rians,  in  2246,  to  the  expulsion  of  the  shepherd 
chiefs  from  Egijpt,  and  their  arrival  in  Pelasgia 
and  Ceropeia,  about  1100  before  Cerist. 


Having  pointed  out  the  original  seat  of  the  Scythian  race, 
the  countries  occupied  by  them,  and  described  persons,  and 
events  in  terms  intelhgible  from  the  earhest  note  of  time,  till 
the  termination  of  the  Scythian  dominion  in  Messipotamia, 
which  was  the  commencement  of  the  Assyrian  empire  in  that 
part  of  Asia,  the  first  metropolis  of  which  Avas  Ba-hel,  it 
will  be  necessary  to  take  a  view  of  all  the  nations  from  the 
Ind  to  the  Mediterranean,  after  the  Assyrian  Invasion,  and  of 
the  effect  produced  by  that  event  upon  all  the  Scythian  tribes 
dwelling  thereon,  the  history  whereof  is  enveloped  in  ob- 
scurity profound,  the  only  intelligence  being  derived  from 
the  writings  of  the  Hebrews,  which,  (though  in  their  customary 
style  of  confusion,)  will  serve  to  enable  us  to  grope  our  way, 
if  not  by  a  connected  detail  to  a  satisfactory  conclusion,  yet  to 
the  establishment  of  some  few  fects  important  to  the  illustration 
of  our  subject. 

When  the  Assyrians  (whom  from  the  description  of  the 
Hebrezos,  and  of  Eolus,  I  take  to  be  the  many  people  of  Seres, 
and  of  the  neighbour  lands,)  invaded  the  Scythians,  you  must 
not  fancy  they  overran  all  the  Scythian  nations  from  the  Ind 
to  Euphrates,  nor  that  the  Scythian  empire,  though  shaken, 
was  annihilated.  That  great  commotion  prevailed  in  the  line 
of  the  Assyrian  march  is  to  be  inferred,  and  that  multitudes 
followed  Noali  to  Ardmcnia  we  are  informed.  By  consultiirg 
Genesis,  we  find  that  the  Assyrians  were  engaged  in  building 


strong  places,  first  in  Messipotamia,  and  that  the  seat  ot  their 
government  was  after  a  while  removed  from  Ba-bel  in  Chaldea 
to  Nin-eveh,  a  city  built  by,  and  named  from  Nin  the  son  of 
Bel,  on  the  east  of  the  Tigris,  some  forty  or  fifty  miles  north 
of  Ba-bel,  as  mentioned  in  the  11th  chapter  of  Genesis,  the 
theme  of  so  many  absurd  conjectures  of  ignorant  commen- 

10.  "  And  the  beginning  of  his  (Nimrod's)  kingdom  M-as 
Ba-bel  and  Enoch,  and  Accad,  and  Calnah,  in  the  land  of 

11.  *'  Out  of  that  land  went  forth  Asshur  and  builded 
Nin-eieh,  and  the  city  Rehoboth  and  Caleb."" 

Which  passage  is  made  as  plain  as  words  can  do,  by  merely 
giving  the  term  Asshur  its  true  signification  thus  :  "  the 
beginning  of  his  (Nimrod  or  Bel)  kingdom  was'  Ba-hel  in 
Shinar,  from  whence  went  the  Assyrians,  and  builded  Nin- 
eveh ;"  an  obscurity  arises  from  an  idea  that  Asshur  was  an 
individual  person,  whereas  the  word  means  the  Assyrians, 
Asshur  being  an  addition  of  distinction  to  the  kings  of  the 
Assyrians,  by  the  Hebrews  and  all  the  Scythian  people.  This 
translation  of  the  Assyrian  metropolis  from  Ba-bel  to  Nineveh, 
was  a  measure  resulting  from  wisdom  and  sound  policy,  not 
from  whim  or  caprice,  and  proves  that  the  conquest  of  the 
Assyrians  had  affected  no  parts  of  the  Scythian  empire,  save 
Messipotamia,  and  the  countries  lying  between  Nin-eveh  and 
their  original  land.  Elam  and  all  the  southern  nations  of  the 
Scythians  east  of  Tigris,  had  preserved  their  independence — 
therefore  must  have  been  considered  dangerous  neighbours  to 
a  government  not  yet  firmly  established.  This  was  the  motive 
that  induced  the  Assyrians  to  remove  the  supreme  seat  far- 
ther from  these  warlike  Scythian  tribes,  and  in  more  direct 
communication  with  their  own  country,  leaving  Ba-bel  and  the 
land  of  Shinar  to  the  care  of"  a  viceroy, — and  that  Elam  pre- 
served its  independence — and  that  the  Assyrians  did  not  carry 
their  arms  west  of  Euphrates  for  the  course  of  three  hundred 
and  twenty-one  years  from  the  date  of  the  commencement  of 
their  government  in  Messipotamia,  clearly  appears  from  the 


fourteenth  chapter  of  Genesis,  and  eveji  tlmi  not  as  conquerors,, 
but  as  auxiliaries  to  Che-dor-loam-er  (a)  chief  of  tlie  Scythians 
of  Elam. 

1.  *'  It  came  to  pass  in  the  days  of  Amraphel  king  of  Shinar, 
Arrioch  king  of  Elassur,  Che-dor-laomcr  king  of  Elam^  and 
Tidal  king  of  nations. 

2.  "  That  these  made  war  with  Bcra  king  of  Sodom,  with 
Birsha  king  of  Gomorrah,  Shinab  king  of  Admah,  and  Shene- 
ber  king  of  Zeboiim,  and  the  king  of  Bela,  which  is  Zoar 

3.  "  All  these  were  joined  together  in  the  vale  of  Siddim, 
which  is  the  salt  sea. 

4.  "  Twelve  years  they  served  Che-dor-laom-er ,  and  in  the 
thirteenth  they  rebelled : 

6.  "  And  in  the  fourteenth  year  came  Che-dor-laom-er,  and 
the  kings  that  were  with  him. 

8.  "  And  there  went  out  the  five  before  mentioned  kings, 
and  they  joined  battle  in  the  vale  of  Siddim, 

9.  "  With  Che-dor-laom-er  king  of  Elam,  and  with  Tidal 
kmg  of  nations,  and  Amraphel  king  of  Shinar,  and  Arrioch 
king  of  Ii^5*Mr— four  kings  with  five." 

From  all  which,  both  in  style  and  from  the  letter,  it  is  evident 
that  Elam  had  not  only  continued  subject  to  Scythian  rule, 
but  that  Che-dor-laom-er,  at  this  time  arrogating  to  himself  a 
supremacy  over  the  Scythian  nations  west  of  Euphrates,  aban- 
doned by  Noah  and  his  Une,  had  now  gained  to  his  assistance 
even  Tidal  king  of  nations,  chief  of  the  Assyrians,  whose  su- 
preme seat  was  Nin-exeh,  and  his  two  subordinate  governors 
or  kinglets  of  Shinar,  the  chief  city  of  which  was  Ba-bel,  and 
of  Elassur,  for  the  purpose  of  enforcing  his  pretensions.  The 
expressions  in  the  text  are  very  full  and  explanatory,  and 
prove  that  Che-dor-laom-er  was  the  principal  in  this  invasion  of 
these  five  Scythian  communities  of  Canaan, — which  being  re- 
duced to  subjection  and  tribute  twelve  years  before,  served  not 
Tidal  king  of  nations,  the  great  king  of  Nin-eveh  of  the  As- 
syrians, but  Che-dor-laom-er  the  Scythian  chief  of  Elam, 
against  whom  having  rebelled,  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  their 


subjection,  he  came  in  the  fourteenth  year  with  the  same  As- 
syrian allits  to  punish  them  for  their  revolt, 

As  I  have  heretofore  guarded  you  against  the  supposition, 
that  the  Assyrians  had  subjected  all  the  Scythian  nations  east 
of  Euphrates,  so  nere  I  caution  you  against  the  idea  that  all  the 
former  inhabitants  emigrated  from  the  lands  of  their  nativity, 
whereon  the  Assyrians  had  actually  seated  themselves  within 
Messipotamia.  That  this  was  not  the  case,  I  beg  to  refer  you 
to  the  biography  of  Ahr-am,  as  set  forth  in  Genesis,  whereby 
we  learn  that  from  inflexible  adherence  to  the  religion  of  his 
forefathers,  become  much  corrupted  by  the  Assyrian,  he  quit- 
ted Ur  of  Chaldea,  and  went  north  to  Syria  of  Messipotamia, 
where  liaving  sojourned  till  the  death  of  his  father,  he  removed 
to  the  land  of  Cawaan,— circumstances  confirmative  of  the 
facts,  that  the  influence  of  the  Assyrian  had  not  extended  to 
Elam  on  the  one  hand,  nor  to  Canaan  on  the  other,  and  that 
both  were  yet  Scythian.  For  it  is  not  to  be  imagined,  that 
Abram  could  have  fancied  he  felt  an  inspiration  from  the  di- 
vine essence,  expressly  directing  his  steps  to  the  land  of  Canaan, 
or  that  he  could  have  suffered  his  nephew  and  protege,  the 
orphan  Lot,  to  take  up  his  abode  on  the  very  spot,  reduced  to 
subjection  and  tribute  to  a  distant  power  but  five  years  gone  by 
— an  event  that  must  have  been  known  to  him — had  he  not  been 
equally  certain  that  neither  he  nor  Lot  would  be  disturbed  by 
that  power,  in  the  exercise  of  that  religion,  for  the  free  and  un- 
interrupted enjoyment  of  which,  he  had  gone  out  of  his  coun- 
try, and  from  his  father"'s  house.  We  are  further  informed, 
that  at  the  end  of  two  hundred  and  fifteen  years,  all  the  de- 
scendants of  Abram,  who  dwelt  in  Canaan  at  that  time, 
amounting  to  threescore  and  ten,  emigrated  to  Egypt,  -where 
all  their  children  abided  for  the  farther  term  of  two  hundred 
and  fifteen  years,  at  which  period  we  recognise  them  in  twelve 
tribes  of  Israel,  united  in  the  glorious  resolution  of  striking 
ofl^  the  gyves  and  manacles  of  slavery,  marching  forth  of 
Egypt,  and  the  house  of  bondage,  to  the  land  of  Canaan 
which  they  won,  and  whereon  they  abided ;  upon  which  occa^ 
sion  the  Scythian  tribe  of  Gergluxd,  (called  by  the  bible  trans- 


lators  Gergasliites)  abandoned  their  country,  and  moving  in  a 
body,  establislied  themselves  in  lower  Egypt,  known  in  the 
historic  page  by  the  name  of  the  shephei'd  kings. 

Strange  spectacles  !  Behold  the  children  of  Israel  flying  out 
of  Egypt,  slaves  escaping  from  a  master,  over-running  and  sub- 
duing the  greater  part  of  the  land  of  Canaan.  Behold  one 
tribe  o'i  the  Canannites  pouring  into  the  country,  from  whence 
their  invatlers  had  escaped,  and  becoming  lords  of  a  consider- 
able portion  thereof.  How  surprising  the  effect  of  habitual 
terror  on  the  minds  of  men  moulded  to  servitude ;  how  irre- 
sistible the  force  of  union  and  determined  co-operation  ;  how 
powerful  the  excitement  produced  even  by  visions ;  how  languid 
the  inertness  occasioned  by  the  reality  of  a  vicious  system  ;  for 
if  the  relation  of  the  Hcbrexos,  that  the  people  of  Egypt  had 
parted  with  their  lands,  be  any  thing  like  fact,  is  it  to  be  won- 
dered at,  that  the  country  fell  an  easy,  a  willing  prey  into  the 
hands  of  any  invader  ?  So  true  it  is,  that  men  will  more  rea- 
dily submit  to  the  controul  of  strangers,  than  to  insult  from 
their  own  kindred,  besides,  what  motive  have  slaves  to  defend 
a  country,  where  they  experience  nought  but  inhuman  cruelty, 
treacherous  deceit,  and  tyrannical  oppression,  at  this  time  when 
one  nation  of  Scythian  race,  whom  we  have  traced  from  Ur 
of  Chaldea,  to  Haran  of  Elassur,  thence  to  Canaan,  thence 
to  Egypt,  and  back  again  to  Canaan,  were  taking  root  in 
that  land,  another  Scythian  tribe,  the  tribe  of  Gerghad  of 
Canaan,  were  planted  in  Egypt,  where  they  continued  to  in- 
crease for  the  course  of  350  years,  when  Mizraim  moving  from 
upper  Egypt,  expelled  the  shepherd  kings,  some  to  the  land 
of  Philistia  in  Canaan,  whilst  others  of  them  shaped  their 
course  for  the  country  since  called  Greece,  about  the  year 
eleven  hundred  before  Christ. 

From  all  which  I  feel  myself  warranted  to  say, 

That  the  ancient  Assyrian  empire  was  confined  to  Messipo- 
tamia,  and  the  countries  known  to  us  by  the  name  of  Media, 
Parthia,  and  Bactria. 

That  the  kingdom  of  Egypt  did  not  extend  eastward  of 
Yam  Suph,  or  the  Arabian  gulph. 


That  the  Arabs  dwelt  on  their  own  original  land  inaccessible 
to  intrusion. 

That  all  the  countries  from  the  Ind  to  the  Mediterranean, 
save  as  above,  were  yet  Scythian j  at  the  era  of  eleven  hundred 
years  before  Christ. 

And  it  shall  be  farther  shewn  with  indisputable  proofs, 
when  I  come  to  speak  of  manners  and  customs,  religion  and 
language,  that  these  four  people  had  ever  been  distinct  genera 
of  the  human  species^  differing  in  all  those  features  that  cha- 
racterize the  animal  man,  the  variance  not  produced  by  super- 
natural means,  but  the  effect  of  natural  causes  easily  soluble 
by  the  unsophisticated  reason  of  man. 

NOTK    TO    PART    III. 

(a)  It  may  be  asked  why  I  assert  so  positively  that  Che-dor-laom-er 
was  a  Scythian,  to  which  I  answer,  because  his  name  is  compounded  of 
four  Scythian  words,  the  import  of  which  is  land,  water,  fire,  and  air,  and 
Elam  is  Persia,  and  Persia  is  Scythian,  nor  is  there  any  record  or  tradition, 
that  the  Persian  Scythians  were  subjected  by  the  Assyrians  for  centuries 
after  the  era  now  spoken  of. 


Of  all  the  Scythian  tribes  that  emigrated  to  the  Isles 
of  the  Gentiles,  south  of  the  Ister,  from  the  Euxine, 
East,  to  the  Rhoetian  Alps,  andPano7ua  West,  and 
to  tJie  extremity  of  Greece  South,  from  the  year 
2170,  to  the  hirth  o/*  Christ. 


r  OR  the  purpose  of  preserving  a  more  close  connexion 
between  the  several  parts  of  our  subject,  I  thought  proper  to 
dispose  of  all  the  Southern  and  Eastern  nations  of  the  Scythian 
race,  which  done,  and  having  traced  the  tribe  of  Gerghad  from 
the  land  of  Canaan  io  Egypt,  and  from  thence  to  Greece,  I  now 
beg  leave  to  conduct  you  North  to  Ardmenia,  (whither  Noe  and 
his  followers,  called  from  him  Noe-maid-eis,  fled  on  the  inva- 
sion of  Messipotamia  by  the  Assyrians,  which  country,  ac- 
cording to  Eohis,  Noe  ruled  for  the  course  of  one  score  and 
eleven  rings,  when  he  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  07ily  son 

This  prince,  undoubtedly  Japheth  of  the  Hebrews,  is  by  them 
said  to  be  the  father  of  all  those  tribes. 

"  By  whom  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles  were  divided  in  their 
lands,  every  one  after  his  tongue,  after  their  families,  in  their 

Notwithstanding  which  comprehensive  mode  of  expression 
by  the  author  of  Genesis,  I  pray  thee  fancy  not  that  the 
individual  man  was  father  of  these  families,  though  it  be  an 
accredited  fact  that  he  was  son  and  successor  of  Noe,  chief  of 
the  Ardmenian,  Scythian,  or  Noe-maid-eis,  by  the  descend- 
ants of  whom  a  vast  portion  of  Europe  hath  been  from  time  to 
time  colonized,  what  these  parts  were  being  the  chief  object  of 
our  present  enquiry. 

Iqfoth  ruled  in  Ardmionn  for  the  space  of  two  score  rings 
and  two,  and  died ;  when  his  sons  having  casted  lots  amongst 


themselves,  to  determine  which  of  them  should  rule,  the  chance 
having  fallen  to  the  eldest,  the  chiefs  resisted,  and  elected 
Og,  the  youngest  of  all  the  sons  of  lafoth  ;  whereupon  the 
eldest  being  desirous  to  leave  Ardmionn,  become  populous  by 
the  influx  of  emigrants  from  the  districts  occupied  by  the 
Assyrians,  took  his  departure  westward,  with  a  number  of 
followers,  the  ^rst  colony  that  separated  from  their  brethren 
the  Noc-maid'eis  of  Ardmionn,  from  which  circumstance  this 
son  of  lafoth  had  the  name  of  laban,  and  his  followers  the 
specific  denomination  of  the  Og-eag-eis  ;  these  are  the  first  of 
the  Scythians  who  invaded  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles,  the  parents 
of  all  the  tribes  from  the  western  shore  of  the  Euxine,  south 
of  the  Ister,  to  the  Rhcetian  Alps  and  Panonia,  save  the 
Scythian-Pelasgoi,  and  Akaioi,  and  Egypt ian-Danaoi,  as  I 
shall  now  proceed  to  shew.  And  as  Greece  is  the  point  of 
commencement  of  the  youth  of  Europe  in  the  walks  of  litera- 
ture, I  purpose  first  to  state  opinions  most  generally  prevalent 
on  this  interesting  subject,  and  then  to  present  to  you  a  concise 
yet  ample  sketch,  combining  clearness  with  precison  of  all  the 
countries  before  mentioned,  and  of  all  the  tribes  which  emi- 
grated thither,  and  from  thence  between  the  above  point  and 
period  of  time,  when  by  shewing  facts  in  their  true  light,  and 
assigning  to  them  their  due  dates  and  proper  places,  I  hope  to 
disengage  the  history  of  Greece  from  much  of  the  embarrass- 
ment in  which  it  hath  been  enveloped,  by  the  creation  and 
adoption  of  an  illusive  mythology,  child  of  fancy  and  vain- 
glory, parent  of  a  spurious  chronology,  practised  in  the  art  of 
feigning  events  for  the  occupation  of  imaginary  times ;  in 
treating  of  which  occurrences  intimately  connected  widi  the 
Scythian  race,  mainly  relevant  to  the  chronicles  of  Eri,  it  is 
probable  I  shall  appear  prolix  to  the  learned,  from  an  appre- 
hension of  not  being  more  than  sufficiently  explanatory  to  the 
ignorant,  my  great  solicitude  being  to  elicit  the  truth,  regai-d- 
less  of  the  style  in  which  my  sentiments  may  be  conveyed. 

It  is  at  this  moment  supposed  that  all  the  Scythian  tribes 
that  entered  the  country  now  under  consideration,  save 
those  who  followed  Cadmus  from  Sydon,  emanated  from  a 


district  north  of  Caucasus,  called  by  the  Greeks  in  the  time 
of  HerodotU'S,  and  on  their  authority  by  the  Romans,  not 
merely  Scythia,  but  Scythia  Parentalis,  a  tale  so  often  repeated 
by  modern  writers  as  now  to  be  considered  authentic,  and  to 
all  appearance  confirmed  beyond  farther  question,  though  no- 
thing is  moi'e  erroneous. 

Proceeding  on  this  surmise  it  hath  been  fancied,  that  multi- 
tudes of  the  Scythian  race,  at  the  conjectured  date  of  2000 
years  before  the  ch-istian  era,  moved  fi-oni  this  Scythia  Paren- 
talis by  the  western  shore  of  the  Euxine,  at  the  north  western 
extremity  of  which  some  strayed  souihM'ard  to  the  Ister,  which 
they  crossed,  spread  themselves  over  Thrac-ia,  Meas-ia,  lUu- 
rike,  Amath-ia,  Thettal-ia,  and  had  penetrated  southward  as 
far  as  Peloponnesus,  where  it  is  said. 

That  in  2089,  Egialeus  founded  the  kuigdom  of  Sicyon. 

In  1856,  Inachiis  established  the  kingdom  of  Argos, 

In  1766,  Ogyges  was  king  in  Attica,  in  whose  time  a  flood 
deluged  Reot-ia. 

In  1556,  Cecrops  was  the  first  king  of  Athens. 

In  1556,  Deucalion  lived,  in  whose  days  Thetal-ia  was 
inundated.  That  he  was  the  son  of  Prometheus,  and  the 
father  of  Ellen,  and  Amphiction,  from  the  former  of  whom 
Greece  was  sometimes  called  ''Ellas,  and  the  Greeks  Ellenes, 
from  the  latter  the  famous  council  Amphiction,  instituted  at 
Therm-op-yJjE,  had  its  name. 

In  1504,  Sysiphus  was  king  of  Corinth. 

In  1494,  Cadmus  was  the  first  king  of  Thebes. 

In  1 480,  SesoUris  king  of  Egypt  invaded  Greece. 

In  1267,  the  Argonautic  expedition  was  undertaken,  and 

In  1184,  that  Troy  fell. 

Though  these  dates  have  been  copied  by  every  writer,  one 
after  another,  and  adhered  to  up  to  this  hour  with  pertinacity, 
as  if  an  innovation  effected  by  truth  might  endanger  the  des- 
potism of  the  republic  of  letters,  yet  is  there  a  considerable 
variance  amongst  moderns,  as  to  the  severel  tribes  recorded  to 
have  colonized  Greece,  which  hath  given  rise  to  an  infinity  of 
schemes  and  systems,  founded  not  upon  the  weight  of  ancient 


authority,  but  ambiguous  passages  of  antiquity,  explained 
after  the  manner  of  knavish  lawyers,  placing  prominently  with 
laboured  eulogium,  all  evidence  tending  however  remotely,  and 
by  the  most  far-fetched  inference  to  support  an  hypothesis, 
whilst  it  is  artfully  endeavoured  to  keep  out  of  view,  with  the 
evU  intent  of  suppressing  every  syllable  contrary  thereto,  as  if 
history  was  matter  of  opinion,  and  argument  could  convert 
falsehood  into  truth  ;  hence  have  arisen  essays,  dissertations, 
and  controversies,  respecting  the  Thracians,  'Ellenes,  Pelasgoi, 
and  Atheneans,  in  diametrical  opposition  to  each  other ;  some 
supposing  the  Pelasgoi  were  the  most  ancient,  some  the  Thra- 
cians, others  the  'Ellenes,  some  imagining  the  Lacedemonians 
and  Athenians  of  different  origins,  all  confounding  these  tribes 
with  the  Gothi,  Getae,  Daci,  and  have  thrown  the  ancient 
history  of  these  nations  into  such  a  state  of  perplexity,  that 
the  senses  of  the  great  bulk  of  mankind,  bewildered  in  variety 
of  difficulties,  at  length  yield  to  the  most  plausible  conceit, 
valued  principally  for  its  larger  proportion  of  Greek  and  Roman 
quotations,  bold  assertions,  and  the  reputation  of  the  writer  for 
what  is  called  classic  learning,  though  deficient  in  penetration  ; 
or  if  sufficiently  endowed  with  sagacity,  so  full  of  prejudices, 
or  of  that  species  of  wisdom,  which  the  base  and  vile  call 
worldly  prudence,  as  to  incapacitate  him  for  the  undertaking  : 
ignorant  moreover  of  the  ancient  language,  by  which  alone  the 
truth  of  traditions,  and  origins  of  very  high  antiquity  can  be 
satisfactorily  ascertained. 

Was  the  origin  of  the  various  nations  of  whom  I  now  speak, 
my  sole  object,  I  should  have  contented  myself  with  barely 
stating,  on  the  ccmcurrent  testimony  of  antiquity,  that  every 
tribe  which  entered  these  countries  (save  the  inconsiderable 
colony  of  Egyptians  led  by  Danaus,  the  brother  of  Sesostris,) 
was  of  the  Scythian  race,  but  feeling  strong  emotions  of  gra- 
titude towards  the  illustrious  dead,  by  whose  spirit  my  soul  is 
fed ;  feeling  myself  adequate  to  the  duty,  I  hope  not  only  to 
receive  indulgence,  but  that  my  delightful  labour  will  be  well 
accepted,  if  I  go  more  deeply  into  this  subject,  which  will 
produce  the  effect  of  presently  satisfying  the  understandings 


of  men,  or  of  provoking  such  an  enquiry  as  must  ultimately 
tend  to  the  establishment  of  truth,  to  which  end  I  shall  now 
proceed  to  lay  before  you  facts,  by  the  simple  arrangement  of 
which,  the  memory  having  something  solid  and  orderly  to  re- 
pose on,  relieved  from  the  continued  exertion  of  retaining  the 
positions  of  figures  of  sportive  fancy,  gamboling  in  scenes  of 
sublime  realities,  will  have  an  easy,  well  rewarded  task  in  recol- 
lecting all  the  most  material  parts  of  the  ancient  history  of 
that  celebrated  land ;  if  not  the  cradle,  certainly  the  tender 
nurse  of  arts  and  sciences,  the  cherisher  of  all  the  virtues  ele- 
gant, and  of  the  order  most  severe,  the  land  whereon  liberty 
erected  her  most  sumptuous  temple,  and  was  worshipped  for 
ages  with  the  adoration  enthusiastically  paid  to  her  by  men, 
who  know  the  value  of  freedom,  till  rivalship,  jealousy,  and 
consequent  disunion  and  luxury,  opening  a  passage,  corrup- 
tion, and  his  hellish  train,  stole  into  the  sanctuary,  and  de- 
bauched the  soul  of  liberty,  the  ravishers  affecting  to  continue 
their  respect  for  her  form,  after  all  the  qualities  which  ren- 
dered her  truly  estimable  were  utterly  destroyed. 

I  now  beg  leave  to  recall  your  attention  to  laban,  and  the 
Og-eag-eis.  This  tribe,  under  the  conduct  of  this  leader,  a 
son  of  la-foth,  and  brother  of  Og,  chief  of  Ardmionn  (whither, 
as  heretofore  mentioned,  Noe,  and  his  followers,  the  Noe-maid- 
eis,  had  fled  from  Shinar  by  Euphrates,  in  2246)  took  their 
departure  in  2170,  from  Ardmionn,  directing  their  steps  west- 
ward along  the  southern  shores  of  the  Euxine,  through  Asia 
Minor,  already  thinly  occupied  by  nations  of  the  Scythian  race, 
and  crossed  the  Bosphorus. 

What  was  the  state,  or  who  were  the  inhabitants  of  that 
land,  antecedently  to  their  arrival,  I  find  no  actual  ac- 
count, the  very  brief  notice  in  Genesis  describing  both  in 
the  words  "  Isles  of  the  Gentiles"  and  the  writing  of 
Eolus  merely  saying,  "  the  Og-eag-eis  took  no  damsels  with 
them,  purposing  to  join  themselves  with  the  maidens  of  the 
stranger  lands,  whither  they  were  about  to  go."  Having 
invaded  the  "  isles  of  the  Gentiles"  they  roved  along  the 
western  shore  of  the  Euxine,  to  the  Ister,  then  turning  west- 


ward,  spread  themselves  over  all  the  lands  of  Thrac-ia,  Meas-ia, 
Amath-ia,  Thettal-ia,  and  poured  in  such  multitudes  into  the 
country  afterwards  called  Beot-ia,  to  which  was  now  given  the 
name  of  Ogygeia,  that  the  eruption  hath  been  represented  in 
the  language  of  poetry  by  the  figure  of  a  flood,  as  the  Assy- 
rian invasion  of  lath-da-cal  hath  been  described  by  the  Scy- 
ehian  tribe  of  Israel.  From  Ogygeia,  they  kept  a  southern 
course,  to  the  isthmus  of  Peloponnesus,  which  they  entered,  and 
moved  westward  to  the  Ionian  sea,  then  south  along  the  coast 
thereof,  and  had  reached  as  far  as  the  place  Dyme,  about  the 
year  1100,  before  Christ,  when  the  Scythian  tribe  of  Gerghad, 
originally  from  Canaan,  arrived  immediately  from  the  land  of 
Egypt,  on  the  shore  of  Greece,  led  by  chiefs  to  whom  the  ap- 
pellations of  Pelasgus,  Inachus,  Lelex,  Ezeus,  Eolus,  Egialeus, 
and  Cecrops  have  been  applied,  from  the  first  of  whom  the 
tribe  of  the  Pelasgoi  are  said  to  have  derived  its  name,  as  well 
as  the  entire  country  of  Greece  ;  whilst  the  last  of  these  chiefs, 
as  is  fancied,  gave  his  name  to  the  southern  parts  of  Attica, 

On  consulting  ancient  authorities,  we  find  that  the  parts  of 
the  country  to  which  this  tribe,  in  future  to  be  called  Pelasgoi, 
repaired  immediately  on  their  arrival,  were  the  southern  dis- 
tricts of  Attica,  where  they  built  a  town  called  Ce-crop-ia,  and 
the  eastern  shore  of  Peloponnesus,  whereon  they  erected  the 
towns  of  Lycosura.  Egialeum,  afterwards  called  Sicyon,  and 
Phoronicum,  the  first  buildings  the  soil  of  Greece  ever  felt. 

Having  established  themselves  in  these  the  only  parts  of  the 
country,  not  occupied  by  the  multitudinous  and  vai-ious  tribes 
of  the  Og-eag-eis,  or  of  the  aboriginal  Arcadians,  a  colony  of 
the  Pelasgoi  urged  by  want  of  room,  or  from  a  roving  spirit, 
after  the  manner  of  the  Scythian  race,  moved  forth  of  their 
original  places  under  the  conduct  of  Hemon,  called  the  son  of 
Pelasffiis,  that  is  a  Pelasgian,  invaded  the  land  of  Thettaly 
which  they  occupied,  about  which  time  a  colony,  led  by  a  person 
to  whom  the  name  of  Cadmus  hath  been  given,  arrived  on  the 
coasts  of  Ogygeia  from  Sydon,  with  whom  came  casts  of  famous 
men  called  Curetes,  Cor-i-bantes,  Telchines,  and  Idei  Dactyli, 
by  whom  were  introduced  the  sixteen  Phcnician  letters  into 


Greece.  This  colony  was  received  with  hospitality  by  the 
Og-eag-eis,  who  granted  to  them  a  considerable  district  of 
Ogygeia,  to  which  the  name  of  Cadm-eia  was  given,  whereon 
was  built  the  city  of  Cadmeis,  afterwards  called  Thebes. 

It  appears  that  between  this  branch  of  the  Og-eag-eis,  and 
the  tribe  of  S^dori,  the  most  perfect  friendship  subsisted ; 
accordingly  we  find  them  united  under  a  chief  of  the  Og-eag- 
eis,  making  an  effort  to  dislodge  the  Pelasgoi  from  the  parts  of 
Thetaly,  whereon  they  had  encroached,  in  which  being  re- 
pulsed, they  overspread  the  maritime  quarter  of  that  land  and 
abided  there.  This  chief  of  the  tribe  of  Og-eag-eis,  is  known 
by  the  name  of  ElleUy  said  to  be  a  son  of  Deucalion,  from 
whom  the  Greeks  in  a  large  and  poetical  sense  were  oftimcs 
called  Ellenes,  the  entire  country  Ellas  ;  this  invasion  of 
Thessaly  by  these  two  tribes,  or  Gaal,  being  also  described  as 
a  deluge,  the  flood  of  Deucalion. 

This  tribe  of  the  Og-eag-eis  henceforth  to  be  called  Ellenes, 
liaving,  in  consequence  of  their  communication  with  the  Sydo- 
nians,  now  conformed  to  more  strict  rules  of  society  than  their 
brethren  of  Thrace,  &c.  and  become  stationary  in  lower  Thet- 

A  colony  of  the  Peloponnesian  Pelasgoi  being  confirmed  in 
the  upper  parts  of  the  land  of  Thetaly,  the  main  body  esta- 
blished m  the  Peninsula. 

The  Cecropian  branch  of  the  Pelasgoi  abiding  peaceably  in 
their  original  habitations. 

The  colony  from  Sydon  led  by  Cadm-us,  from  whom  the 
Greeks  are  sometimes  called  Achaioi,  being  established  in  Cad- 
meia,  pushed  out  a  colony  westward,  and  dwelt  there,  calling 
their  settlements  the  land  of  the  Curetes. 

Such  being  the  state  of  Greece,  by  which  I  am  to  be  under- 
stood to  mean  Thetaly,  and  from  thence  to  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  land,  at  about  four-score  years  from  the  time 
of  the  arrival  of  tiie  Pelasgoi,  and  two-score  years  from  that 
of  the  Achaioi  in  Ogygeia ;  those  of  the  Og-eag-eis  who  had 
abided  within  Peloponnesus  as  heretofore  mentioned,  were 
attacked  by  the  Pelasgoi  of  that  Peninsula,  and  being  expelled 


therefrom,  fled  to  the  land  of  the  Curetes,  by  whom  they  were 
received  with  kindness,  and  assigned  portions  of  that  territory, 
to  which  was  attached  the  opprobrious  name  of  Etol-ia,  and  to 
the  chief  that  of  Etolus ;  whereon  they  built  two  towns,  one 
in  the  plain  called  Pleuron^  the  other  in  the  hills  called  Cal-i- 

The  Pelasgoi  being  now  masters  of  all  the  Peloponnesus  and 
Attica,  to  which  the  name  of  Pelasgia  had  been  given,  the  dis- 
trict of  Eleusis  excepted,  and  of  Upper  Thetaly.  The  EI- 
lenes  dwelling  in  Eleusis,  Etolia,  Lower  Thetaly,  the  Achaioi 
settled  in  Cadmeia  and  Achaia,  to  all  which  the  general  name 
of  Ellas  was  applied,  all  Scythians,  though  in  different  stages 
of  society,  feeling  the  necessity  of  composing  the  animosities 
created  and  nourished  by  frequent  aggressions  of  the  Pelasgoi 
of  Peloponnesus  against  the  Og-eag-eis,  a  covenant  was  entered 
into  for  the  purpose  not  only  of  terminating  all  present  differ- 
ences, but  of  uniting  all  the  branches  of  the  Scythian  family 
against  all  other  people  ;  the  result  of  which  was  the  institution 
of  the  celebrated  council,  Amphictyon  established  at  Therm- 
opylae, composed  of  deputies  from  twelve  of  the  communities 
of  the  Ellenes,  Achaioi,  and  Pelasgoi,  save  those  of  Attica, 
Avho  never  having  been  concerned  in  any  of  the  violences 
offered  to  the  Og-eag-eis,  were  not  included  in  this  confedera- 
tion, formed  about  one  thousand  years  antecedently  to  the 
christian  era.  The  first  instance  that  occurs  in  the  history  of 
the  world,  of  popular  delegation  of  authority,  the  original  of 
the  representative  system,  by  whatever  various  names  it  hath 
since  been  called  by  the  many  nations  of  the  earth. 

It  hath  been  just  mentioned,  that  the  council  Amphictyon 
had  in  view  the  two-fold  object  of  composing  internal  family 
dissensions,  and  of  defending  the  confederates  against  exter- 
nal aggression,  now  contemplated  from  Egypt,  of  which 
country  Sesostris  was  the  chief;  he  had  in  the  life  time  of  his 
father  Ammon,  made  a  voyage  to  the  extremity  of  Yam  Zuph, 
where  he  had  set  up  pillars,  and  in  the  year  following,  moving 
through  Lybia,  and  the  maritime  nations  of  Afric,  with  mul- 
titudes of  whom  his  host  was  swelled,  he  passed  over  into  Spain, 


and  having  subjugated  the  Scythians  of  that  peninsula  tribu- 
tary to  Sydon,  defeated  the  Gael  of  Ib-cr,  within  Buas-ce, 
and  Algarve,  and  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Ib-cr  m  Gacl-ag,  with 
a  signal  overthrow;  introduced  the  idolatry  of  Egypt  into 
Spain,  erected  columns,  called  from  him  the  pillars  of  Hercu- 
les,  at  the  entrance  of  the  Mediterranean,  to  preserve  the 
memory  of  his  achievements,  and  stationed  a  part  of  his  force 
in  Spain  to  guard  his  conquest,  and  collect  his  tribute ;  he 
returned  to  Egypt  by  the  way  of  Gaul  and  Italy. 

In  five  years  after  his  return,  his  father  having  died,  Sesos- 
tris  was  occupied  in  beautifying  the  city  of  Thebes,  which  he 
dedicated  to  his  father,  changing  its  name  to  that  of  No-Am- 
mon,  in  building  temples,  and  instituting  oracles  to  him,  now 
a  God,  to  whom  divine  worship  was  paid  in  Egypt,  Ethiopia, . 
and  Lybia,  now  called  Ammonia,  in  honor  of  him ;  with 
which  regulations,  and  the  consolidation  of  his  greatly  en- 
larged empire,  he  was  engaged,  when  Solomon,  king  in  Israel, 
his  brother-in-law,  died,  whereupon  he  set  over  Samaria 
Jeroboaniy  the  son  of  Nehat,  who  had  long  resided  in  Egypt, 
and  was  entirely  devoted  to  him,  and  soon  after  invaded  Judea, 
took  Jerusalem,  and  sacked  the  temple. 

Having  humbled  Judea,  secured  the  fidelity  of  Samaria, 
assured  of  the  attachment  of  Edom,  whose  chief  was  nearly 
allied  to  him  by  blood,  and  bound  to  his  father,  and  to  him, 
by  ties  of  gratitude  for  protection  in  adversity,  his  way  thus 
prepared  for  an  enterprize  long  meditated,  he -moved  towards 
Euphrates,  penetrated  through  Persia,  to  the  Ganges,  at  the 
mouth  of  which  river  he  had  columns  erected  to  immortalize 
his  fame. 

This  son  of  the  God  Jupiter  Ammon,  now  crowned  with 
glory,  borne  on  the  spring  tide  of  victory,  having  returned  to 
Egypt,  and  committed  the  government  of  Ammonia  to  his 
brother  lapetus,  and  the  administration  of  Egypt  to  his  bro- 
ther Danaus,  steered  his  course  northward,  pierced  to  the  foot 
of  Caucasus,  where  he  left  his  nephew  Prometheus,  son  of 
lapetus  to  secure  his  acquisition  in  that  quarter,  and  having 
subdued   Colchis,    established   an   Egyptian   colony  in  that 


country,  under  the  charge  of  Etes,  and  liavlng  had  tables  de- 
hneated  there  of  all  his  conquests,  he  bent  his  way  to  Thrace, 
which  he  Over-ran,  killed  the  chief  Lycurgus,  and  placed 
Oegrus,  the  father  of  Orpheus,  over  that  land,  from  whence 
he  moved  south,  with  intent  to  invade  Greece;  where  the 
tribes  of  the  Ellenes,  Pelasgoi,  and  Achaioi,  presently  uni- 
ted, with  the  facility  afforded  by  the  institution  of  the  council 
Amphictyon,  strengthened  by  the  accession  of  the  many  tribes 
of  the  Og-eag-eis,  stopped  short  his  career.  Thus  disap- 
pointed, driven  to  the  necessity  of  resorting  to  his  superior 
arts  of  policy,  he  addressed  himself  to  the  representatives  of 
Greece  assembled  at  Thermopylae,  by  wliom  he  was  invited  to 
a  sumptuous  banquet,  whereat  all  differences  being  accommo- 
dated, he  returned  through  Asia  Minor  to  Egypt,  where  his 
■brother  Danaus  had  formed  a  conspiracy  against  him,  which 
being  discovered  before  the  scheme  was  ripe  for  execution, 
Danaus  fled  to  Greece,  where  he  was  admitted  with  distinc- 
tion, and  in  his  company  came  the  twelve  superior  gods  of 
Egypt,  known  by  the  title  of  "  Dii  viagni  majorum gentiiivi" 
who  were  presented  by  him  to  the  council  Amphictyon,  gra- 
ciously received,  and  acknowledged  as  the  deities  of  Greece. 

Though  Sesostris  prevented  the  treacherous  machinations 
of  Danaus  in  Egypt,  he  was  not  so  fortunate  as  to  escape  the 
designs  of  lapetus  in  Ammonia,  who  rose  up  against,  made 
war  upon,  slew  him,  and  retained  the  dominion  of  that  ceun- 

Upon  the  death  of  Sesostris,  the  mighty  empire  he  had  for 
the  course  of  fifty-four  years  been  heaping  together,  began  to 
crumble  and  fall  to  pieces.  lapetus  had  seized  on  Ammonia ; 
Zerah,  a  native  chief  of  Ethiopia,  made  himself  master  of 
that  kingdom,  from  whence,  in  the  short  space  of  nine  years, 
he  invaded  Egypt,  when  Onus,  the  son  of  Sesostris,  was 
drow^ned  in  the  Nile,  Buhaske,  his  daughter,  destroyed  her- 
self, and  thus  perished  the  divine  race  of  Sesostris,  the  great- 
est warrior  of  ancient  days ;  one  of  the  many  examples  the 
historic  page  affords,  of  the  vanity  of  conquests,  the  barbarity 
of  war  and  devastation,  though  attempted  not  merely  to  be 


justified,  but  extolled  as  the  most  glorious  of  arts,  the  most 
sublime  of  sciences,  all,  as  well  as  the  precepts  applicable 
thereto,  thrown  away  upon  the  rage  for  power  of  the  few,  the 
stupid  ignorance  of  the  many.  O  man,  what  an  hideous  mon- 
ster thou  art,  however  fairly  painted  to  deceive  the  eye,  and 
flatter  the  imagination,  could  self-love  permit  the  most 
faultless  to  draw  a  faithful  picture  of  himself,  from  the  con- 
sciousness of  reality,  would  he  not  start  from  his  own  image, 
and  hide  his  head  for  very  shame ;  did  not  instinctive  suspi- 
cion, that  frightful  as  he  is,  such  is  his  fellow,  steel  him  in 
audacity,  maugre  his  manifold  deformities. 

Not  more  iJhan  twenty  years  had  elasped  from  the  fall  of 
this  mighty  conqueror,  who  had  dis-seated  so  many  kings  on 
earth,  enthroned  so  many  Gods  in  heaven,  till  confederacies 
were  formed  in  Greece  by  means  of  the  council  Amphictyon, 
which  dispatched  embassies  to  all  the  Scythian  nations  he  had 
invaded,  inviting  them  to  unite  for  the  recovery  of  their  ancient 
independence ;  in  consequence  of  which  the  famous  expedition 
of  the  Argonauts  was  undertaken,     (a) 

That  the  council  Amphictyon  could  not  entirely  counteract 
the  pernicious  qualities  of  man,  and  prevent  the  recurrence  of 
wars  amongst  the  societies  of  Greece  we  know,  but  that  it  fur- 
nished prompt  means  of  combining  them  against  strangers  is 
equally  certain  ;  accordingly  we  find  that  on  a  personal  injury 
offered  to  a  chief,  a  confederacy  was  formed  by  all  the  nations 
of  Greece  against  Troy,  which  after  a  long  protracted  war  was 
destroyed,  about  888  years  before  Christ,  in  three  years  after 
which  event  Eneas  took  his  departure  from  Asia  Minor,  and 
being  driven  out  of  his  course  for  Italy,  arrived  at  Carthage, 
whither  Dido  or  Elissa  had  lately  emigrated  from  Tvre ;  my 
reason  for  fixing  which  occurrences  so  positively  even  to  a  year 
will  be  found  in  the  table  of  chronology,  by  a  careful  perusal 
of  which,  I  trust  Virgil  will  for  ever  stand  acquitted  of  the 
frightful  anachronism  of  which  he  is  supposed,  and  hath  so 
often  been  declared  guilty,  in  making  Dido  and  Eneas  cotem- 

These  events,  an  accurate  acquaintance  with  which  is  essen- 


tial  to  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  ancient  history  of  Greece 
being  enumerated,  the  places  being  described  on  the  chart, 
the  due  times  being  noted  on  the  tables,  collated  with  the  dates 
before  mentioned,  hitherto  assigned  by  the  herd  of  soi-disant 
chronologers,  who  have  preferred  as  the  easier  task,  the  copy- 
ing of  error,  to  the  investigation  of  truth  ;  let  me  now  briefly 
repeat  opinions  inculcated  and  generally  received,  respecting 
the  origin  of  those  tribes  who  colonized  Greece,  and  all  the 
countries  now  under  consideration,  of  which  opinion  we  will 
try  the  value  by  the  touchstone  of  antiquity,  by  which  self 
same  criterion  the  worth  of  the  assertions  I  have  with  so  much 
confidence  advanced  must  also  be  estimated,  and  as  it  is  of 
moment  to  relieve  a  subject  from  extraneous  matter,  attention 
being  more  condensed  thereby,  I  shall  on  the  instant  dispose 
of  the  Achaioi,  and  Danaoi,  of  whose  origins  there  is  no  doubt, 
every  one  being  truly  convinced  that  the  former  came  with 
Cadmus  from  Sydon,  the  latter  with  Danaus,  the  brother  of 
Sesostris  from  Egypt,  and  confine  my  observations  to  the 
tribes  of  Thrace,  Macedon,  Lybernia,  Illurike,  Ellas,  and 

The  most  prevalent  idea  is,  that  the  forefathers  of  all  these 
nations  emigrated  from  Scythia  beyond  the  Euxine,  called  little 
Scythia,  and  Scythia  Parentalis  in  after  times,  and  having 
separated  from  the  Gothi,  Getag,  Daci,  &c.  &c.  crossed  the 
Ister  into  Thrace,  from  whence  they  continued  to  spread  them- 
selves westward  to  the  Rhcetian  Alps,  and  Panonia,  and  south 
to  the  Bosphorus,  Propontis,  and  Hellespont,  and  the  utmost 
extremity  of  Greece. 

That  the  entire  of  the  country  afterwards  called  Greece,  was 
first  known  by  the  name  of  Pelasgia,  from  a  chief  Pelasgus, 
from  whom  the  tribe  of  Pelasgoi  also  derived  their  specific 
denomination,  as  the  territory  of  Attica  had  the  name  of  Ce- 
cro-pia  from  a  man  Cecrops,  who  emigrated  from  Egypt. 

That  the  whole  of  Greece  was  next  called  from  Hellas,  from 
a  chief  Hellen,  from  whom  the  tribe  of  Hellenes  derived  their 
specific  denomination. 

That  the  Pelasgoi  and  the  Hellenes  were  both  tribes  of  the 


original  Scythian  stock  from  beyond  the  Euxine,  that  the  latter 
advanced  no  farther  south  than  Thessaly,  and  though  a  small 
tribe,  and  the  last  that  entered  Greece,  gave  its  name  to  the 
entire  country,  these  are  fancies  that  are  maintained  for  every 
fact,  whilst  it  would  be  endless  to  repeat  the  diversity  of  ac- 
counts as  to  the  Athenians. 

As  I  must  enter  my  protest  against  these  fancies,  and  all 
the  dates  before  mentioned,  permit  me  now  for  juxtaposition 
sake,  to  repeat  my  assertions,  that  having  both  opinions  imme- 
diately under  your  eye,  you  may  be  the  better  qualified  to 
form  your  own  judgment  thereupon. 

My  well  weighed  opinion  is,  that  the  ancestors  of  the  tribes 
that  colonized  Thrace,  &c.  did  not  emigrate  from  Scythia, 
north  of  Caucasus,  but  from  Ardmenia  direct,  along  the  south- 
ern shore  of  the  Euxine,  and  entered  Europe  by  the  way  of 
the  Thracian  Bosphorus,  from  whence  some  roved  west  to  the 
Adriatic,  others  south  as  far  as  Dyme  within  Peloponnesus, 
and  no  farther. 

That  Peloponnesus  and  Attica  were  the  only  parts  of  Greece 
called  Pelasgia,  but  not  from  an  individual  Pelasgus,  a  crea- 
ture of  fable. 

That  the  northern  parts  of  Greece  had  the  name  of  Ellas, 
from  which  the  tribe  of  Ellenes,  and  the  chief  Ellen  had  tlieir 
denominations,  not  the  country  from  the  chief. 

That  the  Og-eag-eis,  who  emigTated  from  Ardmenia  in 
2170  before  Christ,  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Ellenes. 

That  the  tribe  of  Gerchad,  which  abandoned  the  land  of 
Canaan,  on  the  invasion  of  that  country  by  the  children  of 
Israel  and  Joshua  about  1445,  and  established  themselves  in 
Lower  Egypt,  from  whence  they  were  expelled  in  1100,  and 
fled  to  Greece,  were  the  forefathers  of  the  Spartans  and 
Athenians,  who  were  both  Pelasgoi. 

And  that  though  the  Ellenes  and  the  Pelasgoi  were  of  the 
Scythian  race,  the  kindred  was  ages  upon  ages  remote  when 
they  became  united  in  Greece. 

Previously  to  stating  the   evidence  of  antiquity,  to  which 
reference  is  to  be  made,  it  will  be  necessary  to  notice  the  times 


in  which  the  writers  lived,  wherefrom  will  appear  the  distance 
between  their  days,  and  the  events  they  have  recorded,  of 
whom  the  first  is  Homery  whose  genius  far  transcends  my 
power  of  panegyric.  But  Homer  was  a  poet,  and  poetry 
toiling  the  judgment  in  the  delicate,  yet  strong  meshes  of 
imagination,  slights  slow,  and  step  by  step  degrees,  to  a  con- 
clusion, the  body  and  the  very  soul  of  history.  He  it  was 
who  gave  potency  to  the  reign  of  fable,  and  confirmed  the 
empire  of  the  gods,  at  whose  fascinating  shrine,  gaily  floating 
between  heaven  and  earth,  his  semi-divine  fancy  sacrificed 
times,  places,  and  circumstances,  as  offerings  poor  and  hum- 
ble. Such  was  the  force  of  his  example,  that  not  only  fic- 
tions confessed,  arts,  sciences,  and  laws,  but  history  itself, 
were  committed  to  the  guardianship  of  epigram,  which  had 
greater  respect  to  elegant  conciseness,  than  cumbrous  detail, 
disposed  to  surrender  matter  of  great  moment  to  mere  har- 

This  captivating  mode  of  recording  the  past,  prevailed  in 
Greece,  nearly  till  Herodotus  made  his  appearance.  Hath 
Herodotus  been  honored  with  the  title  of  "  Father  of  history  r 
The  glory  hath  been  tarnished  by  the  foul  addition  of  "  Shade 
between  fact  and  fiction,"  both  epithets  bestowed  in  days  of 
faint  and  glimmering  beams  of  intellectual  light,  succeeding 
dreary  ages  of  profound  darkness,  wherein,  with  a  beastly  sub- 
mission, men  suffered  their  understandings  to  be  shrouded  by 
the  stupifying  power  of  priestcraft,  which  cherished  ignorance, 
the  guarantee  of  its  dominion,  and  detested  knowledge,  the 
foe  to  its  various  frauds,  gloomy  debaucheries,  inhuman  cruel- 
ties, and  manifold  enormities,  when  a  slight  acquaintance  with 
the  language  in  which  Greeks  and  Romans  spoke  and  wrote, 
was  accepted  for  wisdom,  and  travel  and  learning  were  held  to 
be  synonimous.  In  the  eulogies  lavished  on  Herodotus,  in 
such  woeful  times,  I  do  not  concur,  because  I  cannot  discover 
any  extraordinary  merit  in  a  man  of  education,  writing  his 
own  language  in  correct  style,  his  nation  being  sufficiently  cul- 
tivated to  admit  of  an  effort  to  the  full  extent  of  the  talent 
manifested  in  the  works  of  Herodotus ;  nor  can  I  join  in  the 


censures  attached  to  his  writings,  because  they  are  the  effect 
of  prejudice,  yet  prevalent  from  Uterary  subservience  to  the 
dogmas  of  the  twiUght  times  of  the  15th  century,  which 
lacked  penetration  to  discriminate  between  the  valuable  infor- 
mation Herodotm  hath  imparted  on  his  own  actual  knowledge, 
and  tales  related  to  him  in  foreign  lauds,  of  which  he  hath 
been  reputed  the  father,  at  least  by  adoption,  though  he  hath 
given  no  ground  to  have  it  assumed  for  fact,  that  he  lent  more 
than  his  ear  thereunto ;  on  the  contrary,  we  hear  him,  in  his 
Polymnia,  say,  "  But  it  is  incumbent  on  me  to  record  opi- 
nions, though  I  am  not  obliged  to  credit  them  indiscriminately, 
and  let  this  argument  be  apphed  to  the  whole  of  my  history.'" 
Nor  is  it  unusual  to  hear  his  testimony  adduced,  which,  when 
carefully  examined,  is  found  extremely  doubtful,  or  of  a 
tendency  the  very  reverse  from  what  his  traducters  had  fan- 
cied, {b)  for  which  reasbn  great  care  should  be  taken  to  dis- 
tinguish between  facts,  vouched  on  his  own  experience,  and 
relations,  on  the  authority  of  others.  Yet  as  it  is  obvious 
that  his  mind  was  somewhat  inclined  to  the  marvellous,  his 
evidence  should  be  received  with  caution,  when  he  speaks  of 
times  very  remote  from  his  own  days,  an  observation  applica- 
ble with  equal  justice  to  all  his  precursors,  yea,  and  succes- 
sors in  the  historic  line,  those  of  Greece  not  excepted,  for 
reasons  presently  to  be  explained. 

When  the  Greeks  adopted  the  narrative  style  in  prose,  they 
observed  great  method,  and  in  dividing  their  works  into  dis- 
tinct parts,  usually  made  three  grand  portions  as  to  chronology, 
which  they  called 

The  unknown, 

'I'he  fabulous. 

And  the  historic ; 
to  which  arrangement  I  shall  adhere.  And  that  this  explana- 
tion may  be  satisfactory,  I  beg  you  will  read  with  attention, 
and  carefully  examine  my  table  of  chronology,  by  which  all 
the  most  memorable  epochs,  particularly  the  time  of  Sesost- 
ris  are  ascertained,  the  establishment  of  which  will  produce 
the  hicidus  ordo  so  essential  to  historic  detail,  though  it  can- 


not  authenticate   the   relation   of  occurrences   between  fixed 
points  of  time. 

Here,  in  the  first  place,  it  will  be  necessary  to  agree  upon 
the  space  occupied  by  the  unknozon  age,  which,  by  common 
place  chronology,  is  made  to  extend  from  an  imaginary  point, 
to  the  reign  of  an  individual  called  Ogyges,  king  of  xVttica, 
in  whose  days  a  flood  inundated  Boeotia,  answering  to  the  year 
1766  before  the  Christian  era,  but  which,  according  to  my 
judgment,  commences  at  the  certain  point  of  the  invasion  of 
Europe,  by  a  colony  of  Ardmenian  Scythians,  in  the  second 
y€ar  of  Og,  the  youngest  son  of  Japheth^  synchronizing  with 
the  year  before  Christ  2170,  down  to  the  year  1100  before 
Christ,  when  the  colony  of  Pelasgoi  arrived  from  Egypt,  on 
the  southern  shores  of  Greece. 

When  immortal  Newton,  whose  spirit  soaring  majestically 
into  the  boundless  dominion  of  ether,  penetrated  all  regions, 
visited  all  worlds,  ascertained  the  laws  by  which  they  were 
governed,  and  returning,  fraught  ^vith  inteUigence,  summoned 
to  council  all  his  senses,  which,  satisfied  with  the  accuracy  of 
the  report,  directed  the  now  perished  hand  to  record  the  ac- 
quisition, to  which  he  made  the  human  race  his  heirs— rich 
legacy  !  Nature  warranting  the  title,  science  attesting  the  act, 
wisdom  affixing  his  seal  to  the  probate  of  the  testament. 

When  Newton,  whose  spirit  still  lives,  and  will  for  ever 
live,  whilst  the  elements  endure,  was  occupied  in  investigating 
the  chronology  of  the  Greeks,  his  vast  mind  discovered  an 
error  in  the  date  assigned  to  king  Ogyges,  which  he  did  not 
hesitate  to  pronounce  earlier  than  the  truth  by  680  years ; 
but  though  he  clearly  saw  there  was  an  error,  gigantic  as 
were  his  powers,  full  of  sagacity  as  his  intellect  was,  he  lacked 
the  means  of  demonstrating  wherein  it  consisted.  As  these 
means  are  in  my  possession,  I  feel  great  pleasure  in  supplying 
his  deficiency  in  that  respect,  to  the  confirmation  of  the  opi- 
nion of  that  highly  gifted  of  the  sons  of  men,  and  to  the  ad- 
vancement of  general  knowledge. 

Know  then  that  no  such  individual  as  Ogyges  ever  existed, 
that  the  term  was  applicable  to  the  tribe  of  Scythian  Nomades, 


>^ho  emigrated  from  Ardmenia  in  the  days  of  Og',  of  which 
you  will  find  the  memory  preserved  in  the  writing  of  Eolus, 
wherein  they  are  described  by  the  name  of  Og-eag-eis,  led  by 
la-ban^  recognized  in  Javan  of  the  Hebrews,  Greece  in  the 
land  of  Javan,  Thrace  and  all  the  regions  of  which  I  am  now 
treating,  "  in  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles,"  whilst  the  tribe  is  iden- 
tified from  the  Euxine  to  the  Adriatic,  from  the  Egean  to  the 
Ionian  sea,  yea,  even  in  Er-i,  all  for  the  same  reason  because 
all  separated  from  the  parent  stock  of  Magh-og  ;  the  tradition 
of  Og,  and  his  glory  (though  not  the  founder,)  the  extender 
and  establisher  of  the  Scythian  power  in  Ardmenia,  the  chief 
Prince  of  Meshech  and  Tubal,  being  preserved  in  the  days  of 
Eolus,  and  even  in  the  times  of  Ezekiel,  later  by  700  years. 

Eoliis  expressly  mentions  this  emigration  having  taken  place 
when  Og  had  ruled  two  years,  assigns  the  reason  for  the  eldest 
son's  leaving  Ardmenia,  for  his  being  called  la-han,  and  for 
his  followers  being  called  Og-eag-eis,  the  signification  of  which 
names  shall_be  explained ;  and  he  adds  they  moved  westward, 
which  fact  alone  demonstrates  that  they  did  not  emanate  from 
Scythia  beyond  Caucasus,  but  when  you  hear  from  Eolus  that 
another  colony  separated  from  their  brethren  of  Ardmenia 
220  years  afterwards,  who  did  pass  to  the  far  side  of  Caucasus, 
and  abided  there,  calling  the  land  of  their  dwelling  after  the 
name  of  their  race,  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  Og-eag-eis  of 
Thrace,  &c.  being  a  distinct  tribe  from  the  Goths,  of  which 
two  other  proofs  that  cannot  fail  to  convince,  shall  be  given 
when  I  come  to  speak  of  the  latter  tribe. 

The  time  of  the  emigration  and  the  route  of  the  Og-eag-eis 
under  the  conduct  of  la-ban  being  ascertained,  what  hath 
become  of  the  history  of  this  grand  people,  through  this  vast 
space  of  time,  to  which,  in  the  language  of  the  Greeks,  1  an- 
swer,   "  Ovx  oTt  a^riXri  aXKa  xai  ayvocrrn."      It  is    "  not  only  obsCUrc 

and  uncertain,  but  even  unknown,"  save  in  the  imperfect 
record  of  some  few  widely  separated  facts,  for  the  best  of  rea- 
sons, the  want  of  means  amongst  themselves  of  perpetuating 
the  memory  of  past  events,  and  when  the  Sydonians  arrived 
with  these  means,   they  had  to  record  the  transactions  of  a 


century  immediately  preceding,  and  marvellous  fables  of  fore- 
times accepted  for  history,  till  as  civilization  advanced,  and 
fiction  gave  away  to  truth,  the  age  of  the  Og-eag-eis  which 
embraced  the  whole  space  between  2170  and  1100  before  the 
christian  era  declined  into  that  grave,  from  whence  it  can  never 
be  recovered,  to  which  age  in  comparatively  modern  times,  the 
Greeks  referred  for  all  manners,  customs,  and  usages,  the 
origin  of  which  could  be  found  only  in  the  practice  of  Thrace, 
the  prolific  magazine  of  fiction  for  ancient  Grecian  poetic  story, 
the  emporium  of  the  unadulterated  institutions  of  the  Scythian 
race.  To  the  Og-eag-ian  age  I  shall  here  put  a  period  as  to 
Grecian  history,  with  the  observation,  that  the  tribes  of  Thrace, 
Meas,  Macedon,  Libumia,  Illurike  ,and  Panonia,  continued 
to  live  after  the  primitive  manner  of  the  Scythian  nations,  and, 
although  the  ancestors  of  the  Ellenes,  Etolians  and  Eleusinians, 
were  at  no  great  distance  of  time  to  be  called  barbarians  by 
their  more  polished  children. 

This  portion  of  time  being  disposed  of,  the  age  of  the  Og- 
eag-eis  being  concluded,  I  purpose  to  direct  your  attention  to 
the  country  called  Greece,  whil«t  we  enquire  into  the  ori^n  of 
the  tribes  of  Ellenes  and  Pelasgoi,  who,  as  before  said,  are 
supposed  to  be  derived  from  the  same  parent  stock,  but  in  my 
judgment  were  very  distantly  allied,  a  question  to  be  determined 
by  the  evidence  of  men  of  ancient  days. 

We  are  now  about  to  enter  into  the  division  of  time,  called 
by  the  Greeks  "  the  fabulous,"  extending  either  from  1766, 
.the  time  of  King  Ogyges  of  fabulous  memory,  or  from  the 
arrival  of  a  colony  from  Egypt  in  1100,  to  the  restoration  of 
the  Olympiads  in  776,  between  which  point  and  period  of 
time,  we  have  no  authority  to  refer  to,  poetry  excepted,  to 
which  on  the  present  occasion  I  shall  not  apply,  this  demon- 
stration being  of  fact  not  fable,  of  history  not  mythology. 

This  entire  age  having  passed  away,  we  come  into  the  third 
division  called  the  historic^  of  which  when  more  than  three 
hundred  years  had  elapsed,  Herodotus  made  his  appearance, 
to  tell  of  things  so  long  gone  by,  and  this  accounts  for  not  only 


the  doubt  and  uncertainty  in  which  he  delivers  his  sentiments, 
but  the  contradictions  into  which  he  sometimes  falls. 

He  says  in  his  Clio,  "  that  the  Lacedemonians  were  of 
Doric,  the  Adienians  of  Ionian  origin,  the  former  in  ancient 
times  known  by  the  name  of  Pelasgians,  the  latter  by  that  of 
EUenes,  that  the  former  had  never  changed  their  place  of  resi- 
dence, the  latter  often." 

"  Under  the  reign  of  Deucalion  the  Ellenes  possessed  the 
country  of  Pthiotis,  but  under  Dorus,  son  of  Ellen,  they  inha- 
bited the  country  called  Istioeotis,  bordering  on  Ossa  and 
Olympus,  from  whence  being  driven  by  the  Cadmeans,  they 
fixed  in  Macedon,  near  mount  Pindus,  emigrating  from  whence 
to  Dryopis,  afterwards  to  Peloponnesus,  they  were  known  by 
the  name  of  Dorians." 

Yet  in  the  57th  chapter  of  Clio,  he  says  "  The  Athenians 
were  of  Pelasgian  origin." 

In  the  51st  chapter  Euterpe,  he  says,  "  At  that  period 
(arrival  of  Danaus)  the  Athenians  were  ranked  amongst  the 
nations  of  Greece,  and  had  the  Pelasgians  for  their  neigh- 
bours." "  The  Pelasgoi,  before  they  lived  near  the  Athenians, 
formerly  inliabited  Samo  Thrace." 

And  in  the  58th  chapter  uses  the  expression,  "  When  first 
the  Ellenes  sepai-ated  themselves  from  the  Pelasgoi." 

Having  as  above  told  us  of  the  Doric  origin  of  the  Lace- 
demonians, we  hear  him,  chapter  53  in  Erato,  saying,  "  The 
ancestors  of  the  Dorian  princes  were  of  Egyptian  origin."" 

In  Polymnia,  chapter  94,  he  says,  "  According  to  the  Grecian 
accounts,  the  lonians,  when  they  inhabited  Achala,  in  Pelop- 
ponnesus,  before  the  arrival  of  Danaus  and  Xuthus,  were 
called  Pelasgian  Egialeans,  they  were  afterwards  named 
lonians,  from  Ion  son  of  Xuthus. 

Again  in  the  next  chapter  he  says,  "  These  once  Pelasgian 
were  ultimately  termed  Ionian,  for  the  same  reason  as  the 
twelve  Ionian  cities  founded  by  the  Athenians." 

In  the  31st  chapter  of  Urania,  Herodotus  says,  "  The  Dorians 
are  the  original  and  principal  people  of  Peloponnesus." 

And   in   the   44th   chapter  we   find   these   words .   "  The 


Athenians  were  Pelasgi,  and  called  Cranai,  when  the  region 
now  called  Greece  v/as  possessed  by  the  Pelasgoi,  under 
Cerops  they  took  the  name  of  Ceropians,  the  title  of  Athenians 
was  bestowed  on  them  when  Erectheus  succeeded  to  the  throne, 
their  name  of  lonians  was  derived  from  Ion  who  had  been 
general  of  the  Athenian  forces. 

In  chapter  144,  reporting  a  speech  of  the  Athenians  to  the 
Spartans  is  the  expression,  "In  the  next  place,  our  common 

To  all  which  let  us  add,  that  he  expressly  says,  "that 
formerly  all  Greece  was  called  Pelasgia.  " 

Such  is  the  history  of  Herodotus,  wherefrom,  in  my  judgment, 
is  only  to  be  inferred  that  he  knew  nothing  of  the  subject, 
insomuch  that  one  is  almost  tempted  to  accord  with  the  cen- 
sures of  Josephus,  in  his  reply  to  Apion,  wherein  speaking  of 
the  Greek  historians  he  says,  *'  that  those  most  zealous  to  com- 
pose history  were  not  so  solicitous  for  the  discovery  of  truth, 
altho'  it  was  very  easy  for  them  always  to  make  a  profession 
of  it,  as  to  demonstrate  tliat  they  could  write  well." 

The  next  Greek  to  be  consulted  is  Thucydides,  he  informs 
us  that,  *'  before  the  time  of  Ellen,  the  son  oi  Deucalion,  Greece 
was  not  known  by  one  general  appellation,  the  several  nations 
taking  specific  names  from  their  ownselves.  Pelasgicum  being 
that  of  the  greatest  tract ;  but  when  Ellen  and  his  sons  had 
acquired  power  in  Pthiotis,  conversation  made  the  use  of  Ellas 
become  much  more  frequent  among  several  people,  though  it 
was  long  before  it  so  prevailed  as  to  become  the  general  appel- 
lation of  them  all.  Those  who  came  with  Achilles  from  Pthiotis 
being  the  fir?t  Grecians  who  bore  the  name  of  EUenes ;"  and 
in  the  11th  page  of  his  first  book,  he  says,  "  Eighty  years  after 
the  Trojan  war  the  Dorians  with  the  Heraclidae  took  posses- 
sion of  Peloponnesus. 

In  page  82,  he  says,  "  the  Phocians  were  now  embroiled  with 
the  Dorians,  from  whom  the  Lacedemonians  are  descended."  (c) 

In  page  90,  he  says,  "  defer  no  longer  to  succour  the  Po- 
tidocans,  Dorians  by  descent  besieged  by  lonians,"  that  is, 


In  book  the  2d  page  141,  he  says,  "  there  was  a  spot  of 
ground  below  the  citadel  of  Athens  called  the  Pelasgic." 

From  Thucydides  is  also  to  be  collected,  that  antecedently  to 
the  time  of  Ellen  the  Pelasgoi  had  spread  themselves  all 
through  Greece. 

And  that  the  Thracians  and  the  Ellenes  spoke  the  same 

What  says  Strabo  ? 

He  says  that  "  the  Pelasgoi  overran  all  Greece,  and  roved 
▼ery  much." 

And  that  "  the  Thracians  under  Eumolpxn  colonized 

It  would  be  tiresome  and  unprofitable  to  make  more  quota- 
tions from  the  ancients,  who  as  hath  been  before  noticed,  were 
speaking  of  matter,  even  to  them  of  remote  antiquity,  the 
chronology  vitiated  in  the  extreme,  every  syllable  they  have 
dehvered  is  to  the  same  effect ;  and  truly  if  daily  experience 
did  not  instruct  us,  that  the  perverseness  of  prejudice  deeply 
rooted,  particularly  in.  literary  systems  is  almost,  unconquerable, 
it  must  excite  astonishment  to  hear  men  echoing  each  other  in 
the  fancy  that  they  were  repeating  facts,  because  they  spoke 
in  the  words  of  antiquity,  as  in  the  instance  now  before  us. 

HerodotiLS  says,  and  truly,  that  Pelasgia  was  the  most  ancient 
name  of  Greece  !  Why  ?  because  the  tribe  immediately  from 
Egypt  who  assumed  the  specific  name  of  Pelasgoi  from  the 
district  in  which  they  first  seated  themselves,  being  called  Pe- 
lasgia, were  established  thereon  full  half  a  century  before  the 
body  of  the  Og-eag-eis  who  abided  in  Thessaly,  took  the  spe- 
cific name  of  Ellenes,  from  the  northern  part  of  Greece  then 
first  called  Ellas. 

When  Herodotus  conducts  a  Scythian  tribe  from  Thrace  over 
Olympus  and  so  on  to  Peloponnesus,  and  seats  them  in  Sparta, 
and  calls  them  Ellenes  or  Spartans,  whom  he  considers  one  and 
the  same,  he  is  perfectly  right  in  saying  that  a  Scythian 
tribe  did  advance  into  Peloponnesus,  and  that  they  were  of  the 
same  stock  as  the  Ellenes  ;  but  I  will  differ  even  from  Herodo- 
tus, when  he  asserts  they  reached  Sparta,  or  that  they  were  cal- 


led  either  Ellenes  or  Spartans ;  it  was  to  Dyme  this  swarm 
steered  their  course  at  this  time,  and  were  the  ancestors  of 
those  afterwards  expelled  by  the  Pelasgoi  from  Peloponnesus, 
and  who  fled  to  tlie  land  of  the  Curetes  or  Achaia,  as  before 
noticed,  and  branded  with  the  name  of  Etolians.  (d) 

When  he  says  that  the  Ellenes  used  the  same  speech  as 
the  Pelasgoi,  no  wonder  they  were  both  Scythians;  yet  they 
would  use  different  dialects  of  the  same  original  language, 
and  so  Herodotus  himself  says,  and  marks  that  distinction  (at 
least)  between  their  tongues,  when  he  tells  us  that  the  Sydo- 
nians  changed  their  speech,  befng  surrounded  by  the  Tones  or 
Pelasgoi,  and  by  the  Ellenes ;  but  what  reliance  is  to  be 
placed  in  his  testimony  as  to  origin,  seeing  that  he  candidly 
acknowledges  his  ignorance  about  the  Pelasgoi,  which  is  most 
conspicuously  displayed,  without  the  addition  of  his  avowal. 

Thucydides  first  notices  the  Ellenes  in  Thessaly ;  yes,  that 
is  their  true  position,  the  country  from  whence  they  assumed 
their  specific  denomination,  being  the  north  of  Greece,  in  after 
times  denominated  Ellas. 

He  also  says,  that  before  the  time  of  Ellen,  (described  as 
a  son  of  a  person  called  Deucalion)  the  Pelasgoi  over-ran 
Greece.  Very  true,  and  had  seated  a  tribe  in  Upper  Thes- 
saly; to  dislodge  them  from  which,  this  son  of  Deucalion 
poured  such  multitudes  into  that  country,  that  the  invasion 
was  represented  by  the  figure  of  a  flood,  in  the  language  of 

Tljough  there  is  a  superabundance  of  fiction  in  the  ancient 
history  of  Greece,  and  though  figures  and  metaphors  were  as 
frequently  introduced  by  the  writers  of  that  country,  as  by 
their  brethren  of  Palestina,  it  must  not  be  imagined  there  was 
no  foundation  for  the  fable.  Here  the  fact  of  the  flood  of 
Thessaly  i^  to  be  found  in  the  invasion  of  these  new  quarters 
of  the  Pelasgoi,  by  the  Ellenes,  whilst  the  fact  of  the  re-peo- 
pling  by  Deucalion  and  Pyrlia,  of  the  maritime  ports  of 
Thessaly,  the  seat  of  the  Ellenes,  is  to  be  found  in  the  colo- 
nizing of  that  district  by  EUeUf  with  multitudes  of  the  nor- 


lliern  tribes,  to  whom  the  Ellencs  were  nearly  allied,  and  from 
wliom  they  had  been  but  lately  separated. 

When  Thucydides  observes  that  the  Thracians  and  the 
Ellcnes  spoke  the  same  identic  tongue,  he  proves,  by  the 
most  unerring  criterion,  the  identity  of  the  people,  who,  in 
j)oint  of  fact,  were  one  and  the  same,  the  Ellenes  having 
merely  assumed  a  specific  name.  Why  doth  he  particularize 
the  Ellenes  }  Because  they  and  the  communities  of  Eleusis 
and  Etolia,  were  the  only  tribes  of  the  true  Thracian  stock, 
within  Greece. 

Strabo  repeats  the  information  of  Herodotus^  and  of  all  his 
predecessors,  "  That  the  Pelasgoi  over-ran  all  Greece.'"  But 
when  he  says  that  Eumolpus  and  the  7'hracians  colonized 
Attica,  he  neglects  to  acquaint  you  with  the  part  of  Attica 
colonized  by  him.  As  he  differs  very  widely  from  others,  who 
assert  that  Eumolpus  did  not  live  for  a  century  after  the  city 
of  Eleusis  was  built  in  the  north  of  Attica,  by  Eleusine,  called 
the  son  of  Ogyges,  that  is,  in  correct  language,  an  Ogeagian  ; 
{e)  As  it  is  not  my  intention  to  attempt  to  reconcile  fabulous 
relations,  I  leave  the  point  to  your  own  judgment,  with  this 
single  observation,  that  Strabo  did  not  live  for  mor?  than 
eleven  hundred  years  after  the  circuijnstanceg  he  t^ikes  upon 
him  to  relate. 

It  is  not  from  isolated  expressions,  and  detached  sentences, 
admitting  of  argument  and  inference,  that  a  question  of  this 
nature  is  to  be  decided,  but  by  the  general  tenor  and  concur- 
rent testimony  of  antiquity,  on  principles  broad  and  compre- 
hensive, in  which  point  of  view,  if  we  examine  the  subject, 
we  discover  facts  of  more  value  than  volumns  of  after  thoughts, 
and  plausible  conjectures,  whereon  to  ground  theories.  For 
if  you  imagine  that  the  Greek  historians  were  exempt  from 
framing  systems,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  points 
favourable  to  the  combination  of  their  own  glory  as  to  anti- 
quity, and  their  undoubted  fame  for  all  the  refinements  of 
most  highly  polished  society,  you  have  hitherto  been  mistaken. 

When  in  the  days  of  Herodotus,  and  even  long  before,  and 
always  afterwards,    the    Greeks  cx>nsidered   Greece  as  their 


country,  without  reference  to  the  land  of  their  progenitors. 
If  they  advanced  pretensions  to  an  high  antiquity  and  il- 
lustrious origin,  they  must  derive  from  the  Scythians  of 
Thrace,  the  only  bodies  of  whom  in  Greece  were  those  of 
Etoha,  Eleusis,  and  lower  Thessaly,  which  last  assumed  instead 
of  the  general  name  of  Scythians,  or  Og-eag-eis,  or  Thracians, 
the  specific  one  of  EUenes,  and  separating  from  their  northern 
brethren,  followed  the  example  of  the  more  civilized  Pelasgoi, 
and  of  the  cultivated  Sydonians,  abandoned  the  tent,  congre- 
gated in  villages,  departed  from  community  of  lands,  and 
conformed  to  more  circumscribed  rules  of  society,  than  prac- 
tised by  their  pastoral  roving  ancestors  ;  for  this  reason  the 
Pelasgoi  would  identify  themselves  with  the  Ellenes,  but  when 
the  circumstance  was  considered  that  the  barbarians,  as  the 
Thracians  were  called,  must  in  that  case  have  been  the  fathers 
of  the  Pelasgoi,  here  was  the  dilemma,  and  thus  attempts  to 
reconcile  what  was  irreconcileable  to  truth,  like  Athanasius's 
polemical  logic,  drove  them  upon  all  manner  of  absurdities, 
and  rendered  what  was  plain  and  simple,  intricate  and  compli- 
cated, till  the  whole  became  a  confused  mass,  so  confused,  that 
we  find  the  Athenians  described  as  a  colony  of  Egyptians,  of 
Pelasgians,  and  to  complete  the  contradictions,  as  autoch tones, 
that  is,  aborigines  of  that  soil. 

That  we  hear  from  one  that  the  Ellenes  wandered  very 
much,  but  that  Pelasgoi  never  did,  again  that  the  Pelasgoi 
were  incessantly  roving,  but  the  Athenians  were  stationary. 

That  all  Greece  was  called  Pelasgia,  and  that  all  Greece 
was  called  Ellas,  and  such  like ;  now  to  facts  calculated  to 
explain  the  truth. 

It  hath  been  heretofore  mentioned,  that  the  Og-eag-eis 
having  from  Thrace  poured  into  the  country  first  called  from 
them  Ogygeia,  then  Cadmeia,  afterwards  Boeotia,  proceeded 
south,  and  had  reached  Dyme  within  Peloponnesus,  when  a 
colony  from  Egypt,  of  Scythians,  whose  origin  hath  been 
already  traced,  landed  in  the  country  now  known  by  the  name 
of  Greece  ;  here  a  material  point  to  be  determined,  is  the 
quarter  of  the  country  wherein  these  strangers  made  their  first 



appearance,  which  the  general  voice  of  antiquity  declares,  was 
the  southern  extremity  of  the  district  afterwards  called  Attica, 
and  Peloponnesus  called  Pelasgia  ;  what  farther  doth  the  con- 
current testimony  of  ancient  days  attest  ?  It  atlests  that  imme- 
diately on  their  arrival  they  commenced  the  building  of  the 
towns  of  Cecropia  in  Attica,  and  Lycosura,  Phoronicum,  and 
Egialeum  within  Peloponnesus,  and  that  these  were  \he  first 
vallages  of  permanent  materials,  and  fixed  dwellings  ever 
erected  on  Greece,  sights  as  strange  to  the  wandering  Og-eag- 
eis,  as  the  tower  of  Babel  had  been  to  their  forefathers,  an  art 
learned  and  practised  in  Egypt  by  these  shepherd  chiefs, 
altogether  incompatible  with  the  state  of  society,  in  which  the 
Og-eag-eis  were,  who  lived  on  acorns,  of  which  they  made 
bread,  on  the  milk  and  flesh  of  their  flocks  and  herds,  and 
occupied  a  place  no  longer  than  it  afforded  pasturage  for  their 
domestic  kine,  and  game  for  the  hunter. 

When  you  read  in  books  of  history,  that  men  congregated 
in  settled  habitations,  and  became  stationary  before  they  had 
the  knowledge  of  cultivating  the  earth,  and  producing  com  ; 
consult  your  reason  before  you  give  credit  to  the  relation  ;  if 
the  Canaanite  did  not  possess  this  science  before  the  invasion 
of  Egypt,  (and  if  credit  is  to  be  given  to  Genesis,  they  did  in 
the  days  of  Ab-r-am,)  they  would  have  learned  it  in  Egypt, 
so  much  farther  advanced  were  they  than  the  Og-eag-eis  in  the 
social  track.  Having  built  these  towns  on  these  ascertained 
spots,  what  is  the  first  authentic  intelligence  we  have  of  them. 
Is  it  not  of  those  of  Peloponnesus  moving  northward,  and 
establishing  a  colony  in  Thessaly  ?  here  then  we  have  proof 
direct  and  positive,  that  the  first  parts  of  Greece  on  which 
houses  and  towns  were  built,  were  in  the  extreme  south,  from 
whence  those  who  erected  them  emerge,  bending  their  course 
to  the  North,  whilst  we  have  proof  as  direct  and  positive,  that 
the  tribes  which  had  been  in  the  roving  occupation  of  these 
regions  antecedently  to  the  arrival  of  those  colonies,  by  whom 
these  cities  were  founded,  invariably  moved  from  the  North 
towards  the  South. 

What  is  the  next  enterprise  in  which  we  hear  of  the  Pelasgoi 


being  engaged  ?  Defending  themselves  against  the  attempts  of 
the  Ellenes,  to  drive  them  from  Thessaly,  where  they  had 
become  stationary,  that  was  the  mighty  aggression,  temporary 
occupation  might  have  been  acceded,  more  especially  as  all  were 
of  the  same  race  of  mankind,  and  expressed  their  thoughts  in 
similar  speech,  but  exclusive  appropriation  so  foreign  to  pure 
Scythian  custom,  was  not  to  be  tolerated.  Established  in 
Thessaly,  what  do  we  next  find  the  Pelasgoi  of  Peleponnesus 
engaged  in  ?  Driving  the  Og-eag-eis  in  the  north  of  the  Pen- 
insula forth  thereof.  On  all  these  occasions  we  do  not  hear  of 
the  Pelasgoi  of  Cecropia  being  concerned,  no,  they  valued 
themselves  for  not  having  gone  roving  about  after  the  manner 
of  their  brethren  of  Peloponnesus,  to  whom  in  their  sarcastic 
style  they  gave  the  name  of  Pelargoi,  calling  themselves 
autocthtones,  a  term  so  much  mistaken,  and  entirely  perverted 
in  more  modern  times,  which  did  not  mean  that  they  were 
Indigenes,  but  that  where  they  originally  landed,  there  they 
had  abided,  and  had  not  roved  therefrom  after  the  manner  of 
their  brethren  of  Peloponnesus ;  and  this  was  the  reason  that 
the  Athenians  were  not  originally  included  in  the  covenant 
which  produced  the  council  Amphyction. 

Though  the  proofs  are  quite  sufficient  to  shew  that  the  Ellenes 
and  Pelasgoi  were  not  descended  from  the  same  stock,  though 
both  were  of  the  Scythian  race,  that  the  former  originated  in 
the  north,  and  moved  south ;  and  that  the  latter  first  appeared 
in  the  south,  and  occupied  the  void  lands  which  the  Og-eag-eis 
had  not  had  time  to  have  even  ran  over,  and  invariably  moved 
north.  That  the  former  were  in  the  pj-actice  of  the  genuine 
Scythian  manners  and  customs  of  community  of  lands,  roving 
with  their  flocks,  and  women  and  children  from  place  to  place, 
as  Anacharsis  describes  the  Ellenes,  but  not  the  Pelasgoi  nor 
Achaioi,  and  that  the  latter  first  erected  cities,  became  stationary, 
and  cultivatsd  the  ground  after  the  manner  of  Egypt ;  there 
remains  one  other  fact  which  demonstrates  clearly  and  fully  that 
the  Pelasgoi  and  Ellenes  were  more  remotely  allied,  thatfi 
writers  of  modern  times,  in  over  zeal  to  prove  their  Scythian 
origin,  of  which  there  is  no  doubt,  would  have  them.    It  is  this. 


that  from  the  moment  the  Pelasgoi  found  themselves  sufficiently 
capable  of  aggression,  we  for  the  first  time  hear  of  war  in 
Greece ;  we  find  them  flying  forth  of  the  lands  wherein  they 
had  originally  hghted,  and  perching  oft  the  places  of  Thessaly 
then  in  the  transitory  occupation  of  the  Og-eag-eis. 

Cast  your  mind  back  on  the  history  of  the  earth,  from  the 
earliest  time  till  those  of  which  we  are  speaking,  though  you 
may  recall  accounts  of  war  and  devastation,  was  iiot  the  con- 
tention between  diverse  races  of  the  human  kind,  not  kindred  na- 
tions, a  fact  that  invariably  proves  their  being  distinct  people. 
The  Egyptians  warred  with  the  Scythians,  Ethiopians,  Lybians, 
&c.  The  Assyrians  invaded  the  Scythians,  circumstances  that 
shew  their  diversity.  Chcdorlaomer  chief  of  Elam  invaded  a 
part  of  the  land  of  Canaan,  it  is  true ;  but  we  are  in  total 
ignorance  of  the  cause,  it  seems  as  if  his  motive  was  to  regain 
titular  supremacy,  as  chief  of  the  ancient  Scythian  race,  be  it 
what  it  may  the  aggression  was  productive  of  no  permament  en- 
mity. The  first  people  in  the  register  of  time  who  confederated, 
arms  in  their  hands,  premeditated  evil  in  their  hearts,  to  molest 
a  kindred  people,  were  the  children  of  Israel ;  but  they  had 
been  215  years  in  bondage  in  a  strange  land,  and  slavery 
vitiates  the  soul,  corrupts  the  mind,  and  changes  as  it  were  the 
essential  qualities  of  man ;  they  had  for  a  long  season  felt 
themselves  deserted,  and  forgotten  by  the  world,  save  their  task- 
masters, in  whose  practices  towards  them  they  only  recognized 
the  ways  of  man.  Every  hand  was  against  them,  therefore  did 
they  raise  their  arms  against  the  world ;  and  whilst  they 
adopted  some  of  the  manners,  customs,  and  religion  of  their 
tyrants,  they  abandoned  divers  of  their  own  ancient  usagei^, 
and  struck  out  a  system  of  religion  and  policy,  unlike  every 
thin  g  that  had  ever  prevailed,  for  the  sole  purpose  of  keeping 
themselves  distinct  from  all  the  people  of  the  earth  ;  besides, 
the  relation  between  them  and  the  nations  of  Canaan  was 
hundreds  of  ages  removed.  In  the  very  early  stage  of  society  you 
will  find  no  mention  of  pure  Scythians  warring  with  their  kind. 
Had  the  Pelasgoi  been  of  the  stock  of  Og-eag-eis  they  M'ould  not 
have  warred  with  them,  in  the  inveterate  manner  they  are  reported 


to  have  done,  had  both  proceeded  together  in  the  progress  to- 
wards refinement,  till  they  had  arrived  at  a  stage  far  more  ad- 
vanced than  either  were  at  the  era  of  the  arrival  of  the  Pelasgcn 
in  Greece;  and  in  further  corroboration  of  the  distinction  between 
the  Ellenes  and  Pelasgoi,  permit  me  to  adduce  the  evidence  of 
Anacharsis,  the  true  Scythian  philosopher,  who  was  qualified 
even  in  the  age  he  lived  to  form  an  accurate  judgment  of  the 
manners,  customs,  and  language,  of  all  the  tribes  of  Scythian 
origin  from  the  the  Euxiae  to  the  extreme  south  of  Greece,  all 
the  districts  of  which  he  had  traversed  ;  and  his  evidence  is,  "  all 
the  Ellenes  observe  the  Scythian  manners  and  customs!!'' 
Why  particularize  the  tribe  of  the  Ellenes  !  surely  it  will  not  be 
said  that  the  Pelasgoi  were  too  insignificant  to  be  added  also. 

It  is  to  be  remarked  that  there  is  no  diversity  of  opinion 
amongst  the  ancients  with  respect  to  tlie  distinction  of  Doric 
or  Lacedemonian,  or  Ionic  and  Athenian ;  but  please  to 
recollect  these  were  comparatively  modem  appellations ;  for 
though  Herodotus  at  one  time  says,  the  Dorians  were  the 
original  and  principal  people  of  Peloponnesus,  yet  he  and 
Thucydides  mark  the  era  of  the  Dorians  settlement  in  that 
Peninsula,  placed  by  both  "not  more  than  fourscore  years 
after  the  Trojan  war,  which  ill  accords  with  remote  antiquity, 
and  early  origin. 

Having  laid  before  you  all  the  notices  of  any  value  on  the 
subject  of  the  origin  of  those  Scythian  tribes  that  colonized 
the  districts  of  Europe,  from  the  Euxine  to  the  Rhoetian  Alps, 
and  Panonia  west,  and  to  the  extremity  of  Greece  south,  be- 
tween the  Ister  and  Bosphorus,  Propontis,  &c.,  I  feel  myself 
warranted  to  deliver  for  very  truth. 

That  the  chief  of  the  Scythian  race,  who  conducted  the  first 
colony  into  Thrace,  was  laban,  called  by  the  Hebrews  Javan, 
the  son  of  Iqfoth,  the  son  of  Ardfear,  who  is  Noah,  the  last 
supreme  chief  of  the  most  ancient  Scythian  empire ;  that  he 
took  his  departure  from  Armenia,  in  the  second  year  of  his 
brother  Og,  with  a  colony  which  had  the  name  of  Og-eag-eis. 

That  they  entered  Europe  by  the  way  of  the  Bosphorus,  and 
had  roved  after  the  manner  of  their  race,  as  far  south  as  the 


country  of  Eleusis,  north  of  Attica,  and  the  northern  parts 
of  Peloponnesus,  when  a  colony  of  Scythians  also,  originally 
from  the  land  of  Canaan,  immediately  from  Egypt,  landed  m 
the  southern  extremity  of  the  land,  which  they  occupied,  and 
whereon  they  instantly  commenced  to  build  towns,  from  which 
circumstance  that  part  of  the  country  got  the  name  of  Felasce, 
and  this  tribe  that  of  Pelasgoi,  of  which  tribe  the  Spartans 
and  Athenians  were  the  most  celebrated  people. 

That  a  body  of  the  Og-eag-eis  had  proceeded  on  the  shore  of 
the  Egean  sea,  as  far  south  as  Eleusis,  to  a  district  which  they 
called  Ogygea,  at  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  Pelasgoi,  in 
the  extreme  south,  which  tiibe  of  the  Og-eag-eis  assumed  the 
specific  name  of  Ellenes. 

And  that  the  connexion  between  these  two  Scythian  nations 
of  the  Og-eag-ean  Ellenes  and  the  Canaanite  Pelasgoi,  is  not 
more  near. 

That  Cadmus,  the  Phoenician,  led  a  colony  of  Sydonian 
Scythians  to  the  district  of  Ogygea,  which  the  Ellenes  yielded 
to  them,  and  which  from  them  was  called  Cadmeia,  after- 
wards Boeotia,  and  these  are  the  Achaioi. 

That  Danaus,  the  brother  of  Sesostris,  led  a  colony  of 
Egyptians  to  Greece.     These  are  the  Danaoi. 

That  the  Hebrews  designated  the  Aborignes  of  all  these 
regions  first  colonized  by  their  Javan,  by  the  name  of  GentUes, 
which  Gentiles  I  consider  to  be  the  people  called  Helots,  who 
retired  to  Arcadia,  and  to  Messenia,  in  a  southern,  and  to 
the  land  of  the  lapydes  in  a  western  direction,  where  they  are 
called  Celtae. 

And  as  to  the  names  of  Pelasgia  and  Ellas,  though  there 
is  no  reason  why  that  of  Pelasgia  should  not  have  prevailed 
before  that  of  Ellas  ;  yet  did  neither  prevail  as  to  the  entire 
of  Greece,  Pelasgia  being  the  south,  and  Ellas  the  north 
thereof;  both  being  applied  much  about  the  same  era. 

These  things,  after  an  infinity  of  research,  I   dehver  for 
historic  facts,   submitted  to  the  judgment  of  those,  to  whose 
care  the  education  of  youth,  an  awful  trust !  is  confided,  and 
to  all  who  delight  in  wisdom,  and  the  words  of  truth. 


NOTES    TO    PART    IV. 

(o)  In  am  aware  thnt  Thucydides  has  said  in  the  very  commencement 
of  his  work,  "  Before  the  affairs  of  Troy  it  doth  not  appear  that  Greece 
or  Ellas  was  ever  united  in  one  common  undertaking,  nor  indeed  did  the 
same  subsist  at  all  before  the  time  of  Ellen  the  son  of  Deucalion ;"  this 
expression  of  Thucydides  is  but  one  of  the  innumerable  proofs  of  the  ex- 
treme inaccuracy  of  the  Grecian  historians,  particularly  in  chronology,  if 
you  will  cast  your  eye  on  the  suppositions,  and  on  the  true  era  of  events, 
you  will  perceive  Ellen  was  antecedent  to  the  Argonautic  expedition, 
which  was  prior  to  the  war  of  Troy ;  and  it  cannot  be  said  with  truth,  that 
the  Argonauts  did  not  confederate  under  the  sanction  of  the  council  Am- 

(6)  To  avoid  controversy,  I  have  not  hitherto  pointed  at,  nor  men- 
tiened  the  name  of  any  individual ; — at  the  same  tinae  I  must  declare  that 
I  could  enumerate  liundreds  of  instances,  wherein  moderns  of  seeming 
candour  and  respect  for  truth,  have  cited  Herodotus,  from  whose  pen  they 
have  quoted  passages,  the  very  reverse  of  what  he  hath  distinctly  advanced. 

(c)  Though  I  have  always  steered  clear  of  conjecture,  I  beg  leave  to 
offer  a  suggestion  in  this  place,  though  the  Greek  historians  are  remarkable 
for  delivering  contrary  opinions  :  here  we  find  Herodotus  and  Thucydidts 
in  agreement  as  to  the  origin  of  the  Lacedemonians,  both  asserting  that 
they  were  Dorians,  who  came  with  the  Heraciidse  into  Pelopormesus  at 
the  era  agreed  upon  by  both,  of  four-score  years  antecedently  to  the  Trojan 
war,  which  was  450  years  before  the  days  of  Herodotus. 

May  not  this  be  the  cause  of  the  confusion  of  the  origin  of  the  Pelasgoi 
and  EUenes  ;  the  original  Pelasgoi  from  Egypt  first  came  to  Peloponnesus, 
who  being  afterwards  subdued  by  the  Dorians  who  were  Ellenes,  Hero- 
dotus and  those  of  his  days  lost  sight  of  origin,  and  called  the  Lacedemo- 
nians who  had  been  Pelasgoi  by  the  name  of  Ellenes,  because  they  were 
Dorians  for  so  long  a  time  before.  I  would  have  men  of  literature  think 
of  this. 

(d)  It  is  here  to  be  observed  that  I  am  speaking  of  origin,  this  emigra- 
tion spoken  of  by  Herodotus,  was  at  the  era  just  mentioned  in  the  former 
note,  which  has  nothing  to  do  with  origin.  I  repeat  that  no  tribe  of  the 
Ogyges  was  known  to  have  proceeded  so  far  south  as  Sparta,  antecedently 
to  the  invasion  of  the  Doric  Ellenes  with  the  Heraclidae,  about  four-score 
years  before  the  Trojan  war. 

(e)  The  real  history  of  this  visit  of  Enmolpus  to  Eleusis,  conduces  to 
explain  the  origin  of  these  tribes.  Erectheus  chief  of  the  Cecropeian  Pe- 
lasgoi, made  war  on  the  Ogygeian  Eleusinians,  to  whose  assistance  Eumol- 
pus  a  prince  of  Thrace  came,  that  is,  the  Ogygean  Thracian  assisted  the 
Ogygean  Eleusinian  against  the  Pelasgians,  so  much  more  remotely  aUied 
to  his  tribe,  for  it  never  must  be  lost  sight  of,  that  all  were  of  the  Scythian 
race  of  mankind. 


Of  the  Scythian  tribes  that  colonized  the  districts  of 
Europe,  from  the  western  extremity  of  Italy, 
and  the  Rhcetian  Alps,  to  the  German  Ocean,  be- 
tween the  rivers  Danube,  and  Rhine,  north,  and 
the  Garronne  south. 


.1  HOUGH  these  colonies  were  the  latest  in  point  of  time 
that  proceeded  westward,  and  formed  separate  independent 
j'.ations,  I  have  thought  it  better,  for  connexion  sake,  to  con- 
tinue in  this  their  central  course,  to  a  conclusion,  before  we 
proceed  north  or  southward,  more  especially  as  few  words  will 

On  this  part  of  our  subject  I  have  to  observe,  That  the 
country  now  called  by  the  general  name  of  Italy,  received  a 
colony  of  Pelasgoi,  led  by  jEnotrhes,  the  son  of  Lycaon^  from 
Greece,  about  1000  years  before  Christ. 

About  which  era  Saturn  conducted  another  colony  from 
Crete  to  Italy. 

That  about  940,  Evander  emigrated  from  Greece  also  to 

That  about  883,  Italy  received  Enea^  and  his  followers 
from  Troy. 

That  a  colony  of  Lydians  from  Asia  Minor  settled  west 
of  the  Tyber,  in  the  country  called  Etruria. 

And  that  a  colony  of  Phocians  from  Greece  emigrated  to 
the  banks  of  the  Rhone,  where  they  founded  Massilia. 

Of  all  which  Scythian  tribes  (with  what  mixture  of  the 
Aborigines  I  cannot  take  on  me  to  say)  the  divers  communi- 
ties of  Italy  were  composed ;  of  whom,  one  distinguished  by 
the  name  of  Romans,  did  in  process  of  time  subdue  all  the 
others,  founded  Rome  about  six  hundred  years  before  Christ, 


spread  themselves  to  the  extremity  of  our  present  limits,  in- 
corporated a  considerable  portion  of  their  population,  and  in- 
troduced their  language  (which  became  influential)  amongst 
the  greater  proportion  of  the  Abori^nes. 

To  which  let  me  add,  that  the  natives  in  the  western  extre- 
mity of  Italy,  had  the  appellation  of  Umbri  applied  to  them 
by  the  first  invaders,  who  gave  the  general  name  of  Celtas 
and  Galli,  to  all  the  original  inhabitants  from  the  Rhoetian 
Alps  to  the  Ocean. 


Of  tJie  Goths. 


X  COME  now  to  speak  of  the  Goths,  another  tribe  of  the 
great  Scythian  race,  a  question  of  great  interest,  embracing 
the  consideration  of  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  northern 
parts  of  the  continent  of  Europe,  as  well  as  the  stranger  peo- 
ple who  intruded  on  them,  a  subject  always  obscure,  and  ren- 
dered much  more  so  by  theories  and  systems  of  semi-ancients, 
and  writers  of  modern  times. 

Previously  to  entering  on  this  part  of  our  investigation,  it 
will  be  necessary,  as  usual,  to  state  and  examine  various  opi- 
nions, that  have  from  time  to  time  obtained  temforary  cur- 
rency, now  to  be  replaced  in  the  scale  of  your  well  poised 
judgment,  to  receive  the  stamp  of  your  approbation,  or  re- 
jected, if  found  wanting ;  which  done,  I  shall  proceed  to  de- 
liver what  I  conceive  the  historic  facts  demonstrable  from  the 
evidence  of  men  of  ancient  days,  speaking  not  from  vague 
hearsay,  but  on  their  own  actual  knowledge,  premising,  that 
you  must  bear  in  mind,  I  am  treating  only  of  origins,  wherein 
brevity  is  to  be  studied,  as  much  as  perspicuity  will  admit. 


The  first  of  these  opinions  is,  "  That  Scythia,  beyond  the 
Euxine,  was  the  parent  country  of  the  Scythian  race,  from 
whence  their  various  tribes  emigrated  ;"  against  which,  as  re- 
lating to  the  colonies  that  occupied  Thrace,  lUurike,  and 
Ellas,  I  offered  some  evidence  in  the  preceding  chapter,  re- 
serving my  remaining  proofs  to  this  time,  tending  to  demon- 
strate generally  that  Scythia  beyond  the  Euxine,  was  not  the 
parent  country  of  the  Scythian  race ;  and  particularly  that  it 
was  not  from  thence  the  tribes  of  Thrace,  he.  emanated. 

The  first  authority  to  be  cited  on  this  occasion,  is  that  of 


Herodotus,  who  expressly  says,  "  That  the  people  of  whom  I 
now  speak,  affirmed  that  their  country  was  the  last  formed ; 
and  that  from  the  reign  of  their  first  king,  to  the  invasion  of 
their  country  by  Darius  Hvstaspes,  was  not  more  than  one 
thousand  years  ;"  tliat  is  fifteen  hundred  years  before  Christ. 

If  you  look  on  the  cliart,  you  will  see  the  original  seat  of 
the  Scythian  race,  about  Im-magh,  from  whence  you  can 
trace  their  progress  southward  to  the  ocean,  between  the 
waters  of  Ind  east,  and  of  Euphrates  west,  from  whence,  in 
process  of  time,  they  penetrated  to  the  Mediterranean,  and 
north  to  Caucasus,  all  which  regions  were  occupied  by  multi- 
tudinous tribes  of  this  distinct  race  of  mankind,  till  an  eastern 
people  invaded  the  countries  as  marked  on  the  chart,  on  which 
event  the  gj-eat  chief  Nue  escaped,  with  many  followers,  north- 
ward to  Ardmenia,  where  he,  and  those  who  fled  with  him, 
are  identified  in  the  Noe-maid-eis,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Araxes,  as  before  mentioned.  Of  the  existence  of  this 
ancient  Scythian  empire  (ascendant  in  hyperbolical  phrase 
over  Asia,  in  historic  language  over  the  part  of  Asia  delineated 
on  the  chart,  for  1500  years  at  least  antecedently  to  2247 
before  Christ,  when  It  was  shaken  and  dismembered  by  the 
Assyrians)  we  have  the  testimony  of  the  Hebrews,  which, 
though  delivered  in  obscure  terms,  after  their  manner,  disco- 
vers at  bottom  (though  concealed  and  disfigured)  the  truth, 
made  manifest  by  Eolus,  accredited  by  Herodotus,  Diodorus 
Siculus,  Trogus  Pompeius^  and  divers  others,  all  agreeing  in 
commemorating  the  fact.  How  then  could  any  ancient  or 
modern  come  to  fancy,  that  Scythia  north  of  the  Euxine, 
was  the  parent  seat ;  did  they  suppose  that  the  true  parental 
Scythians  in  the  regions  about  Im-magh  had  extended  them- 
selves beyond  the  waters  of  Rha,  to  the  Tanais  and  Euxine, 
and  thus  were  to  be  considered  the  parent  ?  No,  that  was  not 
their  idea,  because,  according  to  the  evidence  of  all  antiquity, 
the  Scythians  commenced  their  migrations,  after  the  dismem- 
berment of  their  ancient  empire,  from  Magseanar  in  Messipo- 
tamia,  the  countries  invaded  by  the  Assyrians,  from  whence 
they  moved  north  to  the  Araxes,  the  point  of  departure  i^i 


after-times  of  nearly  all  those  tribes  rcho  colojiized  Europe,  as 
set  down  in  tlie  chart ;  besides,  how  could  the  ancients  ima- 
gine that  Scythia  beyond  the  Euxine  was  Scythia  Parentalis, 
and  at  the  same  time  record  the  idea  of  these  very  Scythians 
being  the  most  modern  of  nations  :  whereas  the  Scythians  con- 
tended for  precedence  in  antiquity  in  ages  the  most  remote, 
assigning  as  one  reason  that  the  lands  of  the  elements  of  which 
they  were  composed,  stood  so  much  higher  not  only  than 
Egypt,  (their  chief  competitor,)  but  all  other  parts  of  the  earth 
known  to  them,  which  is  fact  as  to  the  real  Parental  Scythia  of 
which  the  Ancient  Scythians  spoke ;  (a)  but  is  not  true  of 
Little  Scytliia  beyond  the  Euxine.  How  are  these  seeming 
contradictions  to  be  reconciled .''  nothing  more  easily.  The 
Greeks  in  the  days  of  Herodotus,  and  long  before,  had  lost 
sight  of  the  Parent  State,  though  not  of  the  Ancient  Empire, 
divers  districts  of  which,  had  changed  inhabitants  in  conse- 
quence of  the  Assyrian  invasion,  whilst  those  that  remained 
Scythian  had  assumed  distinct  tribal  denominations,  and  the 
region  north  of  Caucasus  being  called  Isciot,  to  preserve  the 
memory  of  their  race  was  the  only  country  that  also  preserved 
the  ancient  name,  though  the  tribe  who  emigrated  thither 
assumed  the  specific  appellative  of  Goth,  of  which  tribe,  and 
the  many  tribes  sprung  fx-om  them,  it  was  the  parent  seat,  but 
not  of  the  Scythian  race  ;  and  though  it  is  an  error  to  desig- 
nate it  Scythia  Parentalis,  it  is  critically  correct  to  call  it 
Goth-ia  Parentalis,  which  in  fact  it  was  ;  therefore  when  the 
Goths  spoke  of  their  novelty  as  a  distinct  tribe,  they  spoke 
truly  and  candidly  after  their  manner  ;  as  Scythians  they  would 
and  always  did  boast  of  their  antiquity,  as  Goths,  they  were 
comparatively  but  a  modern  nation,  and  when  they  said  par 
hazard,  one  thousand  years  antecedently  to  the  time  of  Darius 
Hystaspes,  they  may  not  be  far  from  the  truth,  the  date  of 
their  having  assumed  their  specific  name  of  Goth,  and  electing 
a  Ceann  to  lead  them  westward,  being  so  long  from  the  time 
of  their  emigration  from  the  south,  as  was  requisite  to  occupy 
all  the  country  from  the  Rha  to  the  Tanais,  apd  a  distance 
northward,  which  might  occupy  the  space  of  time  between  1950, 


the  era  of  their  departure  from  Magh-og,  and  their  invasion  of 
Europe,  for  it  was  on  that  event  they  changed  their  arms  of 
war,  from  the  bow  and  sling,  which  would  be  of  no  avail  in 
the  forests  of  the  lands  of  the  Cimmerii  or  Celtae,  to  the  long 
spear,  and  from  that  circumstance  either  assumed,  or  received, 
from  their,  kindred  of  Magh-saigiote,  the  name  of  Goth. 

These  proofs  being  absolute  against  the  idea  of  Scythia 
beyond  the  Euxine  being  the  parent  seat ;  few  words  will 
suffice  to  shew  with  equal  force  that  it  could  not  be  the  country 
from  whence  the  tribes  of  Thrace,  Ellas,  and  Illurike,  &c. 
emigrated ;  for  which  purpose  we  have  but  to  refer  to  the 
afore-mentioned  acknowledgment  of  the  Goths,  that  they  were 
a  modern  community,  modern  in  their  northern  seats,  not 
older  than  1500  years  before  Christ,  and  to  couple  this  decla- 
ration with  that  of  their  supposed  children,  founding  cities  in 
Pelasgia  2089,  and  of  the  reign  of  a  King  Og-eag-eis  in  Attica, 
176(5  years  before  Christ,  dates  centuries  antecedent  to  their 
fancied  separation  from  the  parent  stock.  As  relating  to  the 
Goths  both  these  assertions  must  be  incorrect,  as  relating  to 
the  Og-eag-eis,  who  emigrated  from  the  Araxes  2170  before 
Christ ;  both  7nai/  have  been  true,  though  chronology  and 
topography  be  violated  as  in  the  present  instance,  no  town 
having  been  built  in  Pelasgia  for  nearly  1000  years  later  than 
the  date  above  mentioned,  no  chief  nor  tribe  of  the  Og-eag-eis 
having  advanced  as  far  south  as  Attica,  for  600  years  after  the 
above  era,  as  before  shewn  ;  but  do  we  not  frequently  detect 
the  ancients  in  mistakes  of  the  like  sort,  though  remarkable 
events  with  which  they  are  connected  be  accredited  ?  what 
though  the  chronology  of  the  Greeks  was  founded  on  no 
principle  till  the  arrival  of  the  Phoenicians,  and  on  an  errone- 
ous system  from  that  period,  till  the  restoration  of  the  Olym- 
piads in  776,  before  Christ ;  is  it  possible  to  conceive  that  the 
most  acnte  intelligent  people  of  the  earth,  would  subject  them- 
selves to  be  convicted  of  stupidity  so  flagrant,  as  to  derive  their 
origin  from  a  nation,  that  by  their  own  account,  did  not  exist 
for  ages  after  the  occurrence  of  events,  ascribed  to  thtni  in 


their  new  seats,  to  which  they  had  affixed  dates  utterly  incom- 
patible therewith. 

Eohis  saith  expressly  that  la-ban  and  the  Og-cag-eis  moved 
Avestward  from  Ardmenia  into  a  strange  land  2170  years 
before  Christ.  The  Hebrews  say,  the  sons  of  Japheth  colo- 
nized the  isles  of  the  Gentiles,  and  designated  Greece  as  the 
land  of  Javan,  the  son  of  Japheth,  the  first  emigrator,  an 
important  fact,  wherein,  as  in  very  many  others,  the  Hebrews 
and  Iberians  agree;  we  hear  of  cities  being  built  in  the 
southern  extremity  of  Greece  in  2089,  of  a  king  Ogyges  in 
Attica  in  1766  before  Christ.  We  are  told  of  the  Goths  boast- 
ing of  their  being  a  modern  nation,  not  more  ancient  than 
1500  years  before  Christ,  and  yet  these  modern  Goths  are  the 
ancestors  of  the  first  colony  that  separated  from  the  Noe-maid- 
eis,  identified  so  clearly  by  Eolus,  and  the  Hebrews,  whose 
footsteps  are  so  accurately  marked  from  Ardmenia  to  Thrace, 
Macedon,  and  Greece  as  to  leave  no  room  for  doubt. 

We  are  informed  by  Justin,  the  abbreviator  of  Tragus  Pom- 
peius,  that  the  Scythians  contended  with  the  Egyptians  for 
antiquity,  that  the  controversy  was  determined  in  their  favour. 
That  they  held  the  supremacy  of  Asia  for  1500  years  before 
the  commencement  of  the  Assyrian  empire ;  and  yet  it  is 
clear  that  the  same  Tragus  Pompeius  describes  these  ancient 
Scythians  dwelling  north  of  Caucasus,  the  ancestors  of  those 
who  had  invaded  the  lands  of  the  Cimmerii,  who  by  their  own 
account  were  a  modern  nation ;  here  are  contradictions  not  to 
be  reconciled,  and  only  to  be  accounted  for  by  the  extreme 
ignorance  of  the  ancients;  but  I  cannot  discover  that  any 
ancient  has  derived  the  extraction  of  any  of  the  tribes  south  of 
the  Ister  from  the  Scythian  Goths,  and  that  they  could  not 
with  truth,  shall  be  more  distinctly  proved  in  our  progress 
north  of  Caucasus,  when  I  come  to  speak  of  these  latter  people. 


The  next  opinion  to  be  noticed  is, — That  Scandinavia  was 
the  parent  country  of  the  Scythian  race  !  an  idea  conceived  in 
the  dth  century  by  Cassiodorus,  fostered  by  Jornandes,  Bcde, 


and  others  of  their  time?,  adopted  by  numbers  in  these  our 
days,  distinguished  by  the  honourable  title  of  learned,  who, 
inverting  the  order  of  nature,  fancied  that  from  the  frozen  and 
ahiiost  sterile  regions  of  the  north,  myriads  of  warriors  poured 
forth,  penetrated  to  Caucasus,  which  they  surmounted,  and 
contended  with  the  Egyptians  for  llie  empire  of  the  world. 

To  dispel  this  surprising  vision,  to  quench  this  ignis  fatuus 
that  hath  dazzled  the  intellectual  eye  of  many,  who  should 
not  have  been  so  deceived,  it  is  enough  to  appeal  to  the  com- 
mon sense  of  all,  save  such  as  have  an  ambition  to  be  remark- 
able for  an  extravagance  of  imagination,  at  the  expence  of 
reflection,  and  to  be  held  in  remembrance  for  singularity, 
though  their  judgment  may  be  liable  to  impeachment  thereby; 
but  as  I  tliink  there  would  be  as  great  an  absurdity  in  setting 
about  seriously  to  disprove  such  a  conceit,  as  in  the  conceit 
itself,  I  sliall  dismiss  the  further  consideration  thereof,  with 
the  observation,  that  this  fantasy  originated  in  the  total  igno- 
rance of  antiquity  in  the  framers,  who  mistook  the  irruption 
of  Og-eis  Caiin  into  Asia,  for  the  wars  of  Tanaiis  and  Vex- 
oris,  and  confounded  the  era  of  640  with  that  of  3663  before 
the  birlh  of  Christ. 


The  third  opinion  I  shall  lay  before  you  is  from  a  note  of  a 
bible  commentator,  on  a  passage  in  the  eleventh  chapter  of 
Genesis,  which  (in  the  description  of  the  dispersion  of  man- 
kind from  Shinar,  and  the  several  destinations  of  the  children 
of  Noah)  saith  of  the  sons  of  Japheth : 

''  By  these  were  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles  divided,  in  their 
lands,  every  one  after  his  tongue,  after  their  families,  in  their 

Whereupon  the  commentator  delivers  the  opinion  of  the 
Christian  pricstliood  thus : 

"  Though  there  entered  but  eight  persons  into  the  ark, 
yet  the  hest  authors  agree  that  there  might  be  no  less  than 
3,333,333,330  pair  of  men  and  women  proceed  from  them  by 
this  time  ! ! !     And  now   God  dispersed  them  over  the  face  of 


the  earth,  to  replenish  it ;  thus  Japheth  and  his  sons  peopled 
part  of  Asia,  and  in  process  of  time  the  offspring  of  his  son 
Go7ner,  extended  themselves  beyond  the  Danube,  into  Ger- 
many and  France,  and  were  called  Cimmerii  and  Cimbri; 
from  thence  they  passed  into  Britain,  and  are  thought  to 
have  been  the  founders  of  the  Welch,  who  at  this  day  call 
themselves  Kumcro.  Magog  became  the  father  of  the  Scy- 
thians, Madai  of  the  Medes  ;  Javan  peopled  Greece,  Meshech 
Muscovy,   Tiras  Thrace." 

This  passage  hath  not  been  selected  by  way  of  pre-eminence, 
or  inferioi-ity,  but  merely  as  a  specimen  of  the  dogmas  which 
the  youth  of  Christendom  have  been  instructed  to  receive  for 
very  truth.  Having  neither  leisure  nor  inclination  to  examine 
the  whimsical  calculation  of  those  best  authors,  to  whom  the 
annotator  alludes,  I  shall  pass  over  this  part  of  the  subject, 
with  expressing  my  surprize  at  the  omission  of  a  miracle,  -so 
essential  on  this  occasion,  to  account  for  the  means,  whereby 
such  a  hyper  multitudinous  host,  dwelling  together,  were 
sustained ;  no  manna,  quails,  nor  locusts,  and  proceed  to  en- 
quire how  far  the  other  assertions  are  warranted. 

This  scheme  is  founded  on  the  credit,  really  or  pretcndedly 
attached  to  the  Hebrew  relation  of  a  deluge,  in  the  strictest 
sense  of  the  word,  and  of  the  annihilation  of  the  human  race, 
save  four  males  and  four  females,  preserved  in  Ardmeuia, 
which  would  have  produced  the  necessary  consequence  of  the 
whole  earth  "being  replenished  from  thence  by  the  survivors  ; 
but  from  the  fact  of  the  first  colonists  of  Europe  known  to 
mortal  (the  bible  commentators  excepted)  having  met  with 
animals  of  the  human  race,  on  their  entrance  into  that  quar- 
ter of  the  world,  it  became  incumbent  on  those,  who  derive 
excessive  power,  superabundance  of  riches,  from  the  invention 
and  establishment  of  miracles  and  mysteries,  whereby  they 
are  clothed  in  purple  and  fine  linen,  and  fare  sumptuously 
every  day— Why  Solomon,  in  all  his  glory,  was  not  arrayed, 
like  one  of  these,  to  account  for  the  prior  occupants,  on  failure 
of  which,  they  must  have  surrendered  tlie  entire  machinery, 
to  the  ruin  of  their  temporal   interests,  for  which,  if  we  may 


believe  themselves,  they  would  feel  no  anxiety,  compared  with 
their  sohcitude  for  the  etei-nal  happiness  of  mankind,  whom, 
nevertheless,  they  are  in  the  constant  habit  of  tyrannizing 
over,  making  miserable,  by  terrifying,  insulting,  and  render- 
ing subservient  by  all  manner  of  ways  and  means,  not  merely 
to  their  necessities  and  comforts,  but  to  the  disgusting  luxuries 
in  which  they  indulge,  diametrically  opposed  in  the  whole  tenor 
of  their  lives  to  the  precepts  and  example  of  the  meek,  be- 
nevolent, and  philanthropic  Jesus,  to  whom  they  give  abun- 
dance of  mouth,  honor,  and  glory,  whilst  their  practice  betrays 
the  falsehood  of  their  tongues.  In  this  embarrassment  it  oc- 
curred, fortunately  for  their  pious  or  their  impious  frauds, 
that  the  Greeks  and  Romans  called  the  original  inhabitants  of 
the  north  of  Europe,  Kimerioi  and  Cimmerii,  which,  by  a 
slight  alteration,  the  men  of  miracle  changed  to  Gomer-ii,  and 
thos  the  Aborigines  of  Europe  became  metamorphized  into 
the  posterity  of  Corner,  the  sou  of  Japheth,  the  Scythian. 

This  marvellous  chimera  we  ax-e  now  to  examine,  and  as  I 
entertain  the  reasonable  hope,  that  you  are  in  a  fit  temper  of 
mind  to  investigate  the  subject,  as  becomes  a  being  endowed 
with  reason  ;  that  you  view  the  deluge  of  the  Hebrews  in  its 
true  light,  viz.  the  overthrow  of  the  ancient  Scythian  empire 
by  the  Assyrians,  hke  unto  the  flood  of  Ogyges,  Deucalion, 
or  the  Cimbric  Chersonese ;  that  you  are  aware  the  dispersion 
of  mankind,  in  the  days  of  Peleg,  is  one  and  the  same  event, 
as  the  migrations  of  the  Scythians,  in  consequence  of  that 
stupendous  revolution  ;  that  you  are  perfectly  convinced  the 
human  species  is  the  growth  of  every  clime. 

And  that  the  diversity  of  languages  expressive  of  fears  and 
hopes,  wantSj  and  desires,  hath  resulted  from  the  original 
variety  of  genera  of  mankind,  I  make  no  doubt  of  the  very 
few  proofs  for  the  refutation  of  this  scheme  about  to  be  sub- 
mitted, being  satisfactory  to  your  unprejudiced  understanding, 
proofs  not  to  be  opposed,  but  by  miracle,  mystery,  and  inspi- 
ration, which,  however  potential  in  poetry  |and  the  drama, 
should  have  no  weight  in  history. 

From  what  source  of  antiquity,  sacred  as  the  writings  of  the 



Hebrews  are  reverentially  termed,  or  profane  as  the  writings 
of  all  other  people  are  ridiculously  called,  this  annotator  derived 
his  information,  I  am  at  a  loss  to  conceive,  that  all  profane 
authorities  are  opposed  to  his  opinion  is  certain,  nor  can  I  dis- 
cover in  the  sacred  Scripture  notwithstanding  the  great  latitude 
allowed  to  inspiration,  any  ground  therefor.  Unfortunately 
for  the  cause  of  knowledge,  those  who  undertake  to  expound 
the  composition  of  the  Hebrews,  are  priests,  who  never  com- 
ment on  the  text,  but  on  the  many  different  readings  and  in- 
terpretations of  precursors  of  their  order,  dignified  with  the 
title  of  saints,  all  of  whom,  let  their  ways  be  ever  so  various, 
conduct  us  to  one  and  the  same  gloomy  labyrinth,  where  in  a 
putrid  cavern  lie  concealed  the  filthy  brood  of  miracle  and 
mystery,  chained  by  the  delicate  finger  of  nice  art,  the  guardians 
profusely  nourished  by  the  hand  of  ignorance,  that  doth  make 
the  meat  whereon  they  gorge,  whilst  the  poor  dupe  doth  starve, 
to  which,  wisdom  in  other  times  interdicted  by  the  avengers  fire 
and  sword,  is  in  these  days  of  clemency,  liberality,  and  perfect 
freedom  of  opinion,  prevented  only  by  loss  of  liberty,  propertj', 
health,  and  the  jewel  reputation,  dearer  than  all ;  for  myself  I 
will  adhere  to  the  letter  of  the  record,  from  which  no  considera- 
tion shall  induce,  or  compel  me  to  swerve,  always  entertaining- 
doubt  and  suspicion  of  evidence  delivered  enigmatically  or  con- 
fusedly, proofs  of  lack  of  honesty  or  of  understanding,  charges 
in  no  wise  applicable  to  the  text  before  us,  which  is  plain 
enough,  and  declare  that  "  by  the  posterity  of  Japheth  the  son 
of  Noah,  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles  were  divided,  &c."  by  which 
the  bible  commentators  say  the  Hebrews  meant,  the  countries 
separated  from  the  land  of  Canaan  by  the  sea,  and  that  the 
Gentiles  are  the  children  of  Japheth  distinguished  from  the 
descendants  of  Shern  and  Ham  ;  now  I  take  leave  to  say  such 
is  not  the  Hebrew  meaning  of  the  term  Gentiles,  the  one  only 
and  true  signification  in  the  Scythian  language  being,  people 
of  another  Gein,  Genos,  Genus,  or  race,  and  that  such  was 
their  acceptation  of  the  word  is  apparent  from  the  context, 
which  is  more  explicit  than  is  usual  with  them,  the  sons  o(  Japh- 
eth had  divid.ed  the  lands  ;  of  whom  f  Of  the  Gentiles;   another 


race  of  man,  distinct  from  the  Scythian,  the  specific  name  of 
whom  was  unknown  to  the  Hebrews.  Tlie  tradition  was  per- 
fect in  the  memoiy  of  the  Scythian  nations,  of  whom  the 
children  of  Israel  was  one,  that  Javan  a  son  of  Japheth^  bad 
emigrated  from  Asia  to  the  country  of  a  stranger  people,  to 
whom  in  ignorance  of  their  national  or  tribal  name,  they  ap- 
plied the  only  suitable  description,  but  which  country  we  find 
them  invariably  afterwards  call  the  land  of  Javan,  thus  identi- 
fying the  land  under  its  former,  and  latter  inhabitants,  surely 
the  words  cannot  be  forced  to  the  construction,  that  in  the  sons 
o^Japhethd\\'\6\wg  the  lands  of  the  Gentiles,  they  were  to  divide 
their  own  lands  amongst  them,  the  expression  being  not  niemly 
absurd,  but  absolute  nonsense,  neither  can  it  be  forced  to  the 
construction  that  the  Gentiles  were  the  posterity  of  any  of  the 
sons  of  Japlieth  for  the  same  reason,  because  they  were  all  of  the 
same  race  ;  and  in  proof  that  the  Hebrews  applied  the  term  ac- 
cording to  my  interpretation,  you  find  Jermxiah  in  the  7th 
verse  of  his  4th  chapter,  describing  all  Judea  as  the  land  of  the 
Gentiles;  why?  because  the  Hebrews  were  so,  with  respect  to 
Nebu-chaddon-assur  and  the  Assyrians,  whom  Jeremiah  des- 
cribed by  the  lion  :  "  The  lion  is  come  up  from  his  thicket,  and 
the  destroyer  of  the  Gentiles  is  on  his  way,  he  is  gone  from  his 
place,  to  make  thy  land  desolate,  and  thy  cities  shall  be  laid 
waste  Avithout  an  inhabitant.''  In  the  lOth  verse  of  the  1st 
chapter  of  Tobit  we  hear  him  calling  the  Assyrians  by  the 
name  of  Gentiles,  and  in  the  3d  verse  of  his  iSth  chapter 
we  find  them  described  in  the  like  manner.  And  though  the  He- 
brews would  apply  the  epithet  to  any  people  not  Scythian, 
and  would  put  the  word  in  the  mouth  of  another  people  in 
describing  the  Scythians,  they  never  did  (till  in  times  cen- 
turies later  than  those  of  which  I  am  now  speaking,  Avhen  re- 
ligion came  to  be  considered  a  test  of  kindred  superior  to  all 
others,)  use  the  term  Gentile  but  as  a  signification  of  difference 
of  origin,  as  is  manifest  from  Jeremiah,  who  calls  the  Hebrews, 
Gentiles,  in  contradiction  to  the  Assyrians,  and  from  Tohit  who 
as  one  of  the  Hebrews,  calls,  the  Assyrians,  Gentiles.  Num- 
berless proofs  to  the  same  effect  could  be  mentioned,  that  the 


Hebrews  in  ancient  times  considered  all  people  as  Gentiles, 
Assyrians,  Egyptians,  or  Europeans,  who  were  not  of  the 
Scythian  race  ;  whilst  to  religion,  at  a  very  early  period,  the 
term  could  have  no  allusion,  seeing  tliat  the  world,  Scythians 
and  all,  were  in  that  sense  Gentiles  to  the  Hebrev/s,  who,  upon 
principles  of  more  sound  policy,  than  superficial  observers  ima- 
gine, separated  themselves  from  the  primitive  doctrines  and 
practice,  not  of  their  race  only,  but  framed  a  code  of  Ethereal 
laws  different  from  the  fancies  of  all  mankind. 

Moreover  ;  to  point  out  how  entirely  mistaken  the  bible  com- 
mentators are  on  this  part  of  the  subject,  I  have  to  direct  your 
attention  to  the  passage  where  the  Scythians  are  represented 
as  the  children  of  Magog ;  now  Javan,  not  Magog,  (as  igno- 
rantly  translated)  was  acknowledged  leader  of  the  colony  that 
invaded  Thrace,  Macedon  and  Greece:  and  will  our  commen- 
tator affirm  that  the  tribes  of  Thrace,  lUurike  and  Greece, 
were  not  Scythians,  if  he  doth,  as  indeed  he  hath,  he  has  the 
authority  of  all  antiquity  against  Inm,  lor  I  beg  leave  to  remark 
once  more,  and  once  for  all,  that  all  the  sons  of  Japheth, 
Japheth  himself,  and  Noe  his  father,  were  Scythian  chiefs,  not 
any  one  of  them  in  particular,  their  race  was  the  Scythian 

Having  shewn  satisfactorily,  I  am  to  hope,  that  the  Gentiles 
were  not  of  the  Scythian  race,  on  the  contrary  that  it  was  the 
general  name  applied  to  the  original  inhabitants  of  Thrace,  &c. 
by  the  Hebrews,  and  by  Eolus,  because  they  were  of  a  differ- 
ent genus  of  the  human  species  from  the  Scythians.  Having 
shewn  that  Javan,  not  Magog,  was  the  leader  of  the  colony 
that  migrated  from  Ardmenia  to  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles, 
which  colony  were  Scythians  according  to  the  concurrent  tes- 
timony of  antiquity ;  our  subject  leads  us  to  surmount  Cau- 
casus, and  enquire  who  the  people  were,  that  were  found  on 
the  western  shore  of  the  Tanais,  when  the  Goths  invaded 
that  quarter  of  Europe,  who,  according  to  our  bible  commen- 
tator's were  the  descendants  of  Gomer,  and  had  emigrated  thi- 
ther antecedently  to  their  supposed  brethren  from  iMagh-og, 
against  which  fancy  I  purpose  to  offer  objections  that  inay 


perhaps  be  deemed  conclusive,  which  I  should  not  consider 
entitled  to  the  small  portion  of  attention  I  mean  to  pay  to  it ; 
but  that  we  know  what  deep  root  the  prejudice  has  taken,  and 
the  pains  to  nourish  and  fix  the  idea,  bestowed  by  those  whose 
vast  power  and  immense  wealth  are  blended  with  the  general 
credit,  given  to  their  exclusive  interpretations  of  a  work  beyond 
their  comprehension,  or  which  they  study  to  render  still  more 

As  the  Hebrews  called  the  people  of  Thrace  Gentiles,  the 
Goths  gave  the  name  of  Geimarig,  and  Ceiltig  to  the  people 
west  of  Tanais,  the  Kimmerio  and  Kellikioi  of  the  Greeks,  the 
Cimmerii  and  Celtae  of  the  Romans ;  it  was  in  ignorance  of 
these  people,  the  Goths  applied  to  them  a  name  purely  des- 
criptive of  the  climate  and  state  of  the  country. 

Would  the  Goths  have  been  thus  ignorant  ?  would  they  have 
been  at  a  loss  for  the  tribal  distinction  of  a  nation  of  their  own 
race,  preceding  emigrators  from  one  common  stock  ? 

Herodotus  relates  that  the  utmost  consternation  pervaded 
the  Kimerioi,  when  they  heard  of  the  entrance  of  the  Goths 
into  Europe.  I  ask  would  the  children  of  Gomer  have  felt 
dismay  at  the  approach  of  an  enemy  ?  would  they  have  fled 
from  the  presence  of  their  very  kindred  }  in  what  colours  have 
these  Cimmerii  been  represented  at  this  era ;  timid  receding 
animals,  differing  but  little  from  the  other  beasts  of  the  forest, 
not  bold,  adventuring  warlike  Scythians,  daring  and  advancing 
from  long  habit  of  rule  and  ascendancy,  result  of  social  com- 
munity, and  of  institutions  breathing  the  genuine  essence  of 
the  original  unadulterated  feodal  system,  now  so  debased  and 
misunderstood,  a  system  that  estimated  man  by  his  intrinsic 
worth,  a  system  that  bound  all  the  children  of  the  national 
family  by  the  delicate,  yet  adamantine  tye  of  tender  love,  in- 
violable friendship,  attachment  of  kindred,  glory  of  race,  all 
tending  to  secure  the  mutual  interest  of  each,  and  of  the 
whole,  a  system  to  which  meanness  of  poverty,  and  meanness 
of  riches  were  equally  unknown,  which  contemplated  not 
v^rretches,  heirs  to  misery  only,  bartering,  or  forced  to  employ 
their  corporal  strength  for  means  of  existence,  to  raise  up 


mounds  of  privilege  for  a  few,  to  the  exclusion  and  ruin  of  the 
many,  themselves  of  the  number,  nor  yet  oppressors  and 
tyrants,  without  incurring  the  heaviest  of  all  vengeance,  the 
abstraction  of  the  confidence  of  the  people  from  them,  and  a 
suspicion  of  their  descendants  as  offspring  of  traitors  to  the 

Such  were  the  men,  such  the  institutions  of  Scythian  war- 
riors, destructive  weapons  in  their  hands,  at  sight  of  whom 
the  defenceless  Cimmerii  and  Celtae  retired,  leaving  their  lands 
and  woods  and  dens  to  the  invader. 

What  one  sentence  in  the  store  of  Pagan  antiquity  to  war- 
rant  the  idea  that  the  Cimmerii  or  Celtae,  were  emigrants  from 
Asia  ?  By  what  trace  of  tradition  the  most  remote,  of  any 
time  when,  of  any  route  whereby,  any  tribe  of  Scythians,  or  of 
Asiatics,  entered  these  northern  parts  of  Europe  before  the 
Goths }  on  the  contrary  the  universal  voice  of  ancient  days 
harmonizes  in  declaring  the  Cimbri  or  Cimmerii,  to  be  the 
aboriginal  people  of  all  the  regions  from  the  Euxine  to  the 
German  Ocean,  between  the  Baltic  north,  and  the  Rhine  and 
Ister  south,  a  distinct  genus  of  the  human  species,  between 
whom  and  the  Scythians  and  Sarmatae,  original  Asiatic  na- 
tions, all  ancient  writers  distinguished  as  determinately  as 
between  Tatars  and  Egyptians,     {b) 

Besides,  what  answer  is  to  be  given  to  the  total  dissimilarity 
of  language  between  the  Cimmerii  and  Celtae,  another  deno- 
mination of  these  indigenous  Europeans^  and  that  of  the 
Scythians  and  the  Sarmatae.  Were  the  Cimmerii  or  Celtae  so 
inventive  as  to  frame  a  new^  vocabulary,  and  apply  other  names 
to  their  circumscribed  wants  and  desires  ;  moreover  the  tradi- 
tions of  the  Cimmerii  and  Celtae  are  in  direct  contradictions  to 
the  systems  of  moderns  ;  seeing  that  no  memory  was  preserved 
amongst  them  of  their  fathers  having  emigrated  from  any 
other  country,  but  were  produced  by  the  land  whereon  they 

Having  tried  this  opinion  by  Pagan  authority,  let  us  apply 
to  Holy-writ,  there  if  you  turn  and  turn  and  turn  again,  you 
■will  not  only  not  find  one  syllable  to  warrant  the  idea,  that 


any  colony  of  the  cUildren  of  Japheth  had  at  any  time  emi- 
grated liorth  of  Caucasus,  regions  of  which  the  Hebrews  knew 
no  more  than  they  did  of  Terra  del  Fuego,  or  the  Allaganny 
mountains;  but  by  perusing  the  38th  and  39th  chapters  of 
the  book  of  EzeJciel,  you  will  be  satisfied  that  the  Hebrews  had 
no  knowledge  whatever  of  the  Scythians  led  by  Og^eis  Ccan 
into  Media,  about  two  score  years  before  the  writing  of  Ezckiely 
who  after  the  invariable  practice  of  his  nation,  in  describing  the 
irruption  of  Og-eis  Ccan  into  Asia  in  the  prophetic  style, 
tliough  the  event  had  occurred  some  years  before,  betrays  his 
total  ignorance  of  the  invaders,  whom  lie  confounded  with  Og 
the  son  of  Japheth,  chief  Prince  of  Meshech  and  Tubal,  indeed 
of  all  Magh-Og,  which  comprehended  Armenia  and  the  adja- 
cent countries ;  and  the  dates  of  640  with  that  of  2170,  as 
Cassiodorus  and  Jornandes  did  1200  years  afterwards,  led 
astray  be  Ezekiel.  By  reading  tliese  two  chapters  of  Ezekiel 
you  will  find  that  he  supposed  Og^lS  Khan  came  from  Iberia, 
called  by  the  Hebrews  the  ■'  Land  of  T'ubal,"  the  northern 
country  to  which  he  alludes. 

But  supposing  for  an  instant  that  in  opposition  to  pagan 
authority,  and  in  absence  of  inspiration,  the  fancy  was  to  be 
indulged  that  such  occurrences  did  happen  as  an  universal 
deluge,  which  depopulated  the  earth,  and  an  emigration  to 
Europe,  of  a  colony  of  Scythians  antecedently  to  the  invasion 
of  the  Goths,  unknown  to  their  posterity,  (who  had  no  tradi- 
tion of  such  an  event)  and  to  all  the  world  besides.  In  what 
manner  are  the  Finns  and  Laplanders  to  be  accounted  for  }  an 
ardent  imagination  highly  sublimate  from  the  fervour  of 
religious  enthusiasm,  overleaping  all  bounds,  may  transform 
them  into  a  branch  of  the  stock  of  Ham,  banished  to  the 
frozen  climate  of  the  north  of  Europe,  to  expiate  the  impiety  of 
their  forefathers,  as  the  great  body  of  his  posterity  was  exiled 
to  the  torrid  zone  of  Afric ;  monstrous  Infatuation  !  but  that  the 
sons  of  Gomer,  accustomed  to  the  delightful  districts  of 
Phrygia  and  Pontus,  should  expatriate  themselves  to  the  frozen 
north  is  not  to  be  credited ;  what  dire  necessity  could  have 
compelled  them  to  a  step  so  desperate ;  was  it  want  of  room  ? 


that  could  not  be,  there  being  a  superabundance  of  range  in 
comfortable  parts  of  the  south  of  immense  extent,  so  thinly 
inhabited  as  to  be  overrun  with  forests,  in  times  historically  as- 
certained, of  a  date  later  by  two  tliousand  years,  than  these 
creatures  have  been  known  to  have  been  vegitating,  meagre 
vegitation  !  on  their  dreary  lands.  Or  shall  we  fancy  that  the 
polar  regions  though  now  barely  habitable,  enjoyed  a  delicious 
climate  when  the  children  of  Gomer  seated  themselves  thereon, 
where  their  frames  became  accommodated  to  the  mighty  change, 
and  all  the  rigors  of  nature  by  slow  and  imperceptible  degrees. 
Or  shall  we  conclude  that  these  wretched  mortals  utterly  un- 
known to  the  Hebrews,  and  to  a  late  period  to  Greeks  or 
RomanSj  by  whom  they  were  considered  but  demi-human,  the 
link  between  man  and  monkey,  were  indigenous  of  their  fright- 
ful climate,  and  if  a  flood  must  be  upheld  by  those  who  now 
float  buoyantly,  and  sport  proudly,  shewing  their  backs  Dol- 
phin-like, aye  and  their  crests  above  the  tide,  but  would  be  as 
fishes  out  of  water  on  an  ebb,  what  if  we  say  that  the  windows 
of  heaven  that  looked  down  upon  the  poor  Lapones,  and  their 
reindeer  were  frost  locked,  and  the  rains  on  Shinar  did  not 
reach  the  frigid  zone,  the  creatures  of  which  remained  un- 

Should  it  be  thoxight  1  have  spoken  with  too  much  levity  on 
a  grave  subject,  and  that  I  have  treated  the  sacred  writings, 
scripture,  the  writings,  with  an  unbecoming  freedom,  I  am 
perfectly  aware  such  is  the  answer  that  will  be  given  to  my 
objection,  whilst  not  a  word  of  the  text  will  be  set  forth  ;  but 
that  I  may  not  be  mistaken,  I  declare  it  is  not  of  the  writings 
of  the  Hebrews  I  speak  slightingly,  but  of  the  absurd  com- 
mentaries thereon,  works  of  men  with  a  pre-conceived  scheme, 
to  which  truth  and  reason  are  attempted  to  be  made  to  bend, 
though  Josephus,  to  whose  evidence  deference  should  be  paid, 
hath  expressly  said,  in  speaking  of  the  writings  of  Moses, 

"  Our  legislator  speaks  some  things  wisely,  but  enigmati- 
cally, and  others  under  a  decent  allegory,  but  still  explains 
such  things  as  required  a  direct  explication,  plainly  and  ex- 


And  so  "sensible  was  Josephus^  that  a  key  was  wanting  to 
the  writings  of  Moses,  that  he  promised  to  compose  one,  which 
he  either  did  not  perform,  or  if  he  did,  the  work  has  not  come 
to  us ;  to  supply  the  place  of  which,  innumerable  attempts 
have  been  made,  which  have  served,  in  my  opinion,  but  to 
disfigure  a  most  venerable  and  curious  relic  of  the  antique 

This  opinion  being  now  reduced  to  a  similarity,  fancied  to 
be  discovered  between  Cimmerii  and  Gomerii,  I  beg  leave  to 
strike  this  weak  and  only  prop  from  under  it,  by  asserting 
that  the  term  Cimmerii,  applied  by  the  Goths  to  all  the  peo- 
ple westward  of  Tanais,  hath  no  more  affinity  to  Gomeri,  or 
to  Kumero,  than  winter  hath  to  the  ocean,  or  a  valley ;  the 
truth  of  which  assertion  I  will  prove  when  I  come  to  speak  of 
the  just  etymology  of  the  names  of  all  the  rivers,  plains, 
mountains,  and  people  in  all  the  countries  colonized  by  the 
Scythian  race. 


These  parts  of  the  subject  discussed,  I  shall  proceed  to 
state  the  fourth  and  last  opinion : 

"  That  the  Scythian  Goths,  and  the  Cimmerii,  Cimbri,  or 
Germanni,  were  the  same  people." 

Nothing  is  more  easy  than  for  a  recluse,  shut  up  from  the 
ways  and  haunts  of  man,  to  trace  in  his  closet,  migrations  of 
waniors,  whose  difficulties,  though  great,  oftimes  insurmount- 
able, he  can  with  wondrous  facility  remove  ;  but  after  he  hath 
framed  his  system,  much  to  his  own  satisfaction,  there  arises 
a  question  reasonably  asked  by  those  who  are  to  exercise 
their  judgment  thereon,  From  what  source  hath  the  modern 
projector  drawn  his  information  ?  To  which  the  answer  must 
be — From  the  testimony  of  men  of  ancient  days.  Of  these, 
according  to  received  opinion,  Moses,  the  reputed  author  of 
Genesis,  stands  first,  the  passage  from  whose  writings  hath 
been  already  stated  and  considered,  wherefrom  you  must  be 
convinced  that  the  Hebrews  of  his  times,  and  down  to  those 
of  Ezekiel,  at  all  events,  knew  of  no  emigrations  of  the  Scy- 


thians  westward,  save  of  Javan  to  the  Isles  of  the  Gentiles, 
and  of  various  detachments  from  the  coast  of  Phoenicia,  Asia 
Minor,  and  Greece,  to  the  Isles  of  Elisha,  in  the  Archipelago, 
and  that  they  were,  down  to  the  last  moment  of  their  nation- 
al existence,  as  utterly  ignorant  of  all  the  northern  and  west- 
tern  parts  of  Europe,  as  of  Iceland,  and  of  St.  Domingo,  as 
their  writings  testify  ;  from  this  sacred  fountain  then,  though 
the  text  be  derived,  it  is  plain  no  other  intelligence  is  to  be 
had,  nor  indeed  is  any  farther  pretended  to  be  drawn.  It 
therefore  becomes  necessary  to  have  recourse  to  Pagans ;  and 
here  speaking  for  myself,  I  must  declare  my  surprise  and 
mortification  at  the  disappointments  I  have  experienced,  on 
finding  nearly  all  they  have  delivered,  serve  but  to  expose 
their  want  of  genuine  information  on  the  subject  now  before 

With  what  satiRfartinn  ran  the  authority  be  appealed  to 
of  men,  who  are  not  only  diametrically  opposed  to  each  other, 
and  frequently  at  variance  with  themselves  in  opinion,  but 
detected  in  gross  and  palpable  error  on  vital  points,  in  matters 
of  fact. 

If  we  consult  Herodotus^  who  hath  written  on  this  very 
branch  of  the  Scythian  family,  what  confidence  can  be  placed 
in  the  relations  of  a  man,  who  speaks  after  this  manner,  *'  The 
Greeks  of  Pontus  speak  of  the  Scythians  thus,  '  Hercules, 
when  he  was  driving  away  the  heifers  of  Geryon,  came  to  this 
region,  then  a  desert ;  this  Geryon  lived  beyond  Pontus,  on 
an  island  called  by  the  Greeks,  Erytheia,  near  Gades,  situated 
in  the  ocean  beyond  the  pillars  of  Hercules ;""  and  in  the  de- 
scription of  a  country  he  imagines  Scythia  spreads  Scythians 
over  all  the  north  of  Europe,  to  the  shores  of  an  ideal  Scythic 

In  200  years  after  him,  we  learn,  from  Apollonius  Rhodius, 
that  "  the  Argonauts,  on  their  return  homeward,  passed  from 
the  Euxine,  up  the  Ister,  into  the  Baltic,  from  thence,  into 
the  Eridanus,  by  a  branch  of  which  they  entered  the  Roone, 
an  arm  of  which  would  have  carried  them  west  to  the  great 


ocean,  had  not  Juno  cried  to  them  from  the  Hercynian  forest 
in  Germany !" 

Polybius,  about  100  years  after  Apollo7iius,  says,  "  All  the 
country  between  the  Tanais  and  Narbonne,  to  the  north,  is  un- 
known to  us,  till  by  minute  investigation,  we  learn  somewhat 
thereof;  therefore  they  who  write  or  speak  otherwise,  are  ig- 
norant ov fabulists"  and  this  frank  declaration  embraces  the 
whole  of  Germany  and  Scandinavia,  those  very  coiDtries  of 
which  I  now  treat. 

If  we  look  to  Strabo  for  instruction,  who  lived  140  years 
later  than  Polybius,  what  rehance  can  be  had  on  a  writer,  who 
at  one  time  calls  the  Sarmatae  a  tribe  of  the  Scythian  race,  at 
another  time  says  they  are  not,  who  states,  as  matters  of  fact, 
that  the  Iberi  of  Asia  emigrated  from  Spain  to  Iberia,  and  the 
Cimmerii  from  the  western  ocean  to  the  Euxine ;  and  though 
a  native  of  Capadocia,  actually  tlmnght  thnt  the  Caspian  sea 
was  a  gulph  of  the  northern  ocean  ? 

Should  we  direct  our  eye  to  Pliny^  for  light  on  our  subject, 
unhappily  Pliny  was  himself  bewildered  in  obscurity  as  dense 
as  Cimmerian  darkness  could  involve  him,  a  personification  of 
confusion  methodized  and  confounding.  We  hear  him  speak- 
ing of  a  Scythic  ocean,  of  an  island  Raunonia  opposite  to,  and 
one  day's  sail  from  Scythia,  of  an  island  Scandinavia,  of  un- 
discovered greatness,  situated  in  the  bay  Codanus,  formed  by 
the  vast  range  of  the  Soevo  mountains  equal  to  the  Riphean, 
and  of  an  island  Baltia,  of  immense  size,  three  days  sail  fi'om 
the  coasts  of  the  Scythians  ;"  he  tells  of  one  nation  with  the 
feet  of  horses,  and  of  another  with  ears,  that  served  for 

Floundering  after  this  manner,  from  one  absurdity  and  mis- 
representation to  another,  he  says,  "  At  the  end  of  the  Ri- 
phean mountains,  we  have  reports  of  Aremphsei,  a  nation  not 
dissimilar  to  the  Hyperborei,  beyond  whom,  on  the  east,  are 
Scythae,  Cimmerii,  Cisanthi,  Georgii,  and  Amazons ;  these 
reach  to  the  Caspian  and  Hyrcanian  sea,  which  bursts  out  of 
die  Scythic  ocean,  into  the  back  parts  of  Asia,  rushing  in  by 
narrow  mouths  of  great  length."     It  is  but  justice  to  the  me- 


mory  of  Pliny,  to  add,  that  he  delivers  no  part  of  this  Rho- 
domontade  from  his  own  knowledge.  The  part  of  his  work 
from  which  I  have  selected  the  foregoing,  contains  not  more 
than  tliree  score  lines,  in  which  short  space  he  hath  quoted 
Timoeus,  Hecatccus,  Philemon,  Zenophon  of  Lampsicus,  Py- 
theas,  and  Agrippa,  wherefrom  we  are  to  estimate  the  testi- 
mony of  these  ancients  ;  the  remainder  of  his  vouchers  being 
anonymously  expressed  by  the  terms,  *'  it  is  said ;"  "  uncertain 
fame  ;"  "  is  spoken  of;""  "  some  relate ;"  "  in  opinion ;"  "  by 
conjecture ;"  "  some  place ;"  "  zee  have  reports ;"  these  are 
but  small  samples  of  the  ignorance  of  the  ancients,  who  anx- 
ious for  information,  grasping  at  fame  for  universal  knowledge, 
overlooked  particulars,  and  confiding  too  much  in  the  relations 
of  travellers,  who  amused  them  with  marvels,  were  led  to 
give  descriptions  of  places  and  nations,  not  warranted  by  truth, 
tlie  falsehood  of  which,  the  experience  of  every  day  exposeth 
more  and  more.  But  their  error  arising  from  over-zeal  to  en- 
rich the  store  of  human  knowledge,  is  venial,  compared  with 
the  practices  of  writers  of  modern  days,  who  continue  to  build 
systems  on  these  condemned  foundations,  and  to  bend,  twist, 
and  distort  such  blemished  testimony,  to  compliance  with  their 
pre-conceived  schemes,  collecting,  lumping  the  mass,  then 
weighing  proportions,  and  framing  a  plan  on  the  preponderance, 
after  the  manner  of  Anglo  Irish  juries,  who  submit  their  oath 
to  the  arbitrament  of  chance,  (c) 

Whilst  truth  hath  obliged  me  to  be  thus  severe  in  my  ani- 
madversions on  the  illustrious  dead,  I  feel  myself  bound  also 
to  declare,  that  to  their  extreme  ignorance  of  geography,  much 
of  their  misstatement,  and  of  the  consequent  misconception  of 
moderns,  are  ascribable,  knowing  that  that  mighty  race  of 
mankind,  from  whom  they  themselves  originated,  were  spread 
over  the  north  of  Asia  as  far  as  known  to  them  ;  i\\ey  fancied 
the  Scythian  Goths  were  also  scattered  over  the  north  of 
Europe,  an  idea  which  a  small  portion  of  attention  rectifies, 
the  corrective,  sovereign  and  complete,  on  prejudice  giving 
way  to  the  operation,  of  merely  placing  the  globe  in  its  true 
position,  and  letting  north  be  north,  east  be  east;  whereas 


with  Herodotus  and  nearly  all  his  successors,  the  east  was  their 
north  ;  whereby  it  came  to  pass,  that  Scandinavia  was  Scythia, 
the  Baltic  sea  an  island  in  the  Scythian  ocean,  beneath  whiclj 
they  placed  a  vast  region  inhabited  by  various  tribes  of  abori- 
gina\  people  to  whom  the  first  Scythian  invaders  had  origin- 
ally given  the  name  of  Geimarig  and  Ceiltig,  changed  by  the 
Greeks  to  Kimmeroi  and  Kelikoi ;  by  the  Romans  to  Cimmerii 
and  CeltzB.  To  which  immense  tract  from  the  Chronus  to  the 
Ocean  west,  and  from  the  Baltic  north,  to  the  Rhine  and  Ister 
south,  was  applied  in  latter  times  on  somewhat  better  acquaint- 
ance, the  general  name  of  Germania,  occupied  by  the  multi- 
tudinous nations.  Who  these  people  were  at  the  era  of  the 
birth  of  Christ,  whether  children  of  Gomer  the  Scythian, 
or  Scythian  Goths  who  had  displaced  the  former  occu- 
piers, or  aborigines  of  their  native  soil,  being  the  point  your 
judgment  is  now  callerl  on  to  decide  ?  In  support  of  which 
second  opinion  a  testimony  is  adduced  by  a  modern  writer, 
supposed  to  be  conclusive,  and  as  it  is  the  only  evidence 
that  can  be  brought,  however  remotely,  to  bear  on  the  sub- 
ject, it  will  be  necessary  to  state  and  examine  it,  "  Scytharum 
nomen  usquequaque  transit  in  Sarmatas  atque  Ger^nanas, 
nee  aUiis  prisca  ilia  duravit  appellatio,  quam  qui,  extremi 
gentium  harum  ignoti  prope  caeteris  mortaUbus  degunf" 
"  The  name  of  Scythians  is  every  where  changed  to  that  of 
Sarmatas  and  Germans,  nor  has  that  ancient  appellation  conti- 
nued, save  to  the  most  distant  of  these  two  nations,  who  live 
almost  unknown  to  other  mortals ;"  no  doubt  you  will  smile 
on  hearing  that  Pliny  is  the  man  who  thus  speaks,  of  which  I 
shall  say  no  more,  but  that  1  consider  this  evidence  only  as  an 
additional  proof  of  his  ignorance,  whilst  I  cannot  but  express 
my  astonishment  at  any  person  laying  stress  thereon,  more 
particularly  the  gentleman  who  introduces  his  author  and  his 
sentence  with  a  solemnity  altogether  laughable,  and  who  has 
laboured  through  a  long  dissertation,  and  laboured  successfully 
to  prove  the  distinction  between  the  Scythians  and  Sarmataj ; 
had  it  been  a  part  of  the  system  his  fancy  had  formed,  this 
text  might  have  been  applied  to  the  proof  that  the  Sarmataa 


were  Scythians  also,  and  did  we  not  know  how  very  frequently 
men  who  have  a  favourite  point  to  carry,  are  constrained  to 
reject  one  part  of  a  testimony,  whilst  they  adopt  the  other,  a 
considerable  degree  of  surprise  must  be  excited  at  hearing  a 
gentleman  of  very  wide  and  deep  research,  concluding  that  the 
Germanni  were  Scythai,  on  the  authority  of  Pliny,  did  we 
not  also  hear  him  pouring  forth  an  eulogium  on  him  for  his 
above  mentioned  description  of  the  regions  of  which  we  are 
now  treating,  the  perusal  of  which  ought  rather  methinks,  have 
produced  the  effect  of  slighting  his  evidence  on  every  point 
connected  with  the  subject,  and  of  accounting  this  amongst 
the  multitudinous  errors  conceived  by  the  Romans  of  the 
Germanic  nations,  in  the  time  of  Pliny,  a  fact  to  which  their 
descriptions  thereof  bear  witness.  The  truth  is,  the  Caledo- 
nian had  a  very  favourite  opinion  of  his  own  to  establish, 
which  was  not  to  be  done  without  making  the  Peucini  who 
were  Germans,  to  be  Scythian  Goths ;  was  I  not  enabled  to 
give  them  a  just  claim  to  as  high  an  honour,  I  should  feel 
pain  at  wounding  the  pride  he  nobly  takes  in  the  virtues,  and 
the  glory  of  his  forefathers,  and  in  this  I  hope,  truth  will 
justify  me,  though  1  must  shew  that  the  Germanni  are  not 
Scythas,  but  aborigines  of  their  own  lands,  the  proof  of  which 
will  be  found  in  the  following  brief  relation  of  historic  facts, 
on  testimony  incontrovertible. 

By  the  faint  and  glimmering  light  of  antiquity,  I  have 
attended  the  steps  of  the  Scythians  from  the  planes  of  Shinaar 
within  lath-do-cal,  to  the  hills  of  Ardmionn,  whither  they 
fled  with  Noe  their  chief,  seated  themselves  on  the  Araxes  at 
a  time  answering  to  2246  years  before  the  Christian  era,  and 
are  known  in  the  writings  of  ancient  days  by  the  name  of 
Noemades,  from  whom  a  colony  separated  themselves  in  2170, 
under  the  conduct  of  laban,  (Javan)  and  moving  westward 
passed  the  Bosphorus  into  Thrace,  as  heretofore  shewn ;  in 
six-score  years  from  which  time,  another  swarm  rose  from  the 
parent  stock  of  Ardmionn,  and  surmounting  the  summits  of 
Caucasus,  lighted  at  the  northern  foot  thereof,  between  the 
debouches  of  the  mighty  waters  of  the  Rha  and  Tanais,  into 


the  Caspian  and  the  Euxine  seas,  marked  as  you  see  on  the 
chart,  "  The  parental  seat  of  the  Goths  ;"  here  it  becomes  neces- 
sary to  caution  you  against  being  led  astray  by  a  similarity  of 
sounds,  Euphonias,  and  Greek  or  Roman  terminations,  which 
have  so  disfigured  the  primitive  language,  that  it  is  only  by  the 
greatest  care  and  pi-ecision  it  can  be  identified  in  divers 
instances.  You  will  please  to  observe  the  distinction  here  of 
Scythians  and  Goths,  which  latter,  though  a  branch  of  the 
Scythian  race,  are  not  to  be  mistaken  for  Parental"  Scythians. 
How  long  the  Goths  remained  east  of  the  Tanais  doth  not  ap- 
pear as  I  know  of ;  whenever  their  new  seats  became  too  cir- 
cumscribed for  their  manners  and  institutions,  they  broke  from 
their  unsteady  mooring,  and  steering  westward,  a  colony  crossed 
the  Tanais,  and  invaded  the  lands  of  a  stranger  people,  to  whom, 
from  ignorance  of  their  specific  denomination,  they  gave  the 
general  name  of  Geimarig  and  Ciltig,  the  Cimmerii  and  Celtae 
of  the  Romans ;  the  first  applied  to  their  frozen  climate,  the 
latter  to  their  being  hidden  and  concealed,  whilst  they  them- 
selves assumed  the  specific  name  of  Gath  or  Goth,  merely  from 
the  circumstance  of  their  having  changed  their  weapons  of  war, 
from  the  bozo  and  sling  tiieir  ancient  arms,  for  the  long  spear-, 
nor  let  it  be  imagined  that  these  were  the  only  tribe  of  the 
Scythian  family  that  were  called  by  this  name ;  turn  to  the  4th 
verse  of  the  iTth  chapter  of  the  first  book  of  Samuel  of  the 
Hebrews,  and  you  will  find, 

"  That  there  went  out  a  champion  from  the  camp  of  the 
Phihstines  named  Goliath  of  Gath. 

Verse  7.  "And  the  staff  of  his  spear  was  like  the  weaver's 
beam,"  from  which  same  practice  of  using  spears,  a  tribe  of  the 
Scythians  of  Philistia  obtained  the  same  name. 

On  the  invasion  of  the  lands  of  the  Cimmerii  by  this  colony 
of  the  Scythian  Goths,  a  distinction  arose  between  those  who  re- 
mained east  of  Tanais,  and  the  invaders,  when  the  parents  had  the 
name  of  Ostro  Goths,  and  the  emigrating  colony  that  of  Visi 
Goths  ;  from  whom  they  received  these  appellations,  or  at 
what  era  is  not  to  be  determined,  as  the  terms  Ostro  and  Visi 
are  neither  ancient,  nor  modern  Scythic,  the  Visi  Goths  ad- 


vanced  westward  to  the  Tyras  ;  and  having  occupied  all  the 
lands  between  that  river  and  die  Tanais,  a  colony  passed  the 
Tyras,  whereupon  another  tribal  distinction  arose,  the  emigrants 
having  assumed  the  specific  name  of  Getse.  These  spread 
themselves  westward  to  the  Taobiscus,  southward  to  the  Ister, 
those  of  the  Getae  who  took  the  south  and  south  western  di- 
rection, being  distinguished  by  the  name  of  Deas-e,  the  integral 
tribe  being  the  Galoctophagi  of  Homer,  the  Getas  of  more 
modern  times,  the  Daci  being  a  portion  of  the  Getae,  the 
former  meaning  southern,  the  latter,  livers  on  milk,  neither 
more  nor  less. 

Having  now  traced  these  various  tribes  from  the  parent  seat 
of  the  Goths  to  the  Ister  south,  and  west  to  the  Taobis- 
cus, permit  me  to  call  your  attention  to  another  Asiatic 
people,  who  also  advanced  into  this  quarter  of  Europe,  I  mean 
the  Sarmatae.  At  what  era  they  commenced  their  progress,  I 
know  of  no  means  of  determining  positively,  though  it  certainly 
was  considerably  after  the  march  of  the  Goths,  from  the  circum- 
stance ot  their  direction  being  always  northward,  which  was 
owing  to  all  the  country  southward,  being  occupied  by  a  warlike 
people,  which  the  defenceless  Kimmerioi  or  Keltokoi  of  these 
parts  at  this  era  were  not.  Be  that  as  it  may,  northward  they 
did  invariably  steer,  till  they  touched  that  part  of  the  Baltic 
which  formerly  bore  their  name,  their  left  bordering  on  the 
right  of  the  Getse,  between  whom  and  them  there  seems  to 
have  at  all  times  subsisted  a  friendship  so  strict,  an  alliance  so 
close,  that  some  few  ancient  writers  thought  they  were  a  tribe 
of  the  Scythian  race,  whilst  the  great  majority  have  dis- 
tinguished between  them  as  decidedly,  as  between  Scythians, 
and  Kimmerioi,  in  confirmation  of  which  latter  opinion  appears 
the  Sclavonian  language,  an  evidence  not  to  be  shaken  by  any 
of  those  subtle  plausible  conjectui-es  and  hypothetical  argu- 
mentation, with  which  system  builders  are  so  abundantly 

An  inquiry  into  the  different  specific  tribes  into  which  the 
Sarmatae  split,  being  irrelevant  to  our  present  purpose,  let  it 
suffice  to  say  of  them,  that  the  main  body  advanced  no  farther 


west  than  the  Cronus,  though  some  few  detached  parties  did 
minde  with  the  Basternae,  between  that  river  and  the  Vistula. 
That  thev  appear  to  have  been  granted  portions  of  land  even  in 
the  heart  of  the  country  of  Scvths  as  horse  auxiharies,  as  the 
name  of  Jazyges  denotes  ;  that  they  are  not  of  the  pos- 
terity of  Mcshech  a  son  of  Japheth  as  bible  commentators  as- 
sert :  and  that  tlieir  descendants  are  at  this  day  to  be  found  in 
the  Russian  empire,  including  its  limb  of  lately  ravished  Poland, 
and  a  small  dirtrict  between  the  Danube  and  the  Save,  (cf)  But 
I  prophesy  without  pretending  to  any  special  revelation,  that 
ere  one  other  century  shall  roll  away,  the  plains  of  Europe  will 
be  DX>rcred  to  saturation  with  the  Wood  of  cowardly  corrupting 
t%Tant5.  and  of  lache  corrupted  slaves,  poured  out  by  the  semi- 
barbarous  hand  of  the  Sarmatae.  As  I  am  in  the  prophetic 
mode  I  will  add,  India  will  feel  the  weight  of  their  foot,  the 
strength  of  their  arm.  Did  not  Hezekiah  throw  open  the  gates 
of  the  bouse  of  the  king,  and  of  the  temple  of  the  Lord,  and 
shew  the  riches  thereof  unto  the  servants  of  the  king  of 

Did  not  the  king  of  Babylon  know  that  Jerusalem  possessed 
all  its  wealth  bv  means  of  its  commerce  with  Ophir  and  Havi- 
lah,  making  silver  and  gold  as  plenty  as  stones  in  that  city  ? 

And  what  said  haiah,  the  priest  untb  Hezekiah}  what  said 
these  men  ?  and  whence  came  they  unto  thee  ? 

And  Hezekiah  said,  "  They  are  come  from  a  far  country, 
even  from  Babylon/' 

And  he  said,  "  What  have  they  seen  in  thine  house  .'" 

And  Hezekiah  answered,  "  All  the  things  that  are  in  my 
house  have  they  seen,  there  is  nothing  among  my  treasures 
that  I  have  not  shown  them.'' 

And  Isaiah  said  unto  Hezekiah^  "  Hear  the  word  of  the 

'■  Behold  the  dav's  come,  that  all  that  is  in  thine  house,  and 
that  which  thy  fathers  have  laid  up  in  store  unto  this  day, 
shall  be  carried  into  Babylon,  nothing  shall  be  left  said  the 


And  Hezekiah  answered  unto  Isaiah,  in  the  genuine  style 
of  royalty,  since  kings  have  descended  from  the  proud  station 
of  chiefs  of  the  people,  to  the  contemptible  office  of  puppets 
of  a  faction. 

"  Grood  is  the  word  which  thou  hast  spoken.  It  is  not  good 
if  peace  and  truth  be  in  my  ways." 

Let  tyrants  enjoy  their  own  lives,  if  such  a  mode  of  life  as 
theirs  is  to  be  called  enjoyment,  what  reg£u:d  have  they  for 
times  to  come. 

These,  the  Scythian  and  Sarmatse,  are  the  only  Asiatic 
people  who  penetrated  into  this  quarter  of  Europe,  down  to 
the  period  to  which  I  have  confined  this  demonstration,  how 
far  is  the  object  of  our  research. 

If  you  will  cast  your  eye  on  the  chart,  you  will  perceive  a 
line  from  the  gulph  of  Finnland,  through  imaginary  moun- 
tains, which  yet  had  a  fancied  position,  and  the  name  Riphoean, 
eastward  to  the  north  of  the  Caspian,  all  northward  of  that 
line,  was  Hyper-borealis ;  terra  incognita  to  the  ancients,  of 
which  something  was  to  be  said,  and  all  was  feigned.  You 
see  Gothia  Paren talis  between  the  Rha  and  Tanais,  which 
came  to  be  distinguished  as  the  seat  of  the  Ostro-Goths,  on  the 
invasion  of  Europe  by  a  colony  of  these  Scythian  Goths. 
North  of  their  country,  you  observe  east  of  the  Rha,  the 
Magh-Saigiote ;  called  by  the  Grecians  Massagetae,  which  has 
led  many  a  one  into  a  great  error,  as  if  they  were  a  part  of 
the  Getae,  between  which  two  names  there  is  not  the  least 
aflSmity.  Beyond  the  Magh-Saigiote  you  see  the  Tuath- 
Saigiote,  called  by  the  Greeks  Thyssa-Getae.  These  two 
tribes  belong  not  to  the  Gothic  branch,  but  are  members  of 
the  ancient  Scythian  race  on  their  original  lands.  You  mark 
the  Visi-Goths  as  distinguished  from  Ostro-Goths,  between  the 
Tanais  and  the  Tyras,  on  the  banks  of  which  river  was  a  tribe 
that  obtained  the  specific  denomination  of  Tereis-Getae,  cor- 
rupted by  the  Greeks  to  Thyra  Getae ;  from  the  borders  of 
which  tribe  you  see  the  Getas  north,  touching  the  Sarmatae, 
and  south  on  the  banks  of  the  Ister  ;  the  country  of  these  last 
c^led  Deas-ia,  corrupted  to  Dacia,  and  the  people  to  Dad, 


the  signification  of  which  is  merely  Southern  ;  in  which  distinct 
name  is  to  be  found  the  proof  conclusive,  you  may  remember 
me  to  have  promised,  in  its  proper  time  and  place,  that  the  Scy- 
thians of  Thrace,  &c.  did  not  emanate  from  the  Goths,  be- 
cause, had  such  been  the  case,  it  is  not  possible  that  they  could 
have  called  a  tribe,  north  of  the  Ister,  south  ;  this  tribe  called 
Daci,  being  of  the  Getae,  who  were  Goths,  having  had  the  spe- 
cific name  of  Daci,  merely  from  their  southern  position,  which 
was  north  of  the  Thracians.  If  it  be  said  there  was  a  tribe  of 
Getae  in  Thrace,  so  there  was,  for  the  same  reason  that  this 
tribe  of  Goths^were  distinguished  as  Geat-e,  from  their  habit 
of  living  on  milk  and  curd  as  Galeact  denotes,  and  they  were 
the  Galactophagi  of  the  Greeks  in  Homer's  time ;  besides,  if 
there  were  milk  eaters  in  Thrace,  it  arose  from  a  distinction  be- 
tween them  and  another  tribe  of  Thracians  called  Meas-i, 
which  signifies  acorn  eaters ;  and  what  doth  this  prove  but  ex- 
traction from  one  common  stock,  the  Scythian,  though  each 
took  a  different  route.  There  might  have  been  Goths  also  in 
Thrace,  if  any  tribe  of  that  nation  had  adopted  the  use  of  the 
long  spear;  should  these  distinguishing  denominations  be  con- 
sidered whimsical  and  ridiculous  in  these  our  modern  times,  a 
man  versed  in  the  history  of  the  antique  world  knows,  that 
nothing  was  more  usual  than  for  tribes  to  assume,  or  obtain, 
specific  appellations  from  very  trivial  causes,  too  numerous  to 
notice  in  this  place. 

Having  now  given  the  correct  ancient  names  which  shall  be 
collated  with  the  Greek  and  Roman  names,  Euphoniae  gratia, 
and  with  the  modern  names  in  Ignorantia,  of  all  the  tribes  of 
the  Gothic  family  from  the  Rha,  to  the  Ister  south,  and  to  the 
Theyas  west,  let  me  repeat  that  on  their  invasion  of  Euro^De, 
the  Goths  called  the  stranger  people  by  the  general  names  of 
Germar'g  and  Ceiltig,  for  the  reason  before  assigned ;  which 
names  as  they  advanced,  they  continued  to  apply  to  the  people 
before  them  immersed  in  the  depths  of  forests,  for  the  same 
purpose,  and  by  which  all  the  Europeans  from  the  Tanais  to 
the  German  Ocean  were  called  {e)  Now  whether  the  Gei- 
marig  or  Ceiltig  mixed  with  the  Goths,  or  to  what  extent,  or 


fled  into  Terra  incognita,  or  to  their  brethren  in  the  northern 
Peninsula  of  the  Euxine,  or  in  the  western  islands  of  the  Ister, 
whom  history  records  io  have  been  unmolested  by  the  Scy- 
thians, or  whether  the  Europeans  fled  before  the  invaders,  I 
know  not ;  nor  any  means  of  being  informed  farther  than  from 
Herodotus,  who  says,  "  when  the  Scythians  expelled  the  Cim- 
merians, these  last  fled  to  the  Asiatic  Chersonese,  where  the 
Greek  city  Synope  stands  ;"  but  it  doth  appear  that  at  a  time 
corresponding  with  about  630  or  640  before  Christ,  upon  what 
provocation  is  not  mentioned,  the  Goths  under  the  command  of 
Og,  called  Oghus  khan  corrupted  from  the  true  original  Og-eis- 
Ceann,  rose  up  against  the  Kimmerioi  hitherto  undisturbed, 
who  escaped  over  Caucasus,  whither  they  were  pursued  by  the 
Goths  who  invaded  Media,  exercised  a  prcedatory  supremacy 
over  the  Assyrian  nations  of  Western  A  sia  for  eight  and  twenty 
years,  the  same  multitudinous  host  against  whom  Ezekiel 
howled  for  not  acknowledging  kindred  with  the  tribes  of  Israel, 
who  had  separated  themselves  from  all  the  world,  the  same, 
whon>  Ezekiel  describes,  "  clothed  with  all  manner  of  armour, 
even  a  great  company  with  bucklers  and  shields,  all  of  them 
handling  swords;"  the  multitudes  oy  the  hanbstaves  of 
■WHOSE  SPEARS,  whosc  sliields  and  bucklers,  bows  and  arrows, 
were  to  serve  the  Israelites  for  firing  during  seven  years.  The 
same  whom  Ezekiel  prophesying  half  a  century  aj\er  the  fact, 
supposed  to  hate  come  from  Armenia  and  Iberia,  utterly  igno- 
rant (notwithstanding  his  prophetic  illuminations)  of  the 
country  from  whence  Og  and  his  multitudes  had  come. 
Into  history  I  must  not  enter;  with  the  wars  of  these  peo- 
ple widi  Cyrus,  Darius,  or  Alexander,  our  subject  is  not  apt, 
therefore  1  shall  rapidly  haste'n  to  my  conclusion,  and  say  that 
the  Scythian  Gothic  Daci  advaiiced  south  to  the  Ister,  south- 
ward of  whom  were  Scythian  Thracians,  Og-eag-eis,  and 
westward  to  the  waters  of  Taois,  Theyss,  or  l^aoi-b-isc,  on 
the  far  side  of  which,  were  the  Scythian  Panonian  Og-eag-eis ; 
and  I  do  confidently  assert,  that  beyond  that  barrier  the 
Gothic  tribes  of  the  Scythian  race  advanced  not  one  step,  nor 
did  the  tribes  of  lilurike  transgress  the  Ister  nor  the  Rhsetian 


Alps,  and  I  will  add,  moreover,  that  all  the  nations  from  the 
Chronus  northward,  and  from  the  Ister  west,  to  the  German 
ocean,  between  the  Baltic  and  the  Ister,  and  the  Rhine,  were 
Aborigines  of  their  own  soil,  neither  Scythians  from  Gomer, 
nor  from  Magog,  nor  Sarmatae  from  Meshech ;  risum  teneatis  f 
nor  any  other  Sarmatae,  but  a  pure  original  people,  who  con- 
ceived their  forefathers  to  have  been  sprung  from  the  elements 
of  that  their  primeval  land,  of  whose  removal  from  any  other 
country,  there  was  not  amongst  them  a  trace  the  most  faint, 
a  tradition  the  most  remote,  but  the  most  firm  conviction  to 
the  contrary.  This  will  be  thought  a  bold  assertion  by  those 
who  have  considered  this  question  determined  in  a  manner  the 
very  reverse ;  at  all  events,  that  it  hath  not  been  satisfactorily 
determined,  is  to  be  gathered  from  the  fact  that  up  to  these 
very  days  the  reverse  is  attempted  with  pertinacity,  and  infi- 
nity of  argumentation  to  me  maintained,  insomuch,  that  had 
I  not  evidence  of  the  first  order  as  to  historic  veracity,  and 
testimony  not  to  be  shaken,  the  evidence  of  language,  I  should, 
notwithstanding  my  own  conviction,  have  shrunk  from  an 
avowal  so  very  confident  and  peremptory  ;  which,  founded  as 
I  am,  I  feel  no  hesitation,  nay,  I  feel  it  my  duty  to  make,  in 
the  cause  of  hterature  and  of  truth. 

To  confirm  my  assertion,  I  might  content  myself  with  the 
authority  of  Orosius,  who,  in  marking  the  positions  of  the 
Scythian  Goths,  says,  "  Alania  est  in  Medio ^  Dacia  ubi  et 
Gothia,  deinde  Gerynania,"  which  saith,  as  plainly  as  words 
can,  that  Alania  was  between  the  Scythians  eastward,  and 
Dacia,  which  was  also  a  Scythian  Gothic  nation  westward  ; 
there  ended  the  Scythians,  from  whence  out  was  Germany,  a 
distinct  country,  not  Scythia.  So  Ammianus  MarcelUnuSy 
"  Metus  totius  Gothiae  Thracias  perrumpeatis,"  an  expres- 
sion used,  in  conformity  with  the  general  acceptation  of  anti- 
quity, that  Thracia,  of  which  Mesia  was  but  a  sub-denomina- 
tion, extended  from  the  Euxine  to  the  junction  of  the  Save,  a 
very  little  farther  westward  than  which,  the  Taois,  the  boun- 
dary of  Dacia,  falls  into  the  Ister,  whilst  it  is  additional  proof, 


each  other  as  different  nations,  though  both  were  Scythians. 
When  Herodotus  says  that  the  Ister  is  the  most  considerable 
river  of  Scythia,  he  is  accurately  correct ;  he  knew  the  Scy 
thian  Goths  were  on  the  north  as  far  as  the  Tobiscus,  and 
that  the  Scythian  Thracians  were  on  the  south  of  that  river ; 
and  though  he  fancied  the  country  which  he  properly  called 
Scythia,  was  in  the  northernmost  parts  of  Europe,  because  its 
position  was  north  from  Greece,  yet  he  truly  says  the  Ister 
was  the  largest  river  of  Scythia,  which  expression  cannot  by 
any  violence  be  forced  to  bear  the  construction,  that  all  the 
Ister  flowed  through  Scythia,  in  which  case,  according  to  his 
misconception,  he  must  have  called  all  Gaul  Scythia  also. 
Nay,  Pliny  himself  can  be  produced  in  proof  of  what  his 
own  opinion  was  as  to  the  two  countries  of  Scythia  and  Ger- 
mania ;  for  let  the  ancients  have  committed  what  geographical 
errors  they  may,  they  never  mistook  between  Asiatics  and 
Europeans.  All  the  Romans  knew  that  the  general  name  of 
all  the  nations  from  the  Euxine  to  the  German  Ocean,  had 
originally  been  Cimmerii  or  Cimbri,  which  had  very  lately, 
not  long  antecedently  to  the  time  of  Pliny,  on  better  acquaint- 
ance of  the  tribes  from  the  Chronus  westward,  been  changed 
to  Germanni ;  and  doth  not  Pliny,  in  giving  the  due  positions 
of  the  Scythian  tribes,  say,  "  Germania  Scythiae  contermina," 
which  expression  he  would  not  have  used,  had  he  not  known, 
that  the  Scythians  and  the  Cimmerii  or  Germanni,  were  a  dif-. 
ferent  people.  I  might  rest  confidently  upon  the  concurrent 
testimony  of  the  ancients,  as  to  their  clear  and  explicit  dis- 
tinction between  the  invaders  and  the  invaded  ;  I  might  appeal 
with  complacency  to  the  store  of  antiquity,  I  do  appeal  there- 
to, satisfied  to  be  decided  by  even  one  sentence  declaratoiy  of 
the  time  when  any  tribe  of  Scythians  passed  the  Sarmatae,  and 
penetrated  to  the  Baltic,  or  that  they  ever  transgressed  the 
Danube,  till  the  Scythian  Romans  commenced  their  operations 
against  the  Germannic  nations.  Yet,  notwithstanding  the  ex- 
pressed evidence,  or  the  silence  of  the  ancients,  the  fact  con- 
tinually stares  us  in  the  face,  that  systems,  founded  upon  iso- 


lated,  unconnected  passages,  of  ancient  men,  who,  as  P{%- 
bitis  ingenuously  declares,  are  to  be  considered  ignorants  and 
fabulists,  continue  to  be  framed,  aiming  at  proof,  some  that 
the  Cimmerians,  children  of  Gomer,  were  expelled  from  these 
parts  by  the  children  of  Magog,  the  father  of  the  Scythians, 
others  that  the  Cimmerii  are  Scythians  who  expelled  the  pre- 
ceding inhabitants  from  these  regions  whereon  they  seated 
themselves  ;  therefore  I  will  place  this  question  beyond  the 
reach  of  conjectural  sportiveness.  It  is  a  common  place  ex- 
pression that  truth  dispels  the  mists  of  falsehood,  trite  as  the  ob- 
servation is,  it  is  not  altogether  certain,  we  know  by  severe  and 
very  woeful  experience  that  the  effects  of  numberless  falsehoods 
established,  even  for  a  short  while,  have  not  been  counteracted 
for  times  and  times,  some  not  for  ages,  the  longer  established, 
and  particularly  if  the  private  interest  of  bodies  of  men  are 
in  any  wise  connected  therewith,  the  greater  the  difficulty  in 
removing  them,  the  more  unquestionable  the  testimony  which 
will  be  required  for  their  final  overthrow,  which  testimony  I 
will  with  your  good  leave  now  produce  ;  that  of  a  man  whose 
penetration  and  sufficiency  are  admitted  by  all  the  world,  how 
much,  how  entirely  to  be  rehed  on  in  the  very  act  of  giving 
the  credit  of  his  great  name  to  a  digested  treatise  on  a  people, 
and  a  country  in  whose  immediate  neighbourhood  he  had  re- 
sided for  years,  in  a  public  capacity,  w  herefrom  he  had  the 
best  opportunities  of  collecting  the  most  authentic  materials 
for  his  work  ?  a  man  whose  fame  can  derive  no  additional 
lustre  from  any  tribute  I  may  feel  disposed  to  pay  to  his  me- 
mory. You  are  aware  that  the  witness  I  am  about  to  call  is 
Tacittis,  who  in  a  work  intitled,  a  treatise  on  the  situation, 
customs  and  people  of  Germany,  thus  delivers  himself 

"  The  whole  of  Germany  is  thus  bounded,  it  is  separated 
from  Gaul,  Raetia  and  Panonia,  by  the  rivers  Rhine  and  Da- 
nube, from  Sarmatia  and  Dacia  by  mutual  fear,  or  by  high 
mountains,  the  rest  is  encompassed  by  the  ocean."  Having 
delineated  the  position  of  the  country,  he  proceeds  to  inform 
us  of  the  people,  of  whom  he  thus  commences  his  account. 
"  Tlie  Germans,  I  am  apt  to  beUeve,  derive  their  origins  from 


no  other  people,  and  are  in  no  wise  mixed  with  different  na- 
tions arriving  amongst  them."  And  in  proof  that  these  words 
were  not  uttered  unadvisedly,  or  carelessly,  after  mentioning 
some  few  of  their  manners  and  customs,  he  repeats  his  asser- 
tion with  this  remarkable  addition,  "  For  myself  I  concur  in 
opinion  with  those  who  suppose  the  people  of  Germany  never 
mingled  by  intermarriage  with  other  nations,— but  have  re- 
mained a  people  pure,  independent,  and  resembling  none  but 
themselves  ;  hence  amongst  a  multitude  so  vast,  the  same  make 
and  form  is  found  in  all,  eyes  stern  and  blue,  yellow  hair,  and 
huge  bodies."  He  then  describes  their  manners,  customs  and 
religion,  and  in  a  style  very  different  from  all  his  precursors, 
arranges  the  situation  of  each  particular  nation  by  its  specific 
name,  till  he  arrives  at  the  Vistula,  on  passing  wh;ch  river  he 
meets  the  Peucinians,  of  whom  he  says,  "  Whether  amongst  the 
Sarmatae  or  the  Germans,  I  ought  to  account  the  Peucini- 
ans, Venedians  and  Fennians,  is  what  I  cannot  determine ;" 
but  on  the  instant  he  retracts  his  doubt  with  respect  to  the 
Peucinians,  and  says,  "  The  Peucinians,  whom  some  call 
Basternse,  speak  the  same  language  as  the  Germans,  use  the 
same  attire,  build  like  them,  and  live  like  them,  in  that  filth 
and  sloth  so  common  to  all."  From  all  which  it  clearly  ap- 
pears that  the  Sarmatae,  the  Daci,  and  the  Germanni  were 
three  separate  and  distinct  people,  the  limits  of  whose  respec- 
tive countries,  in  the  time  of  Tacitus,  were  accurately  ascer- 
tained. If  the  Daci  and  the  Germanni  were  the  same  people, 
would  their  lands  be  bounded  by  mutual  fear  ?  no,  the  people 
would  be  cemented  by  mutual  affection.  If  you  attach  any 
value  to  the  evidence  of  Tacitus,  you  must  be  convinced  that 
the  Germanni  were  a  distinct  people,  not  mixed  even  by  in- 
termarriages with  any  other;  and  for  this  he  gives  a  reason, 
solid  and  weighty,  a  marked  difference  in  their  features  and 
formation  from  other  people,  a  criterion,  though  now  a  days 
difficult  to  judge  by,  yet  not  entirely  worn  out,  was  in  the 
days  of  Tacitus  very  visible,  no  doubt :  again,  in  speaking  of 
the  Peucinians,  What  reason  doth  he  assign  for  ranking  them 
amongst  the  nations  of  Germanni  ?  the  most  valid  of  all  reason, 


their  using  the  same  speech  with  them.  Of  the  Peuciniaiis  he 
entertains  a  momentary  doubt ;  What  is  the  doubt  ?  whether 
they  were  Germans  or  Sannatae  ;  but  whether  they  were  Ger- 
mans, or  Scythians,  Goths,  Gette,  or  Daci,  never  entered 
into  his  contemplation ;  that  they  were  not  of  the  Scythian 
race  was  beyond  doubt  or  hesitation. 

It  may  be  thought  that  proof  is  yet  wanting  to  shew  the 
opinion  of  the  ancients  regarding  the  Germanni,  and  that  they 
were  the  same  identical  people  as  the  Cimmcrii,  or  Cimbri. 
Fortunately,  that  proof  is  also  substantially  afforded  by  this 
same  great  writer,  who  says,  "  It  was  in  the  640th  year  of 
Rome,  when  the  first  mention  was  made  of  the  arms  of  the 
Cimbrians ;  if  we  count  from  that  time,  ,to  the  second  consul- 
ship of  Trajan,  the  interval  comprehends  210  years,  so  long 
have  we  been  conquering  Germany.  In  a  course  of  time  so 
vast,  many  have  been  the  blows  and  disasters  on  both  sides  ; 
neither  from  the  Samnites,  nor  the  Carthaginians,  nor  from 
both  Spains,  nor  from  all  the  nations  of  Gaul,  have  we  re- 
received  more  frequent  checks  and  alarms ;  nor  even  from  the 
Parthians,  so  much  more  vigorous  and  invincible  is  the  liberty 
of  the  Germans,  than  the  monarchy  of  the  Arsacides.  In 
fact,  what  hath  the  power  of  the  east  to  allege  to  our  dishonor 
but  the  fall  of  Crassus ;  that  power  which  was  itself  overthrown 
and  humbled  by  Ventidius,  with  the  death  of  their  mighty  king 
Pacorus;  but  by  the  Germans,  the  Roman  people  have  lost 
five  armies,  all  commanded  by  consuls,  all  routed  or  taken. 
By  the  Germans,  the  Emperor  Augustus  was  bereft  of  Varus 
and  three  entire  legions  :  nor  zcithout  difficulty  and  loss  of  men 
were  they  defeated  bif  Cuius  Marius  in  Italy,  by  the  deified 
Julius  in  Gaul,  by  Drusus,  Tiberius,  or  Germanicus,  in  their 
native  territories.  Shortly  after  which,  the  mighty  menaces  of 
Caligula  against  them  ended  in  derision  and  mockery ;  thence 
forward  they  continued  quiet,  till  taking  advantage  of  our  do- 
mestic division,  and  civil  wars,  they  stormed,  and  seized  the 
winter  quarters  of  the  legions,  and  aimed  at  the  dominion  of 
Gaul,  from  whence  they  were  once  more  repulsed,  and  in  the 



limes  preceding  the  present,   we  gained  a  triumph  over  them 
rather  than  a  victory." 

Every  one  knows  that  the  original  name  given  to  all  the 
Aborigines,  from  the  Tanais  to  the  German  Ocean,  south  of  the 
Bakic,  ^vas  that  of  Kimmerioi  or  Kimbroi,  till  on  better  ac- 
quaintance by  long  residence  on  the  borders  of  the  Chronus 
and  the  Ister,  the  Scythians,  and  from  thence  the  Greeks  and 
Romans,  came  to  the  knowledge  of  their  specific  tribal  denomi- 
nations, and  the  very  ancient  name  of  Cimbri  was  confined 
only  to  one  nation,  which  had  dwindled  from  a  state  of  import- 
ance to  the  condition  of  a  "parra  civitas'''  in  the  north  western 
quarter  of  Germany,  and  was  invaded,  not  by  Scandinavian 
Scythians,  but  by  Scandinavian  Aborigines,  (which  irruption 
is  represented  by  the  weak  but  virtuous  Plutarch  as  a  flood  of 
the  ocean,  that  overspread  their  lands,  like  unto  the  deluges 
of  Noah,  Ogyges  and  Deucalion,)  who  expelled  them  from 
their  ancient  seats,  whereupon  they  passed  the  Rhine,  and 
after  straying  here  and  there  in  quest  of  a  settlement,  turned 
their  faces  towards  Italy,  where  they  were  extirpated  by  Ma- 
riusy  "  not  without  difficulty  and  loss  of  men,'"  about  a  century 
before  Christ,  at  rchich  time  the  whole  people,  afterxvards  called 
Germanni,  were  known  to  the  Romans  by  no  name  but  that  of 
Cimbri,  by  which  appellation  Tacitus  commences  his  eulogium 
on  this  people,  which  he  continues,  and  concludes  by  the  name 
of  Germanni,  universally  applied  to  them  by  the  Romans  in 
his  days.  In  the  2 10  years  that  intervened  between  the  date 
of  the  overthrow  of  the  Cimbri  by  Marius,  and  of  the  complete 
conquest  of  the  Germanni,  the  alteration  of  the  names  of  the 
people,  and  of  the  country  had  taken  place  amongst  the  Ro- 
mans. Whatever  people  the  Ci  mbri  were  in  the  time  of  Ma- 
rius, the  same  were  the  Germ ani  in  the  time  of  Tacitus; 
they  are  one  and  the  same  people  to  whom,  as  one  race,  he  as- 
cribes the  glory  of  their  achievements,  the  identity  preserved 
with  accuracy  and  fidelity.  "  By  the  Germanni,  tlie  Emperor 
Augustus  was  bereft  of  Varus  and  three  entire  legions,  nor 
without  difficulty  or  loss  of  men  were  thei/  defeated  by  Caius 
Marius  in  Italy,    by  the  deified  Julius  in  Gaul,   by  Drusiis, 


Tiberius  or  Geimanictis,  on  their  native  soil,"  no  words  can  be 
more  clear,  more  full  and  explicit.  And  as  the  limits  of  Ger- 
many are  pointed  out,  so  are  we  perfectly  informed  of  the  ac- 
quisitions of  the  Goths  from  the  Euxine  south  and  westward, 
which  were  wrested  from  the  Getae  by  Trajan  103  after  Christ, 
and  which  we  find  bounded  by  the  Euxine  east,  the  Tyras 
north,  the  Danube  south,  and  the  Theyss,  or  Tobiscus, 
west ;  terminating  precisely  at  the  farthest  boundary  of  these 
northern  Scythians  on  the  west,  as  described  by  Tacitus. 

Though  farther  proof  might  well  be  deemed  a  work  of  super- 
erogation, I  cannot  refrain  from  producing  in  this  place,  though 
somewhat  out  of  time,  another  evidence,  allowed  by  all  mankind 
to  be  the  surest  criterion  whereby  to  ascertain  the  original  of  na- 
tions, so  sure,  just  and  unerring  as  to  be  reduced  in  various  lan- 
guages to  an  aphorism,  as,  "  Linguarum  cognatio,  cognationis 
gentium  precipuum,  certissimumque  argumentumest."  I  will  go 
farther  and  say,  that  identity  of  language  admits  of  no  argument 
of  identity  of  people,  it  is  beyond  argument,  it  is  an  axiom.  Now 
I  have  examined  the  name  of  every  nation,  place,  land,  seas,  rivers, 
mountains,  hills  and  dales,  within  ancient  Germany,  every  one 
of  which  1  have  analized  with  my  utmost  skill ;  I  have  touched 
the  present  German  language  with  a  Scythian  tongue,  and  I  can- 
not discover  the  slightest  resemblance  between  the  Scythians 
and  Germans  ;  and  in  truth  this  total  dissimilitude  is  the  very 
best  cause  that  can  be  assigned  for  the  havoc  that  the  present 
inhabitants  of  Britain,  descendants  of  the  Peucini,  Belgse, 
Jutes,  Saxons  and  Angles,  and  Normans,  make  of  the  Scy- 
thian, and  every  other  language  of  antiquity  kindred  thereunto, 
so  inveterate  the  hostility  between  the  Scythian  and  the  Ger- 
man languages,  instead  of  being  allied. 

There  is  one  expression  used  by  moderns,  which  may  seem  to 
denote  some  trace  of  affinity  between  the  Scythians  and  the 
Germanni,  it  is  the  term  Goth  applied  to  both  nations,  on  which 
head  1  beg  leave  to  observe,  that  if  any  people  or  tribe  of  Cim- 
merii  or  Germanni  adopted  the  long  spear  of  the  Scythian 
Goths,  they  might  from  that  circumstance  obtain  the  name  of 
Goth,  but  as  to  origin,  one  might  with  equal  propriety  say,  that 


a  regiment  of  Welchmen  who  bore  lances  the  same  as  the  Poles 
use,  were  Tatars ;  besides,  whenever  the  Goths  are  spoken  of 
they  are  generally  distinguished  by  the  Scythian  Goths  and 
German  Goths. 

And  now  having  tried  this  question  by  every  proof  that  can 
be  adduced,  let  me  ask  the  German  people,  and  all  those  des- 
cended from  them,  will  they  hesitate  to  decide  with  Tacitus  that 
they  are  an  aboriginal  race  pure,  unmixed.  When  this  great 
historian  could  draw  such  a  picture  of  a  people,  with  whose  des- 
truction his  soul  felt  delight,  how  grand  must  they  have  appeared 
in  his  sight  to  have  been  the  theme  of  such  panegyric  ?  When 
it  is  considered  that  valour  and  military  prowess  constituted 
the  most  splendid  virtues  at  the  time  of  the  above  description ; 
When  it  is  recollected  that  the  portrait  is  drawn  by  the 
masterly  pencil  of  an  enemy,  whose  mind  was  so  fraught  with 
malevolence  against  them,  that  what  with  his  zeal  for  his  own 
country,  and  his  rancour  towards  Germany  for  the  many  shocks 
the  Germanni  had  given  ;  the  many  heavy  blows  they  had  in- 
flicted on  the  Romans ;  he  hath  been  carried  away  to  the  ut- 
terance of  sentiments  so  unphilosophical,  barbarous,  and  inhu- 
man, as  to  endanger  his  high  reputation,  save  as  the  elegant 
writer,  and  faithful  annalist,  I  would  ask  what  fairer  origin  do 
their  children  covet  ?  From  what  purer  fountain  do  they  wish 
their  blood  to  flow  ?  O  that  the  Anglo-Saxons  had  imitated 
the  virtues,  instead  of  tarnishing  the  true  glory  of  their  fore- 
fathers, that  they  had  persisted  in  their  contempt  of  gold  and 
silver,  that  they  had  continued  to  reverence  the  good  Gods  of 
their  sires,  who  delighted  in  deeds  of  philanthropy,  active 
charity,. and  hospitality  to  the  neighbour,  and  the  stranger,  and 
not  to  pay  horrible  veneration  to  the  Demon  Plutus,  now  the 
chief  idol  of  their  worship,  to  whom  they  sacrifice  the  old  and 
young,  male  and  female,  the  destitute  and  forlorn,  the  father- 
less, and  the  orphan  deprived  of  the  watchfulness  of  parental 
solicitude,  to  keep  them  in  the  way  they  should  walk.  Every 
nation  far  and  near  within  the  influence  of  their  power  is  degen- 
erate and  corrupt,  but  nature  unerring,  and  steadily  to  her 


fixed  principles,  is  preparing  the  antidote  for  the  destructive 
poison,  to  be  administered  in  due  season,  *'The  iniquity  of  the 
Amorite  is  not  yet  full." 

And  now  having  brought  this  part  of  our  enquiry  to  a  con- 
clusion, I  take  upon  me  to  assert,  that,  there  were  three 
original  distinct  genera  of  the  human  species  in  the  parts  of 
Europe,  of  which  we  have  been  now  speaking,  the  Lapones,  the 
Finni,  and  the  Cimmerii,  Cimbri  or  Germanni,  with  their  many 
nations ;  and  that  two  distinct  Asiatic  people  only,  the  Scythas 
and  Sarmataj  had  invaded  this  quarter  of  Europe,  down  to  the 
commencement  of  the  Christian  era,  the  former  of  whom 
penetrated  north  to  the  Baltic,  west  to  the  Cronus,  and  the 
latter  south  to  the  Danube,  and  west  to  the  Tobiscus,  and  that  the 
Cimmerii  are  not  children  of  Gomer,  nor  of  Og,  generally  called 
Magog,  nor  at  all  of  the  Scythian  race,  but  an  aboriginal 
people  on  their  own  primaeval  lands  [e]  and  no  farther,  and 
here  I  take  leave  to  notice  a  kind  of  a  syllogism  of  a  modern, 
(y^  in  the  second  part  of  the  3d  chapter  of  a  dissertation  on  this 
subject,  in  which  he  hath  displayed  very  extensive  reading,  and 
manifested  a  considerable  portion  of  liberality,  and  an  exemption 
from  prejudice  rarely  met  with  in  these  hypocritical  times  ; 
speaking  of  the  Germanni,  he  asks,  What  people  then  were 
they  ?  to  which  he  replies,  they  were  not  Sarmatae,  all  know. 
And  the  only  other  people  whom  the  ancients  know  in  the 
north  west  of  Europe,  were  the  Scythae. 

Ergo  they  were  Scythae. 

This  is  one  way  of  coming  to  a  conclusion. 

To  which  [  reply, 

The  people  of  Germania,  were  not  Sarmatae ; 

They  were  not  Scythae, 

What  people  were  they  then  f 

They  were  Germanni. (o-) 

ISOXES    TO    PART    VI. 

(«)  It  is  clear  the  Romaiis  in  the  time  of  Trogus  Pompe.ius  had  lost  all 
memory  of  the  original  place  of  their  race,  it  being  evident  that  in  record- 


ing  the  tradition  of  the  controversy  between  the  Scythians  and  Egyp- 
tians for  antiquity,  he  speaks  of  those  Scythians  dwelling  north  of 
Caucasus,  of  which  country,  (the  true  Scythia  Parentalis  as  to  elevation,  the 
principal  argument  urged  by  the  Scythians)  Strahlenberg  observes, 

"  Had  Juslin  known  the  situation  and  height  of  southern  Scythia  m 
Asia,  he  would  have  had  more  reason  to  have  so  said  of  that  part  of  it.'' 

But  what  is  the  fact  ?  the  tradition  was  handed  down  from  the  Scythians 
in  their  most  ancient  place,  which  tradition  was  erroneously  applied  to 
those  more  modern  Scythians  in  their  new  seats,  the  only  tribes  known  to 
the  Greeks  that  retained  the  original  name. 

(6)  Herodotus  says  in  the  11th  chapter  of  Melpomene; 

"  For  it  is  to  be  observed  the  country  now  possessed  by  the  Scythians, 
belonged  formerly  to  the  Cimmerians." 

(o)  Apollonius  betrays  abundance  of  ignorance  without  the  addition  as- 
cribed to  him  by  Mr.  Pinkerton,  who  makes  say,  that  the  Eri- 
danus  was  the  Po,  because  Mr.  Pinkerton  did  not  know  there  doth  a  river 
called  Rhodaune,  called  by  the  Greeks  Eridanus,  flow  into  the  Vistula, 
which  everyone  knows  empties  itself  into  the  Baltic. 

(c)When  a  question  of  damages  is  to  be  determined  by  .twelve  Anglo- 
Irish  on  their  oaths,  it  is  usual  for  one  of  these  men  to  name  a  high  sum, 
and  another  a  low  sum,  the  mean  between  which,  is  the  award. 

{d)  In  the  9lh  chapter  of  Herodotus's  Terpsicore,  he  says,  "  what  lies 
beyond  the  Ister  is  a  vast  and  endless  space,  the  whole  of  this,  as  far  as  I 
am  able  to  learn,  is  inhabited  by  the  Sigynae,  who  in  dress  resemble  the 
Medes  ;  the  confines  of  this  people  extend  to  the  Eneti  on  the  Adriatic,  they 
call  themselves  a  colony  of  the  Medes ;  how  this  could  be,  I  am  not  able 
to  determine." 

On  this  passage  oi  Herodotus,  I  beg  leave  to  observe,  that  I  have  always 
conceived  from  such  detached  fragments  of  antiquity,  as  have  fallen  in  my 
way,  that  the  people  called  Sarmatae,  and  Sauromatae,  &c.,  were  Assyrian 
Bledes,  who  from  the  Scythians  obtained  the  appellation  of  Saormedig,  that 
is,  "  Free  Medes,"  of  w^hom  we  know  there  were  many  bodies  called 
Jaziges,  or  horse  auxiliaries,  in  the  service  of  the  Scythians,  who  had 
granted  to  them  tracts  of  land  in  divers  places.  These  Sigynse,  I  conceive 
to  be  of  the  same  nation,  and  in  the  service  of  the  Scythians  as  auxiliaries 
but  not  horse,  as  the  term  imports  ;  and  as  will  be  explained  fully  when 
I  come  to  speak  of  the  language  of  the  Scythians ;  in  the  mean  time,  I  beg 
you  will  have  in  your  thoughts  this  information  of  Herodotus,  respecting 
the  origin  of  this  tribe  Sigynae,  wherefrom  you  may  perhaps  be  of  opinion 
that  it  is  proof  of  the  origin  of  the  Saormatae. 

(e)  The  demonstration  of  this  fact,  so  essential  to  the  knowledge  of 
history,  doth  not  militate  in  the  slightest  degree  against  the  passage  of 


Genesis,  which  declares,  that  "  by  the  posterity  of  Japheth  the  isles  of  the 
Gentiles  were  colonized,''  it  is  the  absurd  schemes  of  the  priesthood,  and 
the  servitors  of  a  hierarchy  which  it  overthrows. 

The  isles  of  the  Gentiles,  whither  Javan  led  the  colony  of  Og-eag-eis,  in 
pointed  out  by  the  land  of  Javan,  as  are  the  islands  of  the  Archipelago,  by 
the  isles  of  Elisha,  the  emigrations  to  which  may  have  been  known  to 
Moses,  at  all  events  were  perfectly  known  in  the  time  of  Ezra,  but  when 
men  endeavour  to  shew  that  the  Hebrews  in  the  age  of  Moses  were  ac- 
quainted with  countries  north  of  Caucasus,  and  apply  the  words  of  Genesis 
to  the  Cimmerians,  their  excessive  zeal  hurries  them  on  to  an  attempt  to 
prove  too  much,  and  thus  defeats  their  pious  intentions.  Hath  it  not  already 
been  shewn  that  Ezekiel,  who  wrote  about  600  years  before  Christ,  fancied 
that  Ogus  Khan  came  from  Armenia. 

(/)   Pinkerton. 

(g)  As  1  have  noticed  this  gentleman,  I  take  this  opportunity  of  offering 
my  thanks,  for  the  great  pains  he  hath  taken  to  instruct  mankind,  myself 
of  course,  yet  I  cannot  refrain  from  noticing,  that  he  has  indulged  his  fancy 
too  much,  in  speaking  most  confidently  on  subjects,  whereon  he  has  in  the 
same  breath  acknowledged  total  ignorance,  the  Irish  language  for  example, 
without  a  knowledge  of  which,  I  defy  any  man  to  treat  correctly  of  the 
Scythian  tribes,  by  whom  a  great  proportion  of  Europe  hath  been  colonized; 
besides  I  must  observe,  that  in  my  judgment,  he  has  on  many  occasions 
mistaken  his  authorities,  as  instances  of  which. 

In  his  second  grand  argument,  "  the  Germans  were  Scythe,  from  ancient 
authorities,"  he  quotes  Herodotus  thus :  "  Herodotus  thought  that  the 
Danube  rose  near  a  town  of  the  Celts,  called  Tyrrhene,  not  far  from  the 
pillar  of  Hercules,  that  is  the  Pyrrenees  of  Spain.'' 

I  confess,  I  was  amazed  at  this  surprizing  instance  of  the  ignorance  ot 
Herodotus,  nor  was  my  astonishment  less,  when  on  referring  to  the  author, 
I  found  in  the  33rd  chapter  of  Euterpe,  the  passage  which  must  be  meant, 
for  the  one  above  quoted,  and  which,  according  to  my  knowledge,  runs 
thus,  •'  The  river  Ister  taking  its  rise  at  the  city  Pyrrhene  amongst  the 
Celtae,  flows  through  the  center  of  Europe  :  these  Celtse  are  found  beyond 
the  pillar  of  Hercules,  and  border  on  the  Cynesians,  the  most  distant  of  all 
the  people  who  dwell  in  the  western  parts  of  Europe." 

Again  "  Herodr,ius  also  tells  us,  that  the  Eridanus  or  Po,  ran  into  the 
northern  ocean,  in  present  Persia,"  where  the  amber  always  was,  and  is 
now  alone  found,  "  an  idea"  says  Pinkerton,  "  which  apparently  rose  from 
this,  that  the  amber  was  brought  from  Prussia  ,  overland  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Po,  there  to  be  shipped  for  Greece.''  On  looking  over  the  115th  chapter 
of  Tlialia,  I  find  the  following,  "  I  by  no  means  believe  that  the  barbarians 
gave  the  name  of  Eridanus,  to  a  river  which  empties  itself  into  the  nortn- 
em  sea,  whence  it  is  said  oiu:  amber  comes,  the  name  Eridanus  i» 


certainly  not  barbarous,  it  is  of  Greek  derivation,  and  introduced,  as  I  con- 
ceive, by  the  poets.'* 

Surely  the  quotations  are  nothini,'  like  the  original. 

In  the  first,  Herodotus  doth  not  say  that  Tyrrhene  was  not  far  from  the 
pillar  of  Hercules,  nor  does  he  affirm  what  Pinkerton  has  put  on  his 
pen,  that  Pyrrhene  was  the  Pyrenees  in  Spain  ;  the  words  o{  Herodotus  are 
plain  enough :  that  the  Ister  rises  near  a  town  called  Pyrrhene,  amongst 
the  Celts,  a  people  who  also  inhabited  the  neighbourhood  of  the  pillars  of 

And  in  the  last  Herodotus  is  altogether  mistaken  by  Pinkerton,  who 
fancied  that  the  Eridanus  spoken  of  by  him,  was  the  Po,  whereas  it  was 
a  river  called  Rho-daune,  which  flows  into  the  Vistula,  near  Dantzig,  on 
the  shores  of  which  amber  is  yet  got,  and  Herodotus  was  perfectly  right  in 
attributing  the  name  of  E-ridan-us,  to  the  Greek  poets,  which  was  a  mu- 
tation from  the  true  name  of  Ro-daun,  which  is  not  the  Po.  I  could  give 
very  many  instances  of  half  quotations,  and  misconceptions,  whereon  very 
much  depends,  but  when  the  vast  quantity  of  authorities  quoted  by  this 
gentleman  is  considered,  the  wonder  is,  that  mistakes  have  not  been  more 


Of  the  Scythian  Sicionians  in  Spain. 


JlI-AVING  attended  the  Og-eag-eis  in  the  central,  and  the 
Goths  in  the  northern  course  of  the  Scythian  migrations,  I 
come  now  to  speak  of  those  tribes  of  the  same  race,  who  colo- 
nized the  great  south-western  Peninsula  of  Europe  ;  of  whom 
the  first  adventurers  were  from  Sidon  in  Phoenicia,  a  fact 
though  admitted  by  all,  yet  are  the  conjectures  many  and 
A'arious,  as  to  the  date  of  their  arrival  on  this  land,  that  most 
generally  received  being,  that  the  country  was  not  known  to 
them  till  about  1000  years  before  Christ;  and  what  is  not  a 
little  singular,  this  opinion  is  held  by  men  who  refer  the  age  of 
Sesostris  to  ]  480 ;  on  which  I  will  observe,  that  placing  the 
most  perfect  reliance  on  the  fidelity  of  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag, 
bye  and  bye  to  be  perused  by  you,  I  will  assert  without  ap- 
prehension of  deceiving,  that  this  countiy  was  discovered 
and  colonized  in  various  maritime  parts,  more  than  1500  years 
before  the  christian  era,  by  Phccnicians,  by  whom  it  was  called 
Eisfeine,  Hispania  of  the  Romans,  of  which  the  nations  ot 
Alg-er-be,  Buasce  and  Gaelag,  formed  no  part. 

Doth  the  very  ancient  history  of  this  quarter  lie  in  obscurity, 
the  fact  is  attributable  to  the  policy  of  the  Phoenicians,  who 
guarded  all  their  foreign  acquisitions  with  secrecy  the  most 
profound.  Being  Phoenicians,  they  were  Scythians,  therefore 
I  feel  myself  warranted  to  say,  that  Spain  was  under  the  con- 
troul  of  the  Scythian  race  of  Phoenicia,  as  marked  on  the  chart, 
and  shall  proceed  to  point  out  the  other  tribes  of  that  race,  who 
colonized  other  portions  of  this  Peninsula. 

NOTE    TO    PART    VII. 

Though  the  records  of  antiquity  which  prove  the  celebrity  of  the 
Phoenicians  in  very  remote  times,  in  the  science  of  navigation,  are  too  nu« 


merous  to  be  recounted,  and  too  well  authenticated  to  admit  of  doubt,  yet 
I  will  here  notice  that  when  Solomon  had  ships  builded  to  carry  on  a  trade 
from  Eloth  on  the  Arabian  gulph,  and  from  Gezer  on  the  Mediterranean, 
he  had  not  only  the  ships  built,  but  manned  also  by  Phoenicians,  more  than 
a  thousand  years  before  the  christian  era. 

We  learn  also  from  Josephus,  that  at  a  very  early  time,  the  Phoenicians 
became  known  by  means  of  trading  and  navigation  to  the  Greeks,  and  that 
it  was  through  them  the  Egyptians  became  acquainted  with  the  Greeks, 
a$  did  all  those  people  whence  the  Phoenicians  in  long  voyages  over  the 
seas,  carried  wares  to  the  Grecians. 

Every  one  must  be  sensible  that  a  people  would  for  a  long  season  be 
practised  in  moving  on  the  seas,  before  they  ventured  to  make  long 
voyages,  and  consequently,  if  the  Phoenicians  were  so  expert  in  naval 
affairs,  more  than  a  thousand  years  before  Christ,  according  to  the  chroni- 
cles of  the  Hebrews  ;  doth  not  the  fact  corroborate  the  account  of  the 
chronicles  of  the  Iberian  Scythians  in  Spain,  that  assert  the  Pbceriicians 
had  settled  colonies  on  the  coasts  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  had  passed 
into  the  great  ocean,  500  years  before  the  age  of  Solomon  f  nor  doth  the 
total  ignorance  of  the  ancients  on  this  head,  invalidate  this  testimony  in 
the  least,  seeing  that  it  was  the  policy  of  the  Phoenicians  to  guard  the 
secret,  and  that  they  did  succeed,  is  proved  by  that  very  ignorance,  which 
is  apparent  in  all  the  writings  of  the  Greeks,  and  is  confirmed  by  the  fol- 
lowing passage  in  Josephus  against  Apion,  "  Nay,  those  that  were  reckoned 
the  most  exact  historians  amongst  the  Greeks,  (Ephorus  for  one,)  were  so 
ignorant  of  the  Gauls  and  Spaniards,  that  he  supposed  the  Spaniards,  who 
inhabit  so  great  a  part  of  the  western  regions  of  the  earth,  to  be  no  more 
than  one  city."  But  though  the  Greeks  were  unacquainted  with  the  Scy- 
thian colonies  in  Spain,  not  so  the  Egyptians,  who  in  the  time  of  Sesoost-ris 
invaded  Spain,  which  he  found  full  of  a  pastoral  people,  which  the  Scythi- 
ans were,  and  governed  by  shepherd  kings,  after  the  manner  of  their  race, 
which  the  name  of  Caore-aon  in  the  Phoenician,  or  Geryon,  in  the  Grecian 
dialect  of  the  Scythian  tongue  denotes. 


Cy  the  Ib-er-ian  Scythians  in  Spain. 

Having  demonstrated,  with  proof  derived  from  various 
sources  of  antiquity, 

That  Parental  Scythia  was  north  and  east  of  the  Caspian 
sea,  from  whence  the  Scythians  poured  southward,  and  occu- 
pied all  the  lands  from  the  Ind  (the  tribes  on  the  western  bank 
of  which  were  called  Indo-Scythas,)  to  the  Mediterranean  ; 
their  northern  and  southern  limits  being,  as  noted  on  the  chart : 

That  the  Scythians  having  held  all  the  western  parts  of 
Asia,  for  many  centuries,  a  stranger  people  from  the  east,  called 
Assyrians,  invaded  Messipotamia,  the  seat  of  the  Scythian 
government,  what  time  Noe  was  their  supreme  chief,  his  tents 
standing  on  the  plains  of  Shinar  by  Euphrates  : 

Having  identified  this  invasion  of  the  Assyrians,  with  the 
universal  deluge  of  the  Hebrev/s,  and  the  flight  of  Noe  and 
his  followers,  the  Noe-maid-eis  to  Ardmenia,  with  the  Hebrew 
dispersion  of  mankind  in  the  days  of  Feleg  : 

Having  traced  Noe  to  Ardmenia,  and  noticed  the  reign  of 
him,  and  his  son  Japheth,  in  that  quarter  of  the  Scythian  em- 
pire : 

Having  stated  that  Japheth  was  succeeded  by  his  youngest 
son  Off,  who  was  a  mighty  conqueror,  and  established  his  do- 
minion over  all  the  regions  from  Meshech  to  Caucasus,  and 
between  the  Caspian  and  the  Euxine  seas,  from  him  called 
Mac^-Og,  which,  before  the  arrival  of  Noe,  and  till  the  time  of 
Off,  were  rather  nominally,  than  actually  subject  to  the  su- 
preme Scythian  chief: 

Having  attended  the  march  of  the  colony  of  the  Og-eag-eis, 
led  by  Javan  from  Ardmenia,  to  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles, 
from  the  western  shores  of  the  Euxine  to  the  land  of  the 


Japydes,  and  as  far  south  as  the  north  of  Attica,  near  unto 
the  entrance  into  Peloponnesus,  to  the  district  of  Eleusis  : 

Having  shewn  that  every  tribe  that  entered  Ellas^  Pelasgia, 
and  Achaia,  save  the  few  Egyptians  led  by  Danuus,  the  bro- 
ther of  Sesosiris,  seated  at  Argos,  were  of  Scythian  origin : 

And  that  the  colonies  conducted  by  Ofiotrius,  and  Evandery 
from  Greece,  by  Saturn  fiom  Crete,  (Eneas  from  Phrygia  to 
Italy,  of  Lydians  to  Etruria,  and  Phocians  to  Massilia,  were 
of  Scythian  extraction : 

Having  accompanied  another  tribe  of  Scythians  from  Ard- 
menia  in  1950,  to  the  north  of  Caucasus,  who  assumed  the 
specific  denomination  of  Goth,  of  which  family,  a  tribe  of  Getas, 
called  Daci,  moved  south  to  the  Ister,  west  to  the  waters  of 
Theyss,  or  Tobiscus : 

And  having  in  the  preceding  part,  noticed  the  emigration 
of  multitudes  of  Phoenician  Scythians  to  Spain,  and  affirmed 
that  they  had  discovered  that  country,  and  become  influential 
therein,  as  far  north  as  the  Duor,  and  east  as  the  Ib-er,  1500 
years  before  Christ  : 

I  now  come  to  speak  of  tribes  from  Iberie,  beneath  Cauca- 
sus, who  emigrated  to  Spain  ;  and  though  you  will  hear  the 
tale  from  Eolus,  delivered  in  a  style  much  moie  interesting 
than  mine,  I  have  thought  fit  to  say  so  much  here,  as  will 
connect  the  narrative,  to  the  more  perfect  elucidation  of  their 

It  hath  been  said  that  Og  was  a  conqueror,  and  brought  the 
lands  from  Meshech  south,  to  Caacasus  north,  and  Colg, 
Ib-er,  and  Ailb-binn,  the  Colch-is,  Ib-er-ia,  Alb-ania  of  the 
Romans,  under  his  immediate  controul ;  in  fact,  established 
the  seat  of  the  Scythian  government  in  Ardmenia,  which,  and 
the  adjacent  countries,  he  ruled  more  directly,  which  from  him 
were  called  Mag-Og. 

It  now  remains  to  tell,  that  Og  died  in  2145,  from  which 
time  Eolus  hath  not  delivered  any  account  to  our  present  pur- 
pose, till  1950,  when  Glas  was  placed  by  Dorca,  his  brother, 
(supreme  chief  of  Mag-Og)  over  Tubal,  on  which  occasion 
the  name  of  Ib-er  was  given  to  that  land,  the  era  of  the  sepa- 


ration  of  the  Gaal  of  Iber  from  the  stock  of  Noe-maid-eis,  of 

Glas  retained  the  government  of  Ib-er  and  Ailb-binn,  of 
which  countries  Uttle  mention  is  made  till  1650,  when  a  colony- 
emigrated  from  Ib-er  to  Afric,  from  whom  a  detachment  under 
the  conduct  of  a  chief  called  Gaoi-at-colaCy  moved  to  the 
country  since  called  Spain,  in  the  south  western  quarter  of 
which,  between  the  ocean,  the  rivers  Taoi  and  Anas,  they 
established  themselves,  calling  their  land  Alg-er-be,  from 
whom  a  colony  separated,  and  steering  along  the  shore  of  the 
Mediterranean,  entered  into  the  land  on  the  waters  of  Ib-er, 
and  seated  themselves  between  that  river,  the  Pyrenees,  the 
ocean,  and  the  Mediterranean,  calling  their  land  Buas-ce. 

We  are  also  informed  by  Eolus,  that  in  the  year  corres- 
ponding with  1491  before  Christ,  another  colony,  of  which 
two  brothers,  to  whom  the  names  of  Calma  and  Ro-ii^ard  are 
given,  were  the  chiefs,  emigrated  from  Ib-er,  by  the  way  of 
Sidon,  and  the  Mediterranean,  to  the  western  quarter  of  the 
country  now  called  Portugal,  whereinto  they  entered  by  the 
water  of  Duor,  between  which  river,  the  Iber,  and  the  ocean, 
they  established  themselves,  calling  their  land  Gael-ag. 

Here  having  abided  for  the  circuit  of  250  years,  a  multitude 
led  by  Eocaid,  brother  of  Ceannard,  chief  of  Gael-ag,  took 
their  departure  from  this  land,  and  passed  to  the  other  side  of 
the  Pyi*enees,  between  which  mountains,  the  ocean,  the 
Garonne,  and  the  Rhone,  they  dwelled,  calling  their  land 

From  whence  a  Gaal  moved  eastward,  amongst  the  moun- 
tains, who  assumed  the  name  of  GaaUdun-seis. 

These  five  tribes  of  Alg-er-be,  Buas-ce,  Eocaid-tan,  the 
Gaal-dun-seis,  and  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  in  Gael-ag,  I  am  autho- 
rized to  say,  were  Scythian  Iberians,  of  the  same  race  as  the 
Mag-sagiotig,  the  Persians,  Hebrews,  Phoenicians,  Ardraenians, 
Grecians,  Romans,  and  the  tribes  of  Dunmianac,  SUures,  and 
Brigantes  in  Britain,  a  fact  that  shall  be  distinctly  and  most 
satisfactorily  demonstrated,  by  similarity  of  manners,  customs, 
institutions,  laws,  religion,   and,  above  all,  by  identity  of  Ian- 


guage  ;  of  which  tribe  or  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Iber,  the  chronicles 
now  presented  to  you,  are  the  history,  compiled  from  tradi- 
tions from  the  earliest  point  of  time  noted,  to  1370,  and  from 
that  period,  from  actual  knowledge,  by  every  Ard-Olam,  ov 
chief  teacher  of  the  nation,  whose  special  provence  it  was,  to 
record  all  facts  considered  worthy  of  memorial,  to  the  year  be- 
fore Christ  1006,  when  the  chief,  princes,  nobles,  olam,  and  a 
multitude  of  the  Gaal,  took  their  departure  from  Breo-cceann, 
in  Gaal-ag,  and  emigrated  to  Eri,  as  shall  be  manifested  by 
proofs  direct  and  absolute. 


Of  the  Scythian  Tribes  in  the  Isle  of  Britain. 


It  is  distinctly  recorded  in  the  chronicles  of  Gael-ag,  That 
ill  the  8th  year  of  Ardfear,  chief  of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Iber, 
corresponding  with  the  year  1037  before  Christ,  multitudes 
from  Phoenicia  passed  by  Breo-cceann,  (the  general  name  of 
all  the  head  lands  of  Galicia  looking  over  the  ocean)  and  steered 
northward  to  a  strange  land  they  had  discovered,  the  bowels 
of  which  they  commenced  to  explore,  and  from  whence  they 
carried  off  store  of  riches,  hidden  aforetime  in  the  caverns  of 
the  earth ;  that  shortly  afterwards  the  Phoenicians,  and  the 
Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Iber  in  Gaal-ag,  and  the  Gaal  of  Iber  within 
Buas-ce,  entered  into  a  covenant,  in  consequence  whereof  many 
of  the  two  last  mentioned  tribes  went  with  the  former  to  the 
strange  land,  where  they  wrought  in  the  mines  thereof. 

These  are  the  first  exotic  people  who  are  known  to  have 
entered  this  island,  whither  they  continued  to  emigrate  from 
Phoenicia  and  Spain,  till  Dun-mianac,  the  present  Cornwall 
and  Devon,  being  either  full,  or  the  humour  seized  these  un- 
steady tribes  to  change  their  place,  a  colony  passed  to  the 
north  of  Severne,  where,  in  process  of  time,  they  confirmed 
their  power,  in  the  present  Monmouth,  Glamorgan,  Hereford, 
Brecon,  and  Radnor,  calling  themselves  Silures. 

In  some  time  after  which,  another  colony  took  their  depar- 
ture from  Dun-mianac,  and  steering  their  course  by  sea  north- 
ward, came  to  land  from  the  water  of  Mersey,  and  established 
their  dominion  in  the  present  Lancaster,  York,  Durham,  West- 
morland, and  Cumberland,  calling  themselves  Breo-ccean-teis, 
the  Brigantes  of  the  Romans. 

These  tribes  I  take  upon  me  to  aver,  were  of  Scythian  ori- 
gin, the  first  of  whom  discovered  the  southern  part  of  this 
island,  which  they  called  Breo-tan.  the  trade  of  which  they 


engrossed,  the  two  last  of  whom  wei-e  employed  by  the  Phoe- 
nicians to  work  in  the  mines,  and  as  they  encreased,  moved  to 
the  lands  above  described,  where  they  assumed  the  specific 
denominations  before  mentioned. 

These  facts  shall  be  demonstrated  with  ample  proof,  as  well 
as  that  they  were  the  brethren  of  the  Gaal  of  Scint,  of  Ibei-y 
in  Gaelag,  and  of  the  Gaal  of  Iber  within  Buas-ce  and  Al- 
ger-ba,  and  that  they  commenced  their  emigration  from  the 
same  spot  about  1035  before  Christ,  from  whence  the  Gaal  of 
Sciot  took  their  departure  for  Eri,  in  the  year  lOOf?  before  the 
christian  era. 

Having  now  traced  all  the  tribes  of  the  Scythian  race  of 
mankind,  who  colonized  various  countries  of  Europe,  fiom 
which  you  are  to  understand  that,  of  those  who  occupied  from 
the  western  shores  of  Euxine,  to  the  Ister  north,  to  Panonia 
and  lUurike,  and  to  the  extremity  of  Gi'eece,  the  Og-eag-eis, 
of  whom  the  Ellenes  were  a  subdenomination,  emanated  from 
Ardmenia,  a  tribe  of  the  Noemaideis  ;  and  that  the  Pelasgoi 
and  Akaioi  emigrated  from  the  land  of  Canaan  as  before  men- 

That  of  the  tribes  who  colonized  Italy,  those  conducted  by 
(Enotrus  and  Evander  from  Greece,  those  led  by  Saturn  from 
Crete,  those  led  by  Mneas  from  Phrygia,  those  from  Lydia  to 
Etruria,  and  those  from  Phocis  to  Massilia,  were  all  of  the 
Scythian  race. 

This  was  the  middle  highly  cultivated  course  of  the  migra- 
tions of  the  Scythians  westward,  after  the  dismemberment  of 
their  ancient  empire. 

You  are  to  understand  that  the  colony  which  moved  from 
Mag-Og,  to  the  north  of  Caucasus,  and  seated  themselves  be- 
tween the  Rha  and  Tanais,  and  assumed  the  name  of  Goth, 
were  the  parents  of  the  Getje  and  Daci,  which  last  was  a  sub- 
denomination  of  the  first,  applied  to  their  southern  position, 
who  advanced  westward  as  far  as  the  waters  of  Theyss,  or  To- 
biscus,  beyond  which  were  the  Og-eag-eis  of  Panoemia. 

This  was  the  northern  and  uncivilized  track  of  the  Scythian 


You  are  to  understand  that  Spain,  as  far  north  as  the  Duor, 
and  east  as  the  Ib-er,  was  colonized  by  the  Scythian  race  of 

That  Alg-er-be,  Buas-ce,  and  Gaelag,  were  colonized  by 
Scythian  tribes  from  Ib-eria  in  Mag-Og. 

That  Eocaid-tan,  between  the  Pyrenees,  the  Ocean,  the  Ga- 
ronne, and  the  Rhone,  was  colonized  by  Iberians  from  Gaelag. 

And  finally,  that  the  Gall-dunseis  were  a  colony  from 

This  was  the  southern  lettered  (a)  course  of  the  Scythian 

And  that  these  are  facts,  shall  be  more  distinctly  proved  by 
the  testimony  of  the  manners,  customs,  institutions,  and  lan- 
guage of  these  various  tribes. 

(fl)  When  I  say  lettered,  I  must  be  understood  to  apply  the  term  to  the 
Iberians  of  Gaelag,  the  only  one  of  these  tribes  who  had  communication 
directly  with  Phcenicia. 


Of  all  the  Nations  of  £lurope,  antecedently  to  the 
invasions  of  the  Scythians. 


J,  HE  Scythian  migrations  from  Ardnienia,  Asia  Minor,  and 
the  land  of  Canaan,  in  their  northern,  central,  and  southern 
course,  being  heretofore  accurately  marked,  I  now  purpose  to 
recapitulate,  in  a  summary  manner,  the  Aborigines  of  Europe, 
and  the  lands  that  remained  to  them  at  the  commencement  of 
the  christian  era,  the  period  whereto  this  Demonstration  is  con- 
fined ;  a  duty  rendered  necessary  by  the  extreme  laxity,  want 
of  accurate  information,  and  practice  of  generalizing  of  the 
Ancients,  and  the  ignorance  of  some,  and  dishonesty  of  others 
of  the  Moderns,  who,  in  order  to  make  every  consideration 
bend  to  their  misconception,  or  perverse  interpretations  of  the 
writings  of  the  Hebrews,  have  swept  from  off  the  face  of  the 
earth,  the  whole  human  race,  save  eight  persons,  at  the  date 
of  2246  years  before  Christ,  whereby  they  are  driven  to  the 
consequent  necessity  of  denying  the  existence  of  any  people, 
but  those  who  derive  their  origin  from  these  eight  sole  sur- 
vivors, saved  from  a  flood  of  waters ;  between  which  fancies, 
and  the  many  wild  and  visionary  schemes  founded  thereon, 
and  the  facts  heretofore  and  hereafter  to  be  stated,  you  will 
exercise  your  own  judgment,  dispassionately,  I  am  to  hope. 

And  first  of  the  Aborigines,  from  the  waters  of  Tanais  to 
the  German  Ocean,  between  the  extreme  north,  and  the  rivers 
Ister  and  Rhine, 


We  are  informed  by  those  ancients  who  have  been  so  good 
as  to  impart  all  they  knew  of  our  present  subject,  that  the  peo- 
ple who  dwelled  on  the  lands  westward  of  the  Tanais,  at  the 


tiiiic  of  the  iiuasion  of  the  Scythian  Goths,  were  called  Cim- 
merii,  and  also  Celta? ;  which  latter  appellation,  though  it 
ceased  to  be  applied  generally  to  the  people  v/ithin  our  present 
limits,  we  have  proof  direct,  that  the  name  had  in  the  first  in- 
stance prevailed,  in  the  facts,  that  the  Scythians  east  of  the 
Tanais  had  lieen  called  Celto-Scythai,  previously  to  the  name 
of  Ostro-Goths ;  and  that  the  people  on  the  shores  of  Palus 
IVIaiotis  did  continue  for  a  long  time  to  be  called  Celtae ;  and 
as  the  name  of  Cimmerii  endured,  by  that  I  will  call  all  the 
nations  from  the  Tanais  to  the  pouring  forth  of  the  waters  of 
Cronus  into  the  Baltic,  souUiward  and  westward,  as  marked 
on  the  chart ;  whilst  north  of  the  Cronus,  the  Aborigines  were 
known  by  the  names  of  Fenni,  Heruh,  Lapones,  and  Scandi- 
navii,  of  whom,  not  being  called  on  at  present  to  speak,  I  shall 
confine  my  very  few  remarks  to  the  Cimmerii. 

Should  it  be  thought  incredible,  that  one  general  name  was 
applied  to  all  the  nations  of  this  immense  tract,  I  answer,  that 
abundance  of  evidence  is  to  be  found  in  tlie  concurrent  testi- 
mony of  antiquity,  avouching  the  fact.  The  historian  travels 
strayingly  out  of  his  right  road,  if  he  presumes  to  enter  into 
argument,  his  sole  province  being,  according  to  my  judgment, 
to  speak  truth,  and  the  truth  is,  that  the  first  invaders  did  give 
the  name  of  Cimmerii  to  the  people  on  the  western  shore  of  the 
Tanais,  in  consequence  of  the  climate  and  state  of  the  country, 
in  ignorance  of  the  vernacular  name  ;  and  as  the  Goths  ad- 
vanced, they  continued  to  call  the  natives  by  the  same  name, 
changing  that  of  their  country,  which  they  seized  on,  to  Getia 
or  Dacia,  after  themselves  ;  and  that  this  practice  of  calling 
divers  distinct  regions  from  that  nearest  to  those  by  whom  the 
name  was  applied,  prevailed  in  this  quarter  in  comparatively 
modern  times,  we  have  the  authority  of  Strahlenhurg  and 
Hicerner,  the  former  of  whom,  in  the  39ih  section  of  the  3d 
chapter  of  his  introduction,  says, 

"  Therefore,  Thomas  Hicerner,  in  his  manuscript  history 
of  Esthonia,  Livonia,  and  Lithlandia,  judges  right,  why  so 
many  nations  and  countries  had  quite  other  names  amongst 
their  neighbours,  than  what  was  usually  known  amongst  them- 


selves  ;  viz,  that  it  arose  from  the  provinces  to  which  they  were 
nearest  adjoined,  and  with  which  they  became  first  acquainted  ; 
thus  tlie  Finlanders  call  all  Esthonia,  Wirimah,  because  Wirr- 
land  hes  the  nearest  to  Spain  ;  for  the  same  reason  they  call  all 
Germany,  from  Saxony ;  and  ail  Sweden,  according  to  the 
province  of  Roshgen  ;  the  Romans  in  the  same  manner  called 
all  Denmark,  Sweden,  and  Norway,  partly  from  Schonen, 
Scandia,  and  partly  from  Tulemark,  a  district  of  Norway, 
Tuloi ;  to  this  we  may  add  the  French,  to  this  day  called  the 
Germans,  Al/emands,  from  the  name  of  one  particular  nation 
called  Allmanni." 

In  like  manner  did  the  name  of  Cimmerii,  imposed  by  the 
Asiatic  invaders,  adhere  to  the  nations  westward  of  the  Cronus, 
and  of  Dacia,  between  the  Baltic  and  the  rivers  Ister  and 
Rhine,  to  the  German  ocean,  which  word  Cimmerii  suffered 
the  slight  mutation  of  Cimbri,  (when,  I  cannot  point  out,)  by 
both  which  names  they  were  called,  till  in  the  space  of  time 
between  that  of  Marius  and  Tacitus,  they  came  on  better 
information  to  be  called  Germanni,  and  to  be  distinguished  by 
their  own  national  specific  denominations. 

And  here  I  will  close  this  section  with  the  averment,  that 
the  Vennians,  Herulians,  Lapones,  and  Scandinavians,  were 
the  aborigines  of  all  the  lands  as  noted  on  the  chart,  which 
they  continued  to  inhabit. 

And  that  the  Cimmerii  were  the  aborigines  of  all  the  coun- 
tries from  the  Tanais,  to  the  German  ocean,  of  which  to  the 
Cronus  and  the  Theyss  or  Toblscus,  they  were  dispossessed 
by  the  Sarmatae  and  Scythians,  and  that  from  thence  to  the 
German  ocean,  between  the  Baltic  north,  and  the  Ister  and 
Rhine  south,  they  did  continue  to  possess  and  rule,  as  Cim- 
merii, Cimbri  or  Germanni. 

And  that  they  were  neither  descended  from  Gomer,  nor 
from  Og,  but  produced  from  the  elements  of  their  own  proper 
soil  and  climate,  as  old  as  the  hills  and  waters  of  their  lands. 



Of  the  Aborigines  of  all  the  lands  from  the  Euxine,  to  the 
Rlf£ctlan  Alps,  between  the  Ister  and  the  Thracian  Bospho- 
rus,  Hellespont,  to  the  extremity  of  Greece. 

These  people  are  designated  by  the  general  name  of  Gen- 
tiles, their  country  by  that  of  the  isles,  which  conveys  no  farther 
information,  than  that  they  were  of  another  race  of  mankind 
from  the  Scythians.  Though  I  have  no  testimony  direct  and 
positive  to  produce,  loth  as  I  am  to  run  the  hazard  of  leading 
you  astray,  by  circumstantial  evidence,  I  cannot  forbear  from 
the  mention  of  some  few  passages  to  be  found  scattered  here  and 
there,  through  the  writings  of  men  of  ancient  days,  all  tending 
to  shew  who  the  original  inhabitants  of  these  tracts  were,  and 
where  found  in  latter  days ;  and  these  incidental  notices  are 
entitled  in  my  opinion,  to  much  consideration  from  the  facts  of 
the  accordance  of  antiquity  therein,  and  of  their  being  incidental, 
therefore  exempt  from  all  suspicion  of  scheme  to  mislead  the 
judgment  for  the  establishment  of  some  cherished  theory,  at 
the  expense  of  truth  ;  none  of  the  tribes  of  the  Scythian  race 
claiming  kindred  with  those  people  whom  I  consider  aborigines 
of  these  regions. 

If  your  mind  hath  conceived  the  idea  that  an  invading 
people  destroy  those,  on  whose  lands  they  intrude,  pray  disen- 
cumber your  understanding  as  quickly  as  possible,  of  an  em- 
bryo so  monstrous.  When  the  Scythian  Og-eag-eis  invaded 
the  lands  of  the  Gentiles,  the  latter,  not  able  to  resist,  receded 
to  the  parts  calculated  from  their  situation  to  afford  protection, 
and  in  a  contrary  direction  from  the  point  of  aggression,  there 
being  abundance  of  space,  the  Gentiles  would  fall  back  from 
one  strong  position  to  another,  which  were  numerous  in  the 
country  of  which  I  speak. 

What  portion,  if  any,  of  the  aborigines  mingled  with  their 
invaders,  I  know  not,  nor  at  what  era  the  Scythians  reached 
the  Rhaetian  Alps  ;  but  of  this  we  are  informed,  that  in  that 
quarter,  Cimmerii,  aborigines  north  of  the  Ister,  Celtae,  abo- 


rigines  south  of  that  river,  and  emigrant  Scythians  who  had 
advanced  so  far  westward,  did  become  incorporate,  in  conse- 
quence whereof  the  land  whereon  they  dwelt  together,  was 
called  Japydia,  a  term  denoting  that  fact ;  so  far  we  have  proof 
that  the  aborigines  at  the  western  extremity  of  the  lands  in- 
vaded by  the  Scythian  Og-eag-eis,  had  the  name  of  Celtae,  the 
same  whereby  the  Scythian  Goths  first  called  the  people  on  the 
western  bank  of  the  Tanais ;  for  you  are  to  note,  that  the 
Cimmerii  on  Japydia,  had  transgressed  their  original  limits, 
and  were  invaders  of  the  Celtse  here,  as  well  as  the  Scythians. 

Taking  our  departure  from  the  west,  and  turning  our  steps 
southward,  the  earliest  intimation  of  the  progress  of  the  Og- 
eag-eis  in  that  direction,  is  the  invasion  of  Boeotia,  from  whence, 
as  before  shewn,  they  continued  in  the  same  course  as  far  as 
Eleusis,  north  of  Attica,  and  as  Dyme  within  Peloponnesus, 
when  the  Pelasgoi  arrived  in  that  quarter ;  and  now  for  the 
proofs  of  who  the  aborigines  were. 

In  the  commencement  of  his  first  book,  Thucydides  says, 
"  The  richest  tracts  of  country  (speaking  of  Greece)  were 
always  more  particularly  liable  to  frequent  change  of  inhabi- 
tants, such  as  that  which  is  now  called  Thessaly,  Boeotia,  and 
Peloponnesus  mostly,  save  Arcadia." 

Again,  he  says,  "  Most  of  the  Helots  were  descendants  of 
the  ancient  Messenians." 

We  are  told  by  the  same  author,  that  during  the  Pelopon- 
nesian  war,  Sparta  was  visited  with  a  desolating  earthquake, 
whereupon  the  Helots  rose,  fell  on  the  surviving  Spartans,  and 
seized  on  Ithome. 

And  in  his  4th  book  he  relates  the  circumstance  of  the  in- 
human massacre  of  two  thousand  of  the  Helots  by  the  Spar- 

In  Arcadia,  Laconia  and  Messenia,  there  were  places  called 
Helos  ;  the  history  of  Greece  is  full  of  instances  of  the  misera- 
ble state  of  servitude  to  which  the  Helots  were  reduced. 

We  learn  from  Herodotus  in  the  162d  chapter  of  his  Po- 
lymnia,  that, 


"  The  Athenians  boasted  of  being  the  most  ancient  people 
of  Greece,  but  the  Arcadians  resisted  their  pretensions." 

To  which  let  me  add,  that  Eustatius,  on  D'io?i  414,  says, 
"  Arcadia  was  formerly  called  Gigantis  ;"  and  that  we  are  dis- 
tinctly informed  by  Herodotus,  in  the  73d  chapter  of  Polym- 
nia,  that, 

The  Peloponnesus  was  inhabited  in  his  time  by  seven  dif- 
ferent nations,  two  of  these  the  Arcadians  and  Cynurians  are 
natives  of  the  country,  and  have  never  changed  their  place 
of  residence,  which  I  conceive  to  be  conclusive  as  to  the  abori- 
ginality  of  these  people. 

Not  to  heap  authority  upon  authority,  I  beg  leave  to  call 
your  attention  to  the  position  of  the  people  called  Helotes,  to 
bear  in  mind  the  name  of  the  lands  whereon  they  were  found 
by  the  Scythian  Pelasgoi ;  the  vile  uses  to  which  they  were 
subjected  ;  the  inhumanity  with  which  they  were  treated  ;  to 
all  which  shall  be  added,  the  testimony  of  the  Scythian  lan- 
guage, which,  if  I  do  not  greatly  err,  will  amount  to  demon- 
stration, that  the  people  called  by  the  Pelasgoi,  by  the  name 
of  Helotes.  found  in  Arcadia,  and  the  southern  extremity  of 
the  land,  were  the  aborigines,  either  driven  thither  by  the 
Og-eag-eis,  on  their  inundation  of  Boeotia,  and  the  northern 
part  of  Peloponnesus,  or  resident  on  their  original  lands  from 
the  beginning — Gentiles  of  a  different  genus  of  mankind  from 
the  Scythians,  not  descended  from  Noah,  nor  any  of  his  race. 


Of  the  Aborigines  of  all  the  countries  from  the  lands  of  the 
Japydes,  the  eastern  extremity  of  Italy  and  Sicily,  to  the 
ocean  between  the  Mediterraneayi  and  Pyrenees  south,  and 
the  Isier  and  Rhine  north. 

Of  the  Scythian  origin  of  all  the  invaders  of  these  coun- 
tries I  have  spoken  heretofore ;  it  remains  now  to  shew  who 
the  aborigines  were.  Those  of  Sicily,  we  are  informed,  were 
called  Sicani ;  those  of  the  eastern  parts  of  Italy,  we  are  told, 
had  the  name  of  Umbri ;  all  the  other  people  within  our  limits 
bore  the  general  name  of  Celtae,  confined  half  a  century  be- 


fore  the  Christian  era  to  one  third  of  the  country  now  called 
France,  lying  between  the  Garroniie  and  the  Seine,  the  Cim- 
merian Germannic  Belgte  having  encroached  on  the  Celtae  be- 
tween the  Rhine  and  Seine,  and  in  otlier  smaller  districts,  to- 
wards Italy  ;  and  the  Iberian  Scythians  having  wrested  from 
them  the  lands  of  5\quitania,  and  of  the  Waldenses ;  the 
Scythian  Phocians  having  obtruded  themselves  into  Massilia ; 
and  the  Scythian  Romans  having  subjected  the  whole  race  of 
the  original  Celtje  within  our  limits,  the  great  body  of  whom 
were  confined  to  the  middle  third  of  Gaul,  called  Celtica,  and 
Airmorica,  this  day  Britany,  in  France. 

And  that  they  were  the  aboriginal  people  of  the  countries 
now  under  consideration,  and  distinct  from  the  Cimmerii, 
though  both  were  Europeans,  whose  forefathers  did  not  emi- 
grate from  any  other  quarter  of  this  earth,  shall  receive  farther 
and  conclusive  proof  when  I  come  to  deliver  'the  evidence  of 


Of  the  Aborigines  of  the  Peninsula  of  Europe. 

On  this  part  of  our  subject  a  very  few  words  will  suffice. 
All  the  aborigines  of  this  quarter  of  Europe  were  called  by 
the  general  name  of  Celtae ;  and  we  find,  from  the  83rd  chap- 
ter of  the  Euterpe  of  Herodotus,  that  a  people  to  whom  he 
hath  given  the  name  of  Cynesyans,  bordered  on  the  Celtae, 
near  the  Pillars  of  Hercules  ;  these  aborigines,  let  them  iiave 
been  called  as  they  will,  we  iind  gathered  themselves  together 
in  the  highlands,  not  far  from  the  centre  of  present  Spain,  on 
whom  bordered  the  Iberians  of  Biscay  and  Galicia,  who,  from 
that  circumstance,  obtained  the  appellation  of  Celt-Iberi,  as 
the  Scythian  tribes  on  the  Indus  had  the  name  of  Indo-Scytliae, 
and  those  on  the  confines  of  Europe  and  Asia  had  the  name 
of  Celto-Scythae,  of  which  I  shall  have  occasion  to  remark  far- 
ther, for  the  purpose  of  removing  an  error  very  prevalent  as 
to  these  Celt-Iberian  tribes. 


As  to  the  aborigines  of  the  Isle  of  Britain,  they  were  called 
by  the  general  name  of  Celta>. 


Of  the  Manners,  Customs,  Original  l7istitutio7is, 
and  Religion,  of  the  Scythiafi  race. 


I  PURPOSE  now  to  treat  of  the  manners,  customs,  and  original 
institutions  of  the  Sc«//Aia7w,  thereby  to  shew  the  relation  oi 
their  various  tribes,  and  their  diversity  from  all  other  people. 

Every  one  must  be  aware,  generally  speaking,  this  is  not 
an  unerring  criterion  of  origin,  a  resemblance  being  found  to 
prevail,  in  many  particulars,  amongst  nations  no  way  allied, 
in  the  same  stages  of  society,  and  living  under  tlie  like  climate ; 
but  all  the  Scythians  had  so  strong  a  resemblance  to  each  other, 
and  were  so  different  from  all  other  people,  in  this  similitude 
and  dissimilitude  they  are  easily  recognized,  accurately  identi- 
fied, and  clearly  distinguished  in  the  remotest  times,  and  down 
to  the  latest  periods  of  the  preservation  of  their  primitive  esta- 
blishments, striking  features  of  their  race. 

Those  who  have  not  duly  considered,  may  think  it  waste  of 
time  to  look  deeply  into  this  subject;  yet  on  recollecting  the 
very  high  antiquity  of  these  people,  the  celebrated  countries 
they  have  colonized  and  ruled,  above  all,  that  on  their  insti- 
tutions were  founded  the  laws  of  Greece  and  Rome  in  the  days 
of  their  reno^vn,  the  times  of  their  glory,  I  should  hope  you 
will  be  of  opinion,  an  omission  to  throw  any  llglit  that  may 
serve  to  illustrate  this  interesting  inquiry,  would  be  an  un- 
pardonable instance  of  neglect  and  idleness. 

Though  I  shall  not  give  occasion  to  be  considered  wild  and 
visionary,  by  entering  into  calculations  of  quantities  and  quali- 
ties, solidities  and  superficies,  and  draw  conclusions  therefrom 
of  modes  whereby,  times  when,  this  globe  was  produced,  as 
many  vain  theorists  have  done  ;  yet  will  I  declare  my  opinion, 
that  this  planet  always  existing  became  a  member  of  this  solar 


system,  in  consequence  of  its  emerging  from  a  denser  matter 
in  which  it  had  been  enveloped ;  and  thus  visible,  its  surface 
breathed  on  by  the  air,  illuminated  and  vivified  by  the  rays  of 
light  and  heat,  became  capable  of  yielding  its  manifold  pro- 
ductions, from  which  cause,  according  to  my  judgment,  or 
my  imagination,  should  you  think  the  terra  more  apt,  have 
arisen  the  various  distinct  genera  of  the  human  race,  and  of  all 
other  animals  and  things ;  the  consideration  of  which  hath 
directed  my  mind  to  the  conclusion,  that  the  operations  of 
nature  ai*e  various,  suited  to  the  soils  and  climates ;  by  reason 
whereof  it  is  observable,  at  no  time,  however  remote,  hath  any 
country  been  invaded  by  strangers,  that  inhabitants  have  not 
been  found  thereon,  who  had  no  tradition  of  the  removal  of 
their  forefathers  from  any  other  place.  Aborigines,  a  race  pro- 
duced by  the  elements  of  that  their  climate  of  the  earth.  Nor 
can  I  conceive  how  this  idea  derogates  from  the  power  and 
majesty  of  a  first  cause,  save  in  the  estimation  of  such  as  can 
discern  a  more  surprising  effort  of  wondrous  acquirements  in 
an  artist,  who,  after  the  manner  of  man,  forms  day  by  day,  a 
piece  of  curious  mechanism ;  than  in  the  incomprehensible  at- 
tributes of  an  Almighty  power,  at  whose  word  myriads  of 
worlds  start  into  existence,  parts  of  a  system  that  baffles  the 
penetration  of  the  limited  senses  of  vain  presumptuous  man.  («) 

This  is  idle  speculation,  there  being  no  voucher  for  my 
words,  nor  yet  for  the  contrary  opinions  of  other  men,  no  ar- 
biter to  be  resorted  to,  no  demonstration  attainable  ;  having  no 
anxiety  for  the  respect  in  which  my  ideas  on  this  subject  may 
be  held,  I  shall  content  myself  with  the  observation,  that  let 
this  globe  have  been  produced  how  it  may,  it  hath  not  apper- 
tained to  its  present  system  very  many  ages  antecedently  to  re- 
ceived notions,  my  judgment  being  founded  on  the  paucity  of 
the  human  race  in  the  most  populous  regions,  and  the  meagre 
state  of  arts  and  science,  at  a  time  not  very  remote,  historically 

What  though  some  parts  of  the  subject,  merely  theoretic, 
are  impertinent  to  our  present  purpose,  or  indeed  to  any  pur- 
pose,  the  contemplation  of  other  branches  thereof  leads  to  a 


result  on  which  reason  can  repose  with  satisfaction,  by  in- 
structing the  mind  to  account  for  the  variety  of  the  productions 
of  nature,  found  in  the  different  climates  of  the  earth  ;  varieties 
radical,  intrinsic,  from  which  have  sprung  the  diversity  of  man- 
ners, customs,  and  institutions,  a  diversity  so  great,  and  strongly 
marked  from  the  first  moment  of  traditionary  tale,  to  the  war- 
rant of  historic  record,  as  to  denote  diversity  of  the  origin  in 
the  people  amongst  whom  they  were  in  use  ;  for  the  illustration 
whereof,  I  shall  first  have  recourse  to  the  writings  of  the  He- 
brews, which,  though  in  the  gross  seemingly  opposed  to  the 
testimony  of  all  other  ancient  people,  Avill  be  found  in  detail 
either  in  agreement  with  them,  or  to  confute  themselves ;  as 
Prideaiix  says,  "  although  the  Jewish  writers  are  very 
wretched  historians,  and  often  give  us  gross  fables  instead  of 
true  narratives ;  yet  whenever  they  do  so,  there  is  either  some- 
thing internal  in  the  matter  related,  or  else  external  to  it  from 
other  evidences,  that  convict  them  of  the  falsity."  And  he 
addsj  "  but  when  there  is  nothing  of  this,  the  testimony  of  the 
historian  is  to  stand  good  in  that  which  he  relates  of  the  affairs 
of  his  own  country  and  people ;"  with  which  latter  sentiment 
I  cannot  accord  without  the  qualification,  that  the  truth  inter- 
fered not  with  these  pious  frauds,  in  the  propagation  and  esta- 
blishment of  which,  they  were  in  the  continual  practice,  or  that 
the  written  record  was  not  too  far  removed  from  the  ora 
tradition.  Fortunately,  on  the  present  occasion,  we  may  con- 
fide in  their  relation  of  the  affairs  of  their  own  country  ana 
people,  as  far  as  concerns  our  immediate  object,  (b) 

The  grand  features  of  the  Scythian  race  as  to  manners, 
customs,  and  institutions,  were 

Community  of  lands. 

Tribal  divisions. 

Government  by  elected  chiefs. 


Congregating  in  public  assemblies. 

Dwelling  in  tents. 

The  adoration  of  the  sun  personified  by  the  name  of  Baal, 
Cemas,  and  divers  other  appellations. 


And  the  worship  of  fire,  the  present  emblem  of  the  divhiity 
by  various  names,  as  iMoloc,  Dagon,  &c. 

Of  the  many  regions  of  the  eartli  altogether  unknown  to 
writers  of  ancient  days,  Tatars,  Chinese,  Hindoos,  the  nations 
of  Africa  save  Egypt,  and  the  Avestcrn  hemisphere,  it  would  be 
bootless  to  speak,  I  shall  therefore  confine  myself  to  the 
Assyrians  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Egytians  on  the  other,  the 
people  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  Scythians,  and 
to  aborigines  of  Europe  with  whom  I  shall  contrast  them,  arid 
point  out  instances  of  difference,  so  marked  and  determined  as 
leave  no  room  for  doubt  of  difference  of  origin,  so  fixed  and 
strong  as  not  to  have  grown  out  of  separation  from  a  parent 
stock,  in  an  accumulation  of  ages,  ten-fold  greater  than  the 
time  wherein  the  change  must  have  been  wrought. 

If  you  turn  to  Genesis,  and  read  the  nine  first  chapters,  and 
the  first  nine  verses  of  the  tenth  chapter,  such  as  the  medley  is, 
you  will  not  find  mention  of  an  house,  or  durable  habitation,  or 
the  slightest  allusion  to  any  thing  of  the  kind,  the  city  of  Cain's 
building  excepted,  called  Enoch,  of  which  though  the  bible 
translators  have  made  a  city,  means  nothing  more  than  a  con- 
gregation ;  nor  is  even  Noah  at  a  much  later  period  described 
but  living  in  a  tent :  But  when  the  stranger  eastern  people, 
called  Assyrians,  made  their  first  appearance  on  the  land  of  the 
Scythians,  we  are  for  the  first  time  toW  of  real  cities  and  walls 
for  fortifications,  and  a  citadel  constructed  of  permanent 
materials,  with  surprising  art  in  the  science  of  architecture,  Ba- 
bel, Erech,  Accad,  and  Calneh  in  the  land  of  Shinar,  the  an- 
cient seat  of  the  Scythians,  whereon  theretofore  had  stood  the 
tents  of  Noah,  the  supreme  chief  of  the  Scythian  nations  ;  then 
you  hear  of  the  Assyrians  going  up  from  Shinar  and  building 
Nin-eveh,  and  the  city  Rehoboth,  and  Calah.  From  the 
moment  of  the  appearance  of  the  Assyrians  in  Messipotamia, 
we  first  hear  of  manners,  and  customs,  and  institutions,  the  very 
reverse  of  those  of  the  Scythians,  the  building  of  cities  being 
proof  of  personal  appropriation  of  the  soil,  the  administration 
of  government  being  in  the  hands  of  hereditary  chiefs,  whilst 
in  religion,  a  total  difference  existed   between  the  two  people. 


as  we  are  fully  informed  by  the  account  of  Abraliairi's  migra- 
tion from  Ur  of  Chaldea,  to  the  land  of  Canaan,  which  was 
undertaken  by  the  inspiration  of  his  God,  solely  for  religion 
sake,  the  Scythian  religion  having  become  corrupted  in  Chaldea 
by  the  influence  of  the  Assyrian  ;  and  whilst  it  is  clear  that 
such  a  corruption  had  taken  place  there  from  that  cause,  it  is 
equally  clear  that  it  was  still  pure  in  the  land  of  Canaan, 
whither  he  was  directed  by  his  God  to  remove,  a  fact  confirmed 
by  his  interview  with  Melchizedec,  king  of  Salem,  and  also  the 
priest  of  the  most  high  God,  the  God  of  Jbram,  re- 
cognized by  him  as  such,  and  presented  with  an  offering,  por- 
tion of  a  spoil. 

And  afterwards  it  came  to  pass  that  Abram  went  down  to 
Gerar,  and  a  covenant  was  made  between  him  and  Ab-e-melech, 
chief  of  the  five  Lords  of  the  Philistines,  and  Phicol  chief  cap- 
tain of  his  host ;  and  they  speak  unto  Abram,  saying,  "  God  is 
with  thee  in  all  thou  doest,  now  swear  unto  us  here  by 

And  it  appears  that  shortly  after  the  arrival  of  Abram  and 
his  nephew  Lot  in  Canaan,  there  being  a  sore  famine  in  that 
land,  they  journeyed  to  Egypt,  from  whence  they  returned  to 
Canaan  with  so  great  a  store  of  cattle,  that  the  land  was  not 
able  to  bear  them,  that  they  may  dwell  together,  and  a  con- 
tention having  arisen  between  their  herdsmen  for  pasturage,  we 
hear  of  Abram  saying  to  Lot, 

•'  Let  there  be  no  strife,  I  pray  thee,  between  me  and  thee, 
for  we  be  brethren,  is  not  the  whole  land  before  thee  ?  separate 
thyself,  I  pray  thee,  from  me,  if  thou  wilt  take  the  left  hand, 
then  I  Avill  go  to  the  right." 

And  Lot  chose  him  out  all  the  plain  of  Jordan,  and  he  pitched 
his  tent  towards  Sodom  ; 

And  Abram  removed  his  tent,  and  came  towards  Mamre. 

And  when  the  Lord  appeared  unto  him  in  the  plain  of 
Mamre,  Abram  sat  in  the  tent  door. 

We  hear  of  him  only  in  the  tent. 

We  learn  from  Genesis  also,  that  when  Isaac  the  son  of 
Abram,  made  a  covenant  with  the  chief  Lord  of  the  Philistines, 


and  with  the  chief  captain  of  his  host,  all  swore  by  the  same 
God,  and  Isaac  dwelled  in  the  tent,  and  roved  here  and  there 
at  his  will  and  pleasure,  the  lands  free  for  his  foot,  and  for  his 
flocks,  and  herds. 

But  when  Jdcoh,  the  son  of  Isaac,  the  son  of  Ahram,  the  son 
of  Terah,  went  in  compUance  with  the  desire  of  his  mother,  to 
take  a  wife  from  amongst  her  kindred  of  Haran  of  Ellasser, 
Laba7i,  the  son  of  Bethuel,  the  son  of  Nahor,  the  son  of  Te- 
rah,  was  considered  and  called  an  Assyrian,  and  had  embraced 
the  religion  of  that  people,  under  the  government  of  whom,  he 
and  his  family  had  continued  to  live,  for  we  hear  of  his  accusing 
Jacob  of  stealing  his  Gods,  and  of  RctcheVs  being  an  image 
worshipper,  and  taking  her  Assyrian  idols  with  her,  from 
EUasser  to  the  land  of  Canaan ;  and  Laban  in  relating  a 
dream  he  had  of  the  appearance  of  the  Lord,  expressly  says, 
"  The  God  of  your  father  spake  unto  me." 

Moreover,  when  Jacob  and  Laban  entered  into  a  covenant, 
and  swore  to  the  observance  thereof,  Laban  swore  by  the  God 
of  Nahor,  but  Jacob  swore  by  the  God  of  Abram.  Jacob  is 
represented  as  a  plain  man  living  in  the  tent,  and  whilst  he 
abided  in  Hebron,  his  sons  were  tending  his  cattle  in  Dothan, 
a  distance  of  more  than  three  score  miles. 

From  which  brief  summary  we  arrive  at  the  conclusions, 
that  the  Assyrians  differed  from  the  Scythians  in  all  those 
leading  features  that  characterize  mankind,  the  former  congre- 
gating in  immense  cities,  the  latter  dwelling  in  tents,  scattered 
over  the  territory,  the  former  having  personal  properly  in  the 
soil,  the  latter  holding  their  land  in  community  tribal,  if  not 
national,  the  former  having  a  plurality  of  Gods,  whose  images 
they  idolized  in  sumptuous  temples,  the  latter  paying  adoration 
to  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars,  and  to  fire,  the  emblem  of  the 
divinity,  not  confined  to  walls,  their  worship  as  free  and  pure 
as  the  element  itself;  the  biography  of  Abram,  Isaac,  and 
Jacob,  shews  that  though  men  of  great  consideration,  they 
dwelled  in  the  tent,  and  though  strangers,  they  traversed  the 
land  whithersoever  they  pleased  with  their  numerous  cattle, 



that  they  invoked  the  same  God,  professed  the  same  religion 
as  the  people  amongst  whom  Abram  had  been  commanded  to 
live,  in  the  practice  of  all  those  manners  and  customs,  and 
institi'cions  peculiar  to  the  Scythian  race  of  mankind. 

Should  it  be  imagined  from  the  mode  of  expression  used  by 
the  bible  translators,  that  the  people  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah 
abandoned  the  Scythian  custom  of  abiding  in  tents  ;  it  will  be 
found  from  the  text  that  there  is  no  foundation  for  the  suppo- 

Lot,  dwelt  in  th-e  cities  of  the  plain,  and  pitched  his  tent 
towards  Sodom  ;  the  Hebrew  word  rendered  city,  meaning  no 
more  than  an  encampment,  a  temporary  congregation  of  a  part 
of  a  society. 

Should  the  purchase  by  Abram  of  Machpelah  seem  to  mili- 
tate against  community  of  lands,  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
features  of  the  Scythian  institutions,  it  is  to  be  considered  this 
was  a  cave,  plantation,  and  enclosure,  on  which  labour  had 
been  bestowed,  even  so,  the  grant  was  the  act  and  deed  of  all 
the  society  of  the  land  of  Heth,  nor  was  Hephron  disposed 
to  accept  of  ought  for  the  property,  it  was  Abram  who  forced 
the  value  on  him,  lest  the  vauk  wherein  he  was  about  to  bury 
Sarah,  and  designed  for  his  own  interment,  should  be  attempt- 
ed to  be  wrested  from  him,  or  disputed  with  his  posterity  at 
any  future  time,  which  the  public  notoriety  of  the  payment  of 
the  price  would  be  the  means  of  preventing,  nay,  the  relation 
of  the  transaction  proves  that  the  Scythians  of  Canaan  had 
not  advanced  to  personal  possession  of  any  portion  of  the  land, 
for  the  correctness  of  which  observation,  I  beg  leave  to  refer 
you  to  the  23d  chapter  of  Genesis,  where  you  will  find  the 
story  told  in  the  sweet  style  of  ancient  simplicity,  and  Scythian 
eloquence,  pathetic  and  sublime. 

From  the  same  authority  we  learn,  that  after  a  sojourn  of 
two  hundred  and  fifteen  years  in  the  land  of  Canaan,  the  pos- 
terity of  Abram  removed  to  Egypt,  between  the  people  of 
wliich  country  and  this  tribe  of  Scythians,  there  was  a  total 
difference  of  manners,  customs,  and  institutions;  when  the 
Pharaoh  enquired  of  Jacob  what  was  his  occupation,  Jacob 


answered,  "  Thy  servants  are  shepherds,  both  we  and  also  our 
fathers,"  but  a  shepherd  was  an  abomination  to  the  Egyptians 
who  were  corn  eaters,  subsisted  on  the  fruits  of  the  earth,  and 
paid  adoration  to  beasts,  on  which  the  Hebrews  fed  ;  so  great 
was  the  detestation  in  which  they  held  the  Israehtes,  that  they 
would  not  eat  even  bread  with  them.  In  Egypt  we  hear  at 
this  time,  of  an  absolute  king  making  and  unmaking  laws  at 
his  sole  will  and  pleasure,  of  sumptuous  palaces,  of  prisons, 
chains,  bars,  bolts  and  keepers,  of  personal  property  in  the 
land,  and  of  their  parting  with  it  by  individual  contract,  of  the 
inhabitants  dwelling  in  cities  durable,  whilst  the  children  of 
Isrdel  are  represented  abiding  apart  from  the  people  of  Egypt 
in  tents,  scattered  over  the  land  of  Goshen,  no  personal  ap- 
propriation of  any  part  of  the  soil,  no  permanent  dwelling 
from  the  time  of  their  entrance  into  Egypt,  till  the  publication 
of  the  edict  of  the  Pharaoh  of  that  day,  for  erecting  houses 
for  the  purpose  of  collecting  them  together,  for  the  more  effec- 
tual execution  of  the  inhuman  project  of  destroying  all  the 
male  infants  of  tlieir  nation,  (c) 

If  the  difference  was  great  between  these  two  people  in 
manners  and  customs,  it  was  still  greater  in  religion  ;  that  of 
the  Scythians  was  simple  as  their  state—  that  of  the  Egyptians, 
complicated,  and  delusive,  an  hierarchy  so  long  established  as 
to  have  degenerated  into  a  regular  system  of  magic,  legerde- 
main, enchantments,  and  divination.  In  fine,  nothing  can  be 
more  unlike  than  the  Scythians,  Assyrians,  and  Egyptians,  as 
represented  in  all  ages,  in  every  particular  that  characterizes 
natrons  of  distinct  and  diverse  origins.  Having  shewn  the 
dissimilarity  between  these  three  different  races  of  mankind, 
let  us  now  attend  the  Scythian  tribes,  and  mark  their  identity 
by  a  perfect  resemblance.  Here  ideas  present  themselves  to 
the  reflecting  mind,  causing  deep  regret,  that  man  who  boast- 
cth  of  his  reason,  as  though  his  pecuUar  endowment,  is  yet  in 
practice  inferior  to  the  httle  bees,  who,  if  they  lay  up  a  dele- 
terious store,  it  is  for  want  of  sweet  flowers,  and  wholesome 
herbs,  from  which  to  extract  a  nourishing  food  withal ;  but 
man  neglecteth,  yet  despiseth  salubrious  plants,  from  which 


may  be  expressed  an  essence  more  delicious  than  the  honey, 
and  the  honey-comb,  and  fastens  on  the  grossest  weeds,  gree- 
dily imbibing  the  pernicious  juice  thereof,  rank  poison  to  the 
mderstanding.  Is  it  not  to  be  lamented  that  the  mind  of 
youth  is  directed  to  miracles,  and  mysteries,  instructed  in  the 
belief  of  supernatural  agency,  individual  revelation,  and  in- 
spiration from  the  actual  personal  presence  of  a  spirit,  whilst 
the  rich  mine  of  antiquity,  containing  the  treasure  wisdom, 
but  very  superficially  covered  with  the  dross  and  rubbish  of 
deception,  by  the  clumsy  hands  of  scheming  knaves,  yet,  as 
experience  teacheth,  hidden  deep  enough  for  hypocrisy,  alas  ! 
and  with  sufficient  art  for  ignorance,  oh,  pity  !  is  slighted,  and 
by  few  explored.  Let  me  lay  open  one  rich  vein  thereof,  and 
expose  it  to  your  ample  view,  as  we  attend  the  steps  of  the 
children  of  Israel  on  their  march  from  the  house  of  bondage 
in  Egypt,  till  their  establishment  in  the  land  of  Canaan. 

This  Scythian  nation,  known  by  the  name  of  the  Twelve 
Tribes  of  Israel,  having  sogourned  in  Egypt  for  the  space  of 
two  hundred  and  fifteen  years,  the  latter  part  of  which  time 
being  cruelly  persecuted,  reduced  to  the  condition  of  Slaves, 
a  grand  and  glorious  conspiracy  was  promoted  by  the  man 
MoseSf  for  which  his  name  will  ever  be  held  in  honor  and  re- 
spect, by  all  who  cherish  national  independence,  would  resist 
foreign  jurisdiction,  and  hold  despotism  in  abhorrence.  He 
it  was  who  seeing  the  time  apt  for  the  execution  of  the  noble 
enterprize,  inspired  his  drooping  fellows  with  courage  to  shake 
off  the  yoke  of  servitude,  whereupon  he  became  their  chief, 
under  whose  guidance  the  force  he  had  been  the  principal 
means  of  uniting,  was  to  be  directed. 

Let  your  minds  eye  look  upon  those  twelve  tribes  of  the 
children  of  Israel,  conducted  by  their  chief  Moses,  marshalled 
by  their  elders,  marching  forth  of  the  land  of  Egypt,  the 
house  of  their  bondage. 

Turn  your  intellectual  ear,  and  attend  to  the  people  calling 
on  their  prince  and  leader  to  make  laws  for  their  government ; 

Behold  this  people  assembled  round  Mount  Sinai,  "  that 
was  altogether  in  a  smoke,  because  the  Lord  descended  upon 


it  in  fire ;"  and  there  at  the  Fire  mount,  according  to  the  pri- 
mitive custom  of  the  Scythian  race,  hear  Moses  potently  endued 
Avith  the  spirit  of  wisdom,  promulgating  laws  for  the  rejection, 
or  adoption  of  the  whole  people. 

"  And  Moses  came  and  told  the  people  all  the  judgments, 
and  all  the  people  answered  with  one  voice — All  the  words 
which  the  Lord  hath  said,  will  we  do."  The  consent  of  the 
entire  society  to  the  laws  their  legislator  had  framed,  indivi- 
dually expressed, 

"  And  Moses  took  the  book  of  the  covenant,  and  read  in 
the  audience  of  the  people  ;"  and  they  repeated  their  approba- 

Can  a  spectacle  more  grand,  more  sublime,  be  conceived  by 
the  mind  of  man — a  nation  recovering  their  liberty,  beoHne 
arbiters  of  their  own  destiny,  masters  of  their  own  actions,  re- 
quiring the  man  recommended  to  their  special  confidence  by 
consummate  wisdom,  prudence,  and  glorious  achievements,  to 
make  regulations  for  their  future  conduct,  assembling  on  the 
mount,  hearing  the  publication  of  the  laws,  giving  their  con- 
sent thereto,  collectively  and  individually,  and  entering  into  a 
covenant  each  with  the  other,  and  with  all,  to  abide  thereby, 
each  surrendering  a  portion  of  his  natural  liberty,  for  the  ge- 
neral warranty  of  the  enjoyment  of  the  comfort,  and  security 
of  social  life. 

This  nation  of  slaves,  this  fugitive  banditti,  now  become  a 
regulated  society,  invade  the  laud  of  the  Amorites,  east  of 
Jordan,  which  they  win  ;  whereupon  a  part  of  the  community 
request  of  Moses  to  be  permitted  to  abide  thereon,  upon  the 
covenant  of  their  passing  over  Jordan,  and  helping  their  bre- 
thren to  conquer  the  lands  westward  thereof. 

"  So,  concerning  them,  Moses  commanded  Eleazer  the  priest, 
and  Joshua,  the  son  of  Nun,  and  the  chief  fathers  of  the  tribes 
of  the  children  of  Israel,  to  divide  amongst  these  two  tribes 
and  a  half  all  that  land.'''' 

So  deeply  was  the  memory  of  their  original  institutions  en- 
graven on  their  hearts,  so  entirely  were  all  their  acts  con- 
formable thereto,  that  Moses  presumed  not  to  take  the  execu- 


tion  upon  himself;  nor,  though  universally,  deservedly  beloved, 
and  respected,  did  he  contemplate  the  succession  of  one  of  his 
own  family  to  the  seat  of  the  chiefs  but  laid  his  hand  on  Joshua^ 
the  elected  of  the  people. 

What  was  the  first  act  of  Joshuas  administration  ? 

A  renewal  of  the  covenant  with  the  whole  community,  and 
Joshua  led  the  warriors  over  Jordan,  and  he  discomfitted  all 
the  inland  nations  of  Canaan,  the  territory  of  which  he  divided 
by  LOT  amongst  the  nine  tribes  and  the  half  tribe  ;  nor  was  it 
from  modesty,  but  in  obedience  to  established  custom,  that  the 
chief  reserved  no  huge,  or  any  portion  for  himself;  for  it  was 
"  when  they  had  made  an  end  of  dividing  the  land  for  inherit- 
ance by  their  coasts,  the  children  of  Israel  gave  an  inheritance 
to  Joshua,  the  son  of  Nun,  amongst  them." 

"  They  gave  him  the  city  which  he  asked,  even  Tiranath 
Serah,  on  Mount  Ephraim." 

So  rigidly  did  this  Scythian  people  adhere  to  original  insti- 
tutions, that  every  member  of  the  society  had  his  fair  and  just 
proportion  of  the  soil,  of  which  he  could  not  be  deprived,  any 
more  than  of  the  air  in  which  he  breathed,  with  which  it  was 
not  in  his  power  to  part  but  for  a  limited  time  ;  his  humiliated 
state  during  the  temporary  deprivation,  being  well  calculated 
to  make  him  provident  for  the  times  to  come. 

It  hath  been  clearly  shewn  that  Abram,  Isaac,  and  Jacob, 
were  in  the  practice  of  the  customs,  and  professed  the  religion 
of  the  Scythian  race.  It  appears  from  their  own  history,  that 
the  twelve  tribes  adhered  to  all  these  peculiar  customs  and  in- 
stitutions, though  in  a  state  of  subjection  to  a  foreign  yoke, 
corpus  quasi  mortuum  ;  they  were  a  pastoral  people,  they  had 
the  land  in  community,  they  dwelled  in  tents  scattered  over 
the  territory,  they  had  their  nominal  elders,  though  without 
power  to  enforce  obedience,  their  religion  the  very  reverse  of 
the  religion  of  Egypt,  as  were  their  manners,  all  their  customs 
and  institutions ;  such  was  their  condition  when  they  broke 
forth  of  Egypt,  a  congregated  mass,  arms  in  their  hands, 
cruelty  in  their  hearts,  their  minds  soured  by  indignities  heaped 
on  them,  in  a  state  of  long  seclusion  from  the  human  race,  un 


versed  in  the  ways  of  men,  save  those  of  the  tyrant  and  the 
slave,  carrying  the  hatred  they  bore  task-masters  into  the 
bosom  of  people  from  whom  their  progenitors  had  experienced 
nought  but  hospitality  and  good  offices ;  animated  by  old  pro- 
phecies, to  the  belief  of  which  they  were  prone,  now  adapted 
by  the  tongue  of  pious  fraud  to  the  ear  of  ignorance,  their 
hands  uplifted  against  all  mankind.  In  this  state  Moses,  whose 
chief  end  and  scope  was,  to  keep  his  nation  distinct  from  all  the 
people  of  whom  he  had  ever  known  or  heard,  particularly  those 
amongst  whom  the  Israelites  were  about  to  establish  them- 
selves, did  now  make  many  and  great  alterations  in  the  an- 
cient religion  of  his  fathers,  what  these  alterations  were  have 
been  unduly  estimated  by  mankind.  It  is  to  be  recollected, 
that  Joseph,  always  of  a  raving  imagination,  became,  when 
dwelling  amongst  the  Egyptians,  a  conjurer;  and  had  a 
divining  cup  wherewith  he  told  fortunes,  for  which  the  Egyp- 
tians ever  were,  and  are  at  this  day,  celebrated ;  and  that  Moses 
had  from  infancy  been  reared  in  the  king  of  Egypt's  house,  as 
the  child  of  the  king's  daughter,  apart  from  his  nation,  brought 
up  in  the  religion,  and  as  is  said  of  the  priesthood,  of  Egypt ; 
from  whence,  on  taking  to  heart  the  affliction  of  his  race,  he 
removed  to  the  land  of  Goshen  ;  when,  on  seeing  an  Egyptian 
slave-driver,  an  inhuman  task-master  smite  one  of  his  brethren, 
he  slew  the  Egyptian,  and  buried  him  in  the  sand ;  and  on  the 
next  day,  "  behold  two  men  of  the  Hebrews  strove  together, 
and  he  said  to  him  that  did  the  wrong,  wherefore  smitest  thou 
thy  fellow  } 

"  And  he  said,  who  made  thee  a  prince  and  judge  over  us, 
intendest  thou  to  kill  me,  as  thou  killedst  the  Egyptian." 

And  Moses  fled  and  dwelt  in  the  land  of  Midian  ;  O  ye 
slaves,  bowed  down  beneath  the  yoke  of  foreigners,  are  ye 
altogether  blind,  and  so  void  of  understanding,  that  ye  cannot 
point  the  moral  of  this  tale.  Moses  saw  and  felt  for  the 
miserable  condition  of  his  prostrate  brethren,  he  sought  to 
raise  them  to  the  attitude  of  men,  then  to  unite  their  force 
against  the  oppressor ;  but  the  senseless  Hebrew,  debased  and 
brutalized  by  servitude,  hesitated  not  to  destroy  his  friend  and 


benefactor ;  what,  though  the  virtuous  Moses  was  then  obUged 
to  fly  and  hide  his  head,  did  he  not  return  ?  did  he  not  suc- 
ceed in  his  project  of  uniting  the  people,  and  was  not  their 
united  force  irresistible  ?  Hear  this,  and  bear  it  well  in  mind, 
all  ye  nations  of  the  earthy  that  crawl  on  the  surface  of  the 
land  of  your  forefathers,  deprived  of  your  independance,  and 
your  native  sovereignty,  subject  to  tyrants,  aliens  to  your 
blood,  your  land,  and  you  ;  Moses  did  succeed,  and  his  name 
and  nation  will  be  celebrated,  whilst  sun,  moon,  and  stars  en- 
dure ;  had  he  failed,  the  world  had  never  heard  of  either 
Moses,  nor  of  Israel,  or  if  remembered,  the  Egyptians  would 
have  been  their  recorders,  loaded  him  with  every  foul  epithet, 
false  traitor,  brutal  rebel,  ungrateful  monster,  and  concluded 
his  biography  with  a  description  of  the  newly  invented  tortures, 
under  the  infliction  of  wliich,  his  coward  spirit  took  its  flight 
to  the  infernal  regions,  the  manifold  vices  and  crimes  imputed 
to  him,  made  to  serve  as  just  causes  for  the  lacerations,  half 
hangings,  and  cruelties  in  every  shape  and  form  practised  on 
the  people,  retained  in  slavery,  forced  into  a  state  of  barbaiism, 
such  actual  state  the  pretext  of  treating  them  like  brutes. 

Oh,  Eri,  Eli,  my  beloved,  your  country  is  desolate,  your 
cities  are  burned  with  fire,  your  land  strangers  devour  it  in 
your  presence,  it  is  desolate,  overthrown  by  strangers. 

"  This  is  a  people  robbed  and  spoiled,  they  are  all  of  them 
snared  in  holes,  they  are  hid  in  prison  houses,  they  are  for  a 
prey,  and  none  delivereth,  for  a  spoil,  will  none  say,  restore?" 

"  I  would  have  taken  out  of  thy  hand  the  cup  of  trembling, 
even  the  dregs  of  the  cup  of  fury,  that  thou  should  drink  no 
itiore  of  it  again." 

"  I  would  have  put  it  in  the  hand  of  them  that  afflict  thee, 
which  have  said  to  thy  soul,  bow  down,  that  we  may  go  over, 
that  thou  shouldest  not  have  laid  thy  body  as  the  ground,  and 
as  the  street  to  them  who  have  gone  over." 

But  the  iniquity  of  thy  oppressor  is  not  yet  full,  long  time 
will  not  pass  till  it  Avill  overflow. 

Reflecting  on  what  I  know,  feeling  what  I  feel,  every  friend 
to  regulated  liberty,  e\ery  heart  that  can  sympathize  with  a 


once  brave  and  generous  people,  now  brought  low,  even  to  the 
condition  of  beasts  of  burden,  ever  and  anon  goaded  to  resist 
tyranny,  that  tyrants  may  thereby  endeavour  to  palliate  their 
wanton  cruelties,  will  pardon  my  wandering  from  east  to  west, 
a  moiety  of  the  world's  space,  a  moiety  of  the  world's  supposed 
age.  I  am  now  far  from  thee,  Eri,  the  sword  of  the  destroyer 
between  us  twain,  it  is  but  the  gross  and  heavy  particles  of 
which  I  am  composed,  that  are  in  absence  from  my  beloved, 
my  heart  cleaves  to  thee,  my  spirit  hovers  over  thee,  it  is 
amongst  the  children  of  the  land,  one  day  to  animate  them,  to 
assert  the  rights  of  nature,  and  to  call  out  as  with  one  voice  to 
the  inhuman  spoiler,  restore,  restore. 

I  had  been  saying  when  I  strayed,  that  the  alteration  made 
by  Moses  in  the  ancient  religions  of  his  nation,  was  not  duly 
estimated  by  mankind,  that  it  was  to  be  considered  that  he 
had  been  bred  in  the  king  of  Egypt's  court,  where  he  had  im- 
bibed a  considerable  portion  of  the  Egyptian  priestcraft,  and 
had  become  remarkably  expert  at  the  art  of  magic  and  conju- 
ration, that  he  had  resided  for  some  time  in  Midian,  and  had 
married  the  daughter  of  the  priest  of  that  land,  he  was  strongly 
tinctured  with  what  is  termed  religion,  and  was  wise  enough  to 
know  the  hold  it  takes  upon  the  mind  ;  but  as  the  children 
of  Israel  must  have  been  somewhat  lax  in  this  particular,  from 
their  actual  condition,  their  priests  wanting  the  power  to  render 
the  law  of  effect,  their  minds  were  in  a  fit  temper  to  receive 
impressions ;  yet  did  the  alteration  of  Moses  consist  more  in 
ceremonies,  forms,  and  organization  of  an  hierarchy,  to  which 
the  civil  power  was  to  be  subservient,  *'  A  nation  of  priests 
unto  the  Lord,"  than  in  essentials ;  if  you  examine  their  own 
accounts  diligently,  and  not  suffer  your  understanding  to  be 
warped  nor  sophisticated  by  interpretators,  but  adhere  to  the 
text,  from  the  burning  bush,  to  the  commencement  of  their 
march  from  Egypt. 

"  When  the  Lord  went  before  the  children  of  Israel  by  day, 
in  a  pillar  of  a  cloud  to  lead  them  the  way,  and  by  night  in  a 
pillar  of  fire,  to  give  them  light  to  go  by  day  and  night. 


"  He  took  not  away  tlie  pillar  of  the  cloud  by  day,  nor  the 
pillar  of  fire  by  night,  from  before  the  people." 

To  their  assembling  around  Mount  Sinai,  "  all  in  a  smoke, 
for  the  Lord  had  descended  on  it  in  fire,"  to  the  end,  through 
the  whole  course  of  their  history,  you  will  find  that  though 
Moses  personified  the  first  cause,  by  the  admirable  incompre- 
hensible, nondescript  term,  *'  I  am  that  I  am,"  the  very  same 
by  which  Socrates  the  Greek  Scythian,  recognized  the  great 
Spirit,  the  only  one  by  which  the  tongue  of  truth,  can  express 
the  lack  of  the  reason  of  man,  on  a  subject  beyond  man's  con- 
ception. Yet  Avere  the  children  of  Israel  fire  worshippers, 
though  they  ceased  to  pay  adoration  to  the  sun,  moon,  and 
stars,  after  the  manner  of  their  forefathers.  Even  in  the  confu- 
sion that  reigns  through  every  page  of  their  history,  if  their 
writings  deserve  the  name,  we  find  the  most  scrupulous 
adherence  to  the  ancient  usages  af  the  Scythian  race. 

Inviolability  of  landed  possessions  by  tribal  occupation. 


Public  assemblies. 

Election  of  their  chiefs. 

Always  present  in  the  censers  and  the  candlesticks,  in  the 
tabernacle,  and  the  temple. 

Peculiar  veneration  for  the  element  fire,  tlie  symbol  of  which 
was,  on  the  very  heart  of  the  high  priest,  represented  by  Ur-im 
and  Thumlra,  the  perfection  of  fire  and  heat. 

Till  David,  the  man  after  the  priest's  own  heart,  commenced 
the  work  of  foreign  conquests,  by  means  of  which  he  was 
enabled  to  make  inroads  on  the  laws  and  liberties  of  his  country, 
nominated  his  successor,  and  laid  the  foundation  for  all  the 
corruption  which  first  crept,  then  strode  with  long,  and  bold, 
and  daring  steps,  into  the  state,  whose  march  Solomon  the 
wisest  of  all  the  children  of  Israel,  yea  of  the  sons  of  men,  what 
magic  in  wealth  ! !  accelerated  by  the  introduction  of  riches, 
by  means  of  foreign  trade  and  commerce,  whereby  gold  and 
silver  became  as  plenty  as  stones  in  .Jerusalem,  considered  the 
fountain  of  comfort  and  happiness,  proved  invariably  to  be  a 
source  of  misery  and  care,  and  thus  ])repared  the  way  for  the 


sutjugation  of  his  countrv.  to  the  yoke  of  one  foreign  power 
after  another,  the  most  afflicting  of  all  the  agonizing  states  of 
man,  their  national  career  completed  by  their  utter  expulsion 
from  their  native  land,  their  descendants  found  in  every  wealthy 
country  in  the  universe,  granted  merely  an  asylum,  a  covering 
for  the  head,  no  lands,  no  arms,  no  public  assemblies,  no  elected 
chiefs,  in  the  place  of  these  blessings,  the  curse  of  perpetual 
insecurity,  volition  without  the  means  of  carrying  it  into  effect, 
punishments  inflicted  on  them,  not  for  idolatry,  nor  yet  for  the 
shedding,  by  means  of  corrupt  perjured  judges,  of  corrupted, 
prepared,  and  perjured  juries,  the  blood  of  the  amiable,  mild, 
and  virtuous  Jesus,  that  incorruptible  man,  who  would  have 
effected  a  reform  of  the  insufferable  abuses  of  the  laws  of  his 
country,  had  not  wealth,  privileges,  and  art  on  the  one  hand, 
and  poverty,  exclusion,  and  ignorance  on  the  other,  given  the 
public  enemy  recognized  in  foreign  despotism,  and  native  sub- 
jugation,  the  victory  over  him,  his  country,  and  the  laws.  It 
was  not  for  these  transgressions  though  enormous,  (they  and 
such  like  are  but  symptomatic  of  impending  dissolution,)  that 
the  children  of  Israel,  whose  dominion  commenced  in  David, 
and  had  an  end  in  Solomon,  have  been  reduced  to  their  present 
calamitous  condition,  it  was  because  they  placed  themselves 
in  an  attitude  of  resistance  and  defiance  to  all  mankind,  sacri- 
ficed their  primitive  institutions  to  conquest,  foreign  commerce, 
and  riches  ;  and  having  proved  themselves  merciless  tyrants, 
are  unlamented  slaves. 

As  to  the  ancient  laws  of  the  Scythians,  the  only  prohibitory 
law,  was  "  do  not  commit  murder,"  for  the  breach  of  whicii 
the  life  of  the  transgressor  was  to  atone,  a  law  repeated  two 
thousand  years  afterwards  by  Jesus  Christ,  not  less  per- 
nicious than  which  that  philanthropist  considered  the  hatred, 
disunion,  and  strife,  amongst  the  children  of  Israel,  which 
never  fails  to  bring  down  upon  a  people,  the  heavy  curse  of 
foreign  domination. 

That  long  before  the  time  of  Moses,  the  injunctions  of 
adhering  to  truth,  and  refraining  from  theft,  and  the  sublime 
j)rcrepts  of  morality  falsely  attributed  to  that  legislator,  were 


taught  by  the  Scythians,  will  appear  from  the  writing  of 
Eohcs,  Moses  did  but  appreciate  the  punishment  to  infraction, 
and  make  additions  easily  distinguishable  by  their  matchless 

The  genuine  laws  of  the  Scythians  were  ; 

Commit  no  murder. 

Steal  not. 

Utter  no  falsehood. 

Give  glory  and  thanks  to  Baal  the  author  of  light  and  life. 

Honor  thy  father. 

Cherish  thy  mother. 

Protect  thy  sister. 

Let  brethren  be  united. 

Be  kind  and  tender  to  the  desolate  wdow,  the  fatherless,  and 
the  orphan. 

Minister  to  the  stranger  far  from  the  voice  of  his  kkidred. 

From  the  needy  and  distressed  turn  not  thy  face  away. 

Whilst  the  universal  rule  of  punishment  was  retribution. 

These  are  the  laws  of  the  Scythians,  to  which  Jesus  would 
have  respect  paid,  whilst  he  is  wholly  silent  of,  or  indignant  at 
the  punctilious  observance  of  the  traditions  of  his  nation,  con- 
cerning the  fringe  for  the  petticoats,  ointments  after  the  man- 
ner of  the  apothecary,  the  scape  goat  ::nd  all  such,  together 
with  the  filthy  obscenity  with  which  their  puerile  code  is 
charged,  too  gi-oss  to  escape  the  lips  of  the  chaste  decorous 
Jesus,  even  by  the  bare  mention  thereof,  though  he  treats  with 
his  accustomed  severity  and  justice,  the  practice  of  those 

"  Who  paid  tythe  of  mint,  and  anisG,  and  cummin,  and 
omitted  the  weightier  matters  of  the  law,  judgment,  mercy,  and 

"  Blind  guides  who  strain  at  a  gnat,  and  swallow  a  camel,  who 
make  clean  the  outside  of  the  platter,  but  within  they  are  full 
of  extortion  and  excess. 

"  Like  unto  whited  sepulchres,  which  indeed  appear  beautiful 
outwardly,  but  are  ^rithin  full  of  hypocrisy  and  iniquity." 


1£  Moses  was  the  man  by  whom  laws  and  judgments  were 
multiplied,  it  was  done  with  the  intent  of  separating  the  12  tribes 
of  Israel  not  only  from  Assyrians,  Egyptians,  and  Arabs,  but 
from  all  the  nations  of  even  the  Scythian  race. 

As  to  the  many  kings,  according  to  bible  translators,  who 
ruled  the  various  communities  of  the  land  of  Canaan,  at  the 
time  of  the  invasion  of  the  Hebrews,  you  will  form  a  very  in- 
correct estimate  of  them,  if  you  fancy  they  bore  any  resem- 
blance to  the  men  called  the  Lord's  anointed  of  these  days. 
They  were  elected  chiefs  of  their  tribes,  men  of  the  people, 
chosen  to  a  station  of  difficulty  and  peril,  to  which  they  were 
raised  for  their  excellency  ;  to  which  an  infant,  an  idiot,  a 
maniac,  or  a  female,  could  not,  by  right  of  birth,  succeed, 
which  the  people  were  too  wise  to  suffer  such  a  one  to  fill. 
Such  were  the  Scythian  chiefs  of  the  nations  of  Canaan  in- 
vaded by  the  Hebrews. 

Such  were  the  five  lords  of  the  Philistine  ; 

Such  was  the  ruler  of  the  land  of  Hamath  ; 

Such  were  the  people  in  the  practice  of  the  original  feudal 
system ; 

Whereby  every  individual  had  his  fair  proportion  of  the 

Whereby  every  individual  had  a  right  to  be  present  in  the 
assembly  of  the  people  : 

Whereby  chiefs  and  rulers  were  chosen : 

Whereby  every  man  was  not  only  permitted  to,  but  must 
be  armed  to  defend  his  country  against  aggression  from  with- 
out, and  his  rights  against  any  attempt  at  domestic  tyranny : 

Their  peculiar  customs  dwelling  in  tents ; 

Their  religion  the  adoration  of  the  visible  objects,  sun, 
moon,  and  stars ;  and  the  worship  of  fire,  the  emblem  of  the 

As  to  the  city  of  Jericho,  and  the  walls  thereof,  on  which  the 
house  of  Rahab,  the  harlot  and  traitoress,  stood,  which  feK 
down  flat  at  the  sound  of  the  priests  breath  through  rams 
horns ;  notwithstanding  which,  the  cord  by  which  she  suiFered 
the  spies,  enemies  to  her  country,  to  escape,  was  still  visible  to 


direct  the  invaders  to  a  house  that  did  not  exist !  Read  the 
tale  in  full  in  Joshua  ;  I  am  of  opinion  this  is  one  of  the  in- 
stances alluded  to  by  Prideaux^  "  where  the  falsity  of  the  re- 
lation confutes  itself."  Was  it  not  to  cairy  us  too  far  from 
our  subject,  it  could  be  shewn  in  innumerable  cases,  that  man- 
ners and  customs  were  described  out  of  season  by  their  annal- 
ists, and  that  the  accounts  of  these,  and  such  like  transactions, 
were  put  together  from  traditions  in  a  most  bungling  manner, 
many  centuries  after  the  supposed  occurrence  of  the  facts. 

Did  the  nation  of  Hamath  depart  from  some  of  the  usages 
of  their  race,  such  as  dwelling  in  tents,  and  conforming  to  more 
strict  rules  of  society,  it  is  to  be  attributed  to  their  advance  in 
what  is  called  the  civiUzed  course,  in  consequence  of  their 
trade  and  commerce  with  distant  people 

The  simple  idea  of  trade  and  commerce,  whereby  man 
counteracts  the  rigours  of  climate,  and  nations  supply  each 
other  with  mutual  wants,  and  mutual  comforts,  is  delightful ; 
but  when  the  mind  comes  to  associate  therewith  the  various 
circumstances  of  war,  robberies,  murders,  devastations,  and 
all  the  oppressions  \\hich  the  weak  endure  from  a  stronger 
arm,  wars  not  originating  in  the  momentary  transient  gratifi- 
cation of  pride  and  glory,  but  in  the  detestable  principle  of 
self-interest,  the  worm  that  never  dies,  admiration  is  lost  in 

What  a  charming  picture  for  the  fancy,  "  The  wolf  dwell- 
ing with  the  lamb  ;  the  leopard  lying  down  with  the  kid  and  the 
calf,  and  the  young  lion  and  the  falling  together,  and  a  little 
child  leading  them,  all  reposing  together  in  perfect  security, 
the  figures  just  to  nature.  Is  not  the  pleasure  felt  at  the  first 
impulse  considerably  abated,  if  not  altogether  dispelled,  by 
the  reflexion  of  the  unreality  of  the  scene  ? 

Trade,  though  it  enlargeth  the  sphere  of  corporal  and  men- 
tal action,  the  energies  excited  are  engaged  in  caUing  in  all 
delicious  sympathies,  all  the  fine  sentiments  of  universal  hos- 
pitality, benevolence,  and  philanthropy,  and  concentrating 
every  feeling  in  sordid  pitiful  self.  Should  the  outward  dis- 
play of  the  semblance  of  these  virtues  happen  to  be  made, 


ostentation  is  the  ruling  principle,  accompanied  by  a  computa- 
tion of  actual  loss,  and  the  probable  gain  from  the  confidence 
which  riches  and  generosity  usually  inspire,  whilst  the  cold 
hand  gives,  the  cool  brain  calculates,  every  avenue  to  the 
heart  frozen,  impenetrable  even  to  the  genial  glow  of  melting 
charity.  Such  a  propensity  hath  commerce  to  convert  sim 
plicity,  innocence,  and  truth,  into  duplicity,  fraud,  and  false- 
hood ;  so  great  its  aptitude  to  remove  all  things  from  their 
natural  basis,  and  force  them  on  an  artificial  foundation,  that 
to  it  is  ascribable  the  mutations  of  ancient  manners,  customs, 
and  institutions — mutations  so  great  and  rapid,  as  to  leave  in 
a  short  time,  few  and  very  indistinct  traces  of  the  original  cha- 
racter of  a  people.  Did  Sydon,  the  first  born  of  the  land  of 
Canaan,  and  Tyre,  the  daughter  of  Sydon,  and  Palestina  of 
the  same  blood,  depart  from  the  ancient  usages  of  their  race, 
become  corrupt  and  degenerate,  the  causes  I  should  hope  have 
been  sufficiently  explained ;  yet  though  Phoenicia  did,  from 
these  causes,  abandon  divers  of  their  ancient  usages,  they  were 
fire  worshippers  to  the  last  moment  of  their  national  existence, 
by  which  I  mean  their  independence.     Slaves  have  no  will. 

If  we  take  a  view  of  the  manners,  customs,  institutions,  and 
religion  of  the  Persians,  even  at  the  late  period  of  the  age  of 
Herodotus,  we  learn  in  Clio,  chapter  130, 

"  That  from  his  own  knowledge,  they  had  neither  statues, 
temples,  nor  altars,  but  offered  on  the  tops  of  the  highest 
mountains,  sacrifices  to  Jove,  by  which  they  meant  the  deity 
of  the  air ;  that  they  adored  the  sun,  moon,  earth,  fire,  water, 
and  the  winds  ;  that  they  gave  the  preference  to  trefoil, 
whereon  they  laid  their  offerings,  and  that  they  eat  sparingly 
of  flesh,  but  drank  profusely.'' 

In  the  137th  chapter,  that  "  it  is  not  permittable  even  for 
the  chief  to  put  any  one  to  death  for  a  single  offence." 

In  the  2d  chapter  of  Thalia,  we  find  that  "  the  custom  of 
Persia  did  not  admit  of  an  illegitimate  son  succeeding  to  the 
throne,  whilst  a  legitimate  son.  existed." 

In  the  16'th  chapter  he  says,  "  the  Persians  venerated  fire ;" 


and  in  the  Slst  cliapter,  "  it  appears  that  the  judges  held 
their  offices  for  life,  or  till  convicted  of  some  crime." 

In  the  2d  chapter  of  Polymnia,  Herodotus  says,  that  "  The 
Persian  custom  forbade  the  chief  to  undertake  any  expedition, 
till  he  named  his  successor." 

In  fine,  you  will  perceive,  on  reading  the  Chronicles  of  Eri, 
the  striking  similarity  between  the  Persian  and  Iberian  Scy- 
thians, notwithstanding  the  height  of  power  attained  by  the 
former  on,  I  may  say,  their  native  soil,  and  the  minor  conside- 
ration of  the  latter  in  the  lands  of  their  migrations,  and  to  add 
to  this  similitude,  I  beg  to  direct  your  attention  to  the  193rd 
chapter  of  Clio,  wherein,  speaking  of  the  funerals  of  Persia, 
you  would  actually  suppose  he  was  describing  the  present 
practice  of  Eri. 

If  we  bend  our  course  to  Ardmenia,  there  we  find  the  tribes 
of  this  vast  family  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  all  the  primitive 
customs  of  their  race. 

If  we  attend  the  Og-eag-eis  to  Thrace,  we  recognize  them 
by  similar  manners,  customs,  and  institutions ;  as  the  distinct 
tribes  from  Ardmenia,  Egypt,  and  Sydon,  united  in  Greece, 
are  identified  thereby,  though  in  different  stages  of  society,  as 
hath  been  shown. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  shepherds  from  Egypt,  known  by  the 
name  of  Pelasgoi,  we  learn,  that  the  Og-eag-eis  were  scattered 
over  the  territory  through  which  they  roved,  the  tent  their 
only  dwelling,  till  the  Pelasgoi,  for  the  first  time,  raised  per- 
manent habitations  in  Attica  and  Peloponnesus,  having  so  far 
abandoned  the  ancient  usage  of  the  Scythian  race  in  conse- 
quence of  their  long  residence  in  Egypt. 

We  are  informed  also,  that  the  Demoi,  (people  of  each  com- 
munity,) assembled  at  their  Prytanium,  nigh  unto  which  stood 
Asti,  the  dwelling  of  the  conservator  of  the  sacred  fire,  we 
hear  of  Ce-crops  reducing,  in  Attica,  the  number  of  Asti, 
which  had  been  170,  to  twelve ;  and  of  Theseus  afterwards 
establishing  one  paramount  assembly  of  the  people  at  the  town 
of  Ce-crop-ia,  the  name  of  which  he  changed  to  Asti. 

Here  we  have  undoubted  proof  of  the  manners,  customs, 


and  institutions  of  the  Scythians,  taken  on  a  grand  and  com- 
prehensive riew,  we  see  each  community,  Demoi,  assembling 
at  its  own  fire  hill  Prytaneum  ;  the  actual  owners  of  their  little 
territory,  arms  in  their  hands,  transacting  their  own  affairs ; 
as  circumstances  made  some  alterations  necessary,  we  find  many 
Demoi  uniting  into  a  convention,  primitive  institutions  in  no 
wise  impaired  for  a  considerable  time,  not  till  in  consequence 
of  the  enlargement  of  districts,  the  people  only  of,  and  in  the 
immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  metropolis,  or  place  of  con- 
vention, attended  the  public  assemblies ;  whilst  those  at  a  dis- 
tance absenting  themselves,  the  discontinuance  came  to  be  con- 
strued into  a  waver  of  original  right,  which  in  process  of  time 
gave  rise  to  privilege  of  the  rich,  and  exclusion  of  the  poor, 
that  grew  into  system,  whereby  the  privileged  assumed  powers 
not  warranted  by  the  laws,  which  produced  in  Sparta,  in  the 
course  of  400  years,  a  state  of  things  so  much  at  variance  with 
the  free  spirit  of  Scythian  customs,  that  we  find  Lyciirgiis 
called  on  to  frame  regulations  for  that  society  ;  which  were,  in 
fact,  but  a  compromise  befweon  the  rich  and  comparatively 
poorer  citizens,  and  power  and  privilege,  subjection  and  ex- 
clusion, were  legalized,  whilst  respect  for  the  most  material 
principles  of  ancient  usage  was  yet  strictly  adhered  to. 

As  happened  at  Sparta  so  at  Athens,  the  same  causes  pro- 
duced the  like  effects  ;  but  as  the  people  of  Attica  did  not  pro- 
ceed so  fast  as  their  brethren  of  Sparta  in  the  work  of  innova- 
tion, more  than  five  hundred  years  had  elapsed  before  the  peo- 
ple murmured  at  their  rights  being  filched  from  them  ;  when 
Draco,  who  had  been  elected  Archon  by  the  sole  influence  of 
the  rich,  therefore  privileged,  was  called  on  by  them  to  make 
laws  for  the  government  of  the  community,  which  he  framed  in 
the  general  spirit  of  privilege,  true  and  loyal  to  its  faction, 
every  line  written  in  blood,  the  blood  of  the  poor  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  rich  ;  the  savage  inhumanity  he  displayed  is  proof 
of  the  great  width  of  the  breach  between  the  different  orders, 
and  of  the  unsettled  state  of  the  society,  a  fact  corroborated 
by  the  appointment  of  Sohn  in  ten  years  afterwards,  by  the 
general  voice  of  the  people,  and  confirmed  by  his  own  words  in 


answer  to  one  who  remarked,  that  the  code  of  laws  he  had 
framed  did  not  answer  the  expectations  formed  from  his  justice 
and  wisdom.  "  You  are  right,"  said  Solouy  "  the  laws  are  not 
so  good  as  I  could  have  composed,  but  they  are  as  good  as  the 
state  of  the  society  admits  of."  Did  the  nations  of  Gx-eece 
march  forward,  and  leave  not  only  their  own  race,  but  the 
whole  world  far  behind  in  the  science  of  every  art,  and  all  the 
ornaments  of  life  ?  it  was  by  an  adherence  to  the  substance  of 
the  institutions  of  ancient  days.  Did  they  become  corrupted, 
degenerate,  and  fall  under  subjection,  first  of  Macedon,  then 
of  Rome,  in  the  more  close  practice  of  those  original  esta- 
blishments, slighted  by  their  more  refined,  less  united,  bre- 
thren }  it  was  by  the  relinquishment  of  primitive  institutions, 
in  pursuit  of  foreign  commerce  and  conquest. 

What  that  is  which  must  not  submit  to  change,  wisdom 
teacheth  man  to  adapt  himself  to  circumstances,  but  not  to  the 
surrender  of  the  veriest  atom  of  original  rights,  founded  on 
principles,  the  counteraction  of  which  never  fails  to  produce 
inordinate  wealth,  pHvilege  and  t^-ranny  of  the  few,  and  ab- 
ject poverty,  exclusion,  and  slavery  of  the  many  ;  the  love  of 
power  and  dominion  is  inherent  in  man,  so  is  his  propensity 
to  abuse  them.  A  good  system  will  preserve  the  society  in  a 
good  and  wholesome  state ;  a  vicious  system  will  make  even 
men  with  good  propensities  corrupt  and  vicious. 

As  to  religion,  an  institution  by  which,  in  ancient  times, 
kindred  of  nations  was  unerringly  recognized,  the  departure 
of  the  Greeks  from  the  practice  of  their  forefathers  is  easily 
accounted  for,  by  their  adoption  of  the  Dii  magni  majorum 
gentium  of  Egypt,  and  the  machinery  attending  their  intro- 
duction, whereby,  though  a  mighty  innovation  was  effected, 
FIRE  still  continued  to  be  the  primary  object ;  on  the  reception 
of  these  celebrated  strangers,  we  for  the  first  time  hear,  in 
Greece,  of  temples,  deification  of  illustrious  dead,  and  a  regu- 
lar hierarchy,  the  simplicity  of  gratitude  to  visible  objects  for 
benefits,  and  of  terror  from  apprehension  of  injuries,  con- 
verted into  a  complicated  system  of  absurdities,  which  might 
well  be  thought  too  palpable  for  observance  and  respect,  did 


not  every  page  of  the  history  of  man,  in  every  age  and  chme, 
furnish  abundant  proof  that  nothing  seems  too  gross  to  hypo- 
crisy, nor  is  too  absurd  for  ignorance.  Every  memorial  of 
the  ancient  state  of  Greece  attests  the  possession  and  main- 
tenance of  the  grand  principles  of  the  Scythian  race,  till  her 
children  were  partly  forced,  and  partly  abandoned  from  cir- 
cumstances, those  institutions  whereon  were  founded  their  glory 
and  renown,  from  which  time  their  decay  became;  rapid  and 

It  hath  been  heretofoi-e  shewn  that  every  colony  which  en- 
tered Italy,  were  of  Scythian  origin,  as  their  manners,  customs 
and  institutions  demonstrate ;  what,  though  this  branch  of  the 
family  became  in  after-times  so  infamously  famous  by  the 
general  name  of  Romans,  we  have  very  imperfect  accounts  of 
them  for  a  long  season  after  the  founding  of  Rome,  such 
meagre  notices  as  they  preserved  being  destroyed  by  the  Gauls 
about  250  years  after  the  foundation  of  the  city ;  nor  did 
Fabius  Pictor^  their  earhest  historian,  live  till  about  230  years 
before  Christ,  and  even  he  merely  copied  a  work  of  Diodes 
Peparetheus,  a  Greek.  Not  to  dwell  on  the  fairy  tales  of  kings 
Latinus,  (Eneas,  and  his  son  king  Asianius,  and  his  succeeding 
by  hereditary  right,  and  the  line  of  kings  to  Procas,  and  the 
right  of  primogeniture  of  his  eldest  son  Numitor,  and  his 
deposition  of  his  brother  AmuUus,  and  the  exposure  of  his  two 
sons,  and  their  miraculous  preservation,  and  such  like  fables 
invented  and  strung  together  from  traditions,  from  a  thousand 
to  five  hundred  years  out  of  time,  let  us  attend  Romulus  in 
the  act  of  giving  a  form  and  consistency  to  the  small  commu- 
nity, of  which  he  was  the  elected  chief ;  behold  him  and  the 
elders  on  the  mount  Pal-a-tin-us,  always  held  in  respect 
above  all  the  mounts  amongst  which  it  stood,  what  was  the 
mount  held  in  veneration  #iext  to  Palatinus  ?  we  are  told 
Remonius,  ever  reputed  sacred.  What  was  the  principal  symbol 
of  their  religion  ?  fire,  by  the  name  of  Vesta.  Who  were  the 
conservators  thereof  ?  Vestal  virgins  ;  they  and  the  priests  at- 
tending the  holy  fire,  clothed  in  white  emblem  of  the  superior 
purity  of  the  sacred  element.      In  offering  sacrifice,  we  hear 


of  the  priest  plucking  some  of  the  strongest  hairs  from  between 
the  horns  of  the  victim,  and  throwing  them  into  the  blessed 
fire,  prima  libamina,  then  turning  himself  towards  the  east,  the 
point  of  the  first  appearance  of  the  sun,  and  invoking  Janus 
and  Vesta,  as  through  them  access  was  to  be  had  to  all  the 
Gods,  he  proceeded  with  the  sacred  rites. 

In  their  civil  institutions,  we  are  informed  of  their  division 
into  tribes,  of  the  territory  being  the  birth-right  of  all  the  chil- 
dren of  the  land,  of  their  public  assemblies,  of  their  being 
armed,  and  their  impatience  under  the  dominion  of  hereditary 
rulers,  to  which  in  fact  they  never  did  submit. 

If  their  history  makes  tis  acquainted  with  the  perfect  freedom 
of  their  primitive  institutions,  in  conformity  with  the  customs 
and  usage  of  their  Scythian  origin,  it  also  instructs  us,  that  the 
semblance  of  a  regular  society  had  not  been  long  formed,  ere 
those  in  whom  the  people  confided,  commenced  the  work  of 
king  craft,  and  priestcraft ;  and  that  the  attempts  of  those 
placed  in  authority  to  arrogate  to  themselves  unwarrantable 
power,  erased  not  for  the  course  of  one  hundred  and  twenty 
years,  the  time  of  the  government  of  the  officers,  that  have  been 
called  kings,  nor  when  they  did  rid  themselves  of  that  species 
of  master,  did  those  who  had  obtained  power  desist  from  the 
endeavour  to  confirm  it  to  themselves,  and  their  privileged 
order  ;  nor  were  the  peopl  e  remiss  in  their  efforts  to  preserve 
their  ancient  usages  and  rights,  till  here,  as  in  Greece,  a  com- 
promise took  place,  and  ten  citizens  were  appointed  to  compile 
a  written  code  of  laws  for  the  regulation  of  the  society,  who  re- 
paired for  that  purpose  to  their  progenitors  in  Greece,  from 
whence  they  returned  with  the  laws  of  the  12  tables  ;  nor  did 
the  adoption  of  these  laws  terminate  the  struggle  between  pri- 
vilege and  exclusion  ;  were  the  exertions  of  the  excluded 
crowned  with  success,  it  was  but  t;pmporary  ;  laws  were  multi- 
plied by  the  rich,  which  curtailed  the  fair  proportion  of  the 
people,  and  though  inadmissible  innovations  on  first  principles 
became  constituted  and  established,  whilst  an  attempt  on  the 
part  of  tlie  general  to  recover  rights  of  whicli  they  were  de- 
spoiled, was  termed  wild  and  visionary  novelty,  and  alJ  who 


abetted  the  recurrence  to  original  institutions,  on  which  no  en- 
croachment should  have  been  made,  were  branded  with  the 
names  of  conspirators,  revolutionists,  rerum  novarum  studiosi, 
so  vile  are  the  uses  to  which  power  can  employ  language,  yet 
do  we  find  the  people  constantly  struggling  for  their  ancient 
institutions,  though  covered  as  deeply  as  possible  by  heaps  of 
modern  regulations. 

So  long  as  the  Romans  respected  primitive  manners  and 
customs,  they  were  majestic,  did  they  in  their  turn  fall  under 
subjection  to  a  foreign  yoke,  was  it  not  in  consequence  of  a 
departure  from  the  ancient  usages,  vitiated  by  commerce  and 
conquests,  conquests  applauded  to  the  skies  by  the  senseless 
people,  who  whilst  they  followed  the  chariot  wheels  of  the  con- 
queror, never  once  reflected  that  the  triumphs  they  joyously 
celebrated,  did  but  furnish  means  to  their  rulers  to  corrupt  and 
tyrannize  over  them,  and  enable  them  at  length  to  carry  an  in- 
glorious victory  over  the  laws,  and  liberties  of  the  country, 
nought  but  specious  names,  and  empty  forms  suffered  in 
mockery  to  exist. 

If  we  contemplate  the  Gothic  tribes  of  the  Scythian  race, 
"we  find  them  in  the  practice  of  the  like  pastoral  manners, 
governed  by  the  like  customs  and  institutions,  mamtained  for 
a  duration  proportioned  to  their  ignorance  of  trade,  commerce, 
and  foreign  conquests,  by  inflexible  adherence  to  which 
original  institutions,  whereby  every  individual  a  free  man,  with 
motives  powerful  to  withstand  the  aggression  of  an  invader ; 
they  rendered  abortive  the  designs  of  Darius,  destroyed  Cyrus 
and  all  his  host,  yea  more,  infinitely  more,  they  convinced 
Alexander  by  the  sound  reason  of  practical  philosophy,  of  the 
absurdity  of  attempting  to  enslave  them  ;  and  though  a  great 
portion  of  their  territory  was  over-run,  and  moulded  into  a 
provence  according  to  the  high  Roman  fashion  by  Trajan, 
they  recovered  their  liberties  by  clinging  to  the  substance  of 
first  principles,  and  maintained  their  i-ude  independence,  long 
after  Rome,  once  the  mistress  of  all  the  world  known  to  her, 
had  lost  all  but  her  name. 


Though  there  is  no  doubt  oi'  the  Scythian  origin  of  these 
tribes,  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  notice  some  few  of  their  manners, 
customs,  and  institutions,  as  recoi-ded  by  Herodotus. 

In  the  2d  chapter  of  Melpomene,  he  says,  "  the  Scythians 
do  not  cultivate  the  ground,  but  lead  a  pastoral  life." 

In  the  46th  chapter,  he  says,  *'  the  Scythians  have  no  towns 
nor  fortifications,  their  habitations  they  always  carry  with 

In  the  59th  chapter,  he  says,  "  of  the  divinities  of  the 
Scythians,  Fiesto  is  without  competition  the  principal ;"  he  adds, 
"  Mars  is  the  only  deity  to  whom  they  erect  temples,  shrines, 
and  altars."  This  expression  o(  Herodotus  amazed  me  so  much, 
that  I  doubted  his  authority,  not  without  reason,  for  I  find 
from  Ammiajius  Marcellinus,  "  that  the  Scythians  had  no  tem- 
ples, shrine  or  booth,  but  that  a  sword  was  substituted  for  a 
temple  to  this  God  of  war,"  who,  was  of  course  a  stranger  of 
foreign  importation. 

In  the  67th  chapter,  he  tells  us  of  their  mode  of  divination 
by  twigs. 

These  particulars  you  will  bear  in  mind,  when  we  come  to 
speak  of  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  Iberian  Scythians  in 
Spain  and  Eri. 

On  passing  to  the  island  of  Britain,  where  I  have  heretofore 
noted  the  divers  nations  according  to  their  origin,  I  have  now 
to  observe  that  our  light  is  very  dim  whereby  to  discover 
identity  or  diversity,  but  considering  religion  as  an  institution, 
and  collecting  all  the  few  accounts  handed  down  to  us,  we  are 
enabled  to  arrive  at  some  facts  important  to  our  subject. 

What  tlie  primitive  religion  of  the  Aborigines  of  Britain 
was^,  has  not  been  ascertained,  but  we  are  informed  by  Jidltis 
Ccesar  and  other  Romans  at  half  a  century  before  Chrirt,  that 
Druidism  prevailed ;  that  this  system  was  transported  from 
Britain  to  the  portion  of  Gaul  called  Armorica,  still  in  posses- 
sion of  its  original  inhabitants,  is  clear  from  the  chief  of  the 
order  being  resident  in  this  island,  whither  all  those  desirous 
of  becoming  perfect  in  the  doctrine,  were  obliged  to  repair,  cir- 
cumstances for  which  ignorance  cannot  account,  but  arc  easily 


explained  by  knowledge  of  the  fact,  that  Druidism  was  intro- 
duced into  Britain  by  tlie  Phoenicians,  who  never  had  any  in- 
tercourse with  that  part  of  Gaul,  though  they  colonized  Dun- 
mionac,  that  is  Devon  and  Cornwall,  1037  years  before  Christ, 
with  divers  of  their  tributaries  of  Spain,  multitudes  of  the  Ga- 
al  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er,  and  of  the  Gaal  of  Ib-er  within  Buas-ce 
independent  people,  whom  they  employed  in  the  mines,  as 
before  mentioned. 

That  the  Scythians  of  Britain,  would  not  embrace  this  new 
fangled  system  of  the  Phoenicians,  no  one  can  imagine,  though 
adopted  by  the  natives  of  the  island,  recommended  by  its 
foreign  extraction  and  its  novelty,  and  enforced  by  power.  It 
is  to  be  regretted  that  the  Roman  writers  dealt  too  much  in 
generalities,  by   reason   of  their  want  of  actual   knowledge. 

Though  at  the  time  of  the  invasion  of  Julius  Coesar,  there 
were  three  distinct  and  various  races  of  the  human  kind,  the 
Scythians  of  Dun-mianac,  of  the  Silures,  and  of  the  Bri- 
gantes,  the  Gerraanni  of  the  Peucini  and  of  the  Belgae, 
and  all  the  many  tribes  of  the  Aborigines,  each  of  whom  had 
its  specific  denomination,  you  derive  no  direct  information  from 
the  Romans,  whereby  to  mark  distinctions  with  satisfactory 
precision,  all  being  huddled  together  by  the  name  of  Britanni, 
(d)  yet  hath  one  expression  fallen  from  Tacitus^  which 
establishes  the  fact,  of  their  being  divers  religions  amongst 
these  different  nations.  When  Caracticus  chief  of  the  Silures 
formed  an  association  of  the  Ordovices  and  other  aboriginal 
nations  to  oppose  the  invasion  of  the  Romans,  and  harangued 
the  confederates  previously  to  the  battle  that  was  to  perpetuate 
their  slavery  or  independence,  "  they  bound  themselves  by  oaths 
after  the  manner  of  their  respective  religions,  not  to  yield ;" 
what  their  respective  religions  were,  though  not  explained,  no 
one  can  doubt,.  They  were  the  ancient  Scythian  religion  of 
the  Silures,  the  ancient  religion  of  the  Aborigines  and  Druidism. 

Of  the  commerce  and  connexion  of  the  Phoenicians  with  the 
southern  coast  of  Bri-tain,  the  chronicles  of  Gael-ag  are  full, 
and  though  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag  and  of  Eri  are  silent  of 
the  Silures,  X\\ey  speak  fully  and  clearly  of  the  Bri-gantes,  de- 


daring  them  to  be  a  tribe  of  Iber-ians,  who  having  entered  into 
the  employment  of  the  Phoenicians  to  work  in  the  mines  of 
Dun-mianac ;  being  detained  by  these  faithless  traders,  burst 
forth  of  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  and  steering  their  course  north- 
ward, abided  on  the  coasts  of  present  Lancashire,  from  whence 
they  spread  themselves  over  York,  Durham,  Westmoreland, 
and  Cumberland ;  and  in  part  confirmation  of  the  kindred  be- 
tween the  Silures  and  the  Brigantes,  I  shall  here  notice,  that 
when  Caracticus,  overpowered  by  the  superior  skill  in  the 
science  of  treachery  of  the  Romans,  was  obliged  to  seek  pro- 
tection in  some  quarter,  he  did  not  repair  to  the  Dobini,  nor 
the  Cornavii,  his  immediate  neighbours,  but  passed  over  to  the 
Bri-gantes  of  his  own  race.  If  we  hear  of  Cartismandua  deli- 
vering him  up  to  his  enemies,  in  violation  of  the  rights  of  hos- 
pitahty,  we  must  attribute  the  frightful  crime  to  her  being  be- 
reft of  reason  by  the  madding  passion  of  love  for  her  husband's 
armour  bearer,  to  the  frantic  hope  to  which  her  disordered 
imagination  gave  entertainment,  of  carrying  her  prospects  into 
execution,  and  the  certainty  of  being  upheld  for  the  perfidious 
act  by  the  Romans,  who  gave  apreference  to  virtue  or  to  vice, 
only  as  either  promoted  their  insidious  designs.  Should  sub- 
mission to  a  female,  a  custom  always  practised  by  the  Abori- 
gines, so  contrary  to  Scythian  usage,  induce  a  doubt  of  the 
Scythian  origin  of  the  Bri-gantes  ;  be  it  remembered,  that  all 
the  noble  youths  and  warriors  of  this  nation  resisted  her  autho- 
rity, and  though  she  was  maintained  by  her  pretended  friends 
and  treacherous  allies,  who,  after  the  old  Roman  fashion,  as 
Tacitus  says,  "  made  kings  the  instruments  of  enslaving  others," 
he  might  have  added  themselves  also.  "  Yet  did  the  kingdom 
fall  to  Vcnusius,  tlie  husband  of  Cartismandua,  and  the  war  to 
the  Romans. 

Before  concluding  this  part  of  our  subject,  I  beg  leave  to 
offer  a  few  more  observations,  tending  to  mark  the  difference 
between  the  Aborigines  of  Britain  and  the  Scythian  nations 
within  that  island,  as  well  as  the  identity  of  the  latter  with  each 
other  ;  the  districts  I  assign  to  the  Scythians  are  Dun-niianac, 
viz.  Devon,  and  Cornwall,  at  this  day  ;  the  country  of  the  Sil- 


ur-cs,  now  Glamorgan,  Monmouth,  Hereford,  Brecon,  and 
Radnor;  and  of  the  Bri-gantes,  comprehending  Lancaster, 
York,  Durham,  Westmoreland,  and  Cumberland.  Now  when 
the  Germannic  Belgas  invaded  Britain,  which  w^as  many  cen- 
turies after  the  Scythian  tribes  were  estabUshed  in  that  island, 
we  find  them  seating  themselves  in  Hants,  Wilts,  and  Somerset, 
farther  they  ventured  not,  the  lands  being  occupied  by  Scy- 
thians, a  people  better  armed,  more  advanced  in  the  social 
course,  and  better  versed  in  the  practice  of  war,  if  not  braver 
than  the  natives. 

If  you  consult  all  the  authorities,  even  Roman,  save  flat- 
tering panegyrists,  the  time  serving  poets  laureat  of  their  day, 
and  the  fictions  of  rhymers,  who  made  no  scruple  of  laying, 
not  Britain  only,  but  the  whole  world  besides,  at  Caesar's  feet, 
you  will  not  discover  that  the  Romans  ever  effected  the  subju- 
gation of  Dun-mianac,  and  you  will  be  informed  that  the  re- 
sistance they  experienced  from  the  Belgic-Atribates,  and  all  the 
native  tribes  south  of  Tweed,  was  trifling  compared  with  the 
opposition  they  met  with  from  the  Bri-gantes  and  the  Silures, 
every  advantage  gaicied  over  them  being  thought  particularly 
worthy  the  loudest  strains  of  praise  and  adulation  ;  for  the  cor- 
rectness of  which  observations,  I  take  the  liberty  of  referring 
you  to  Camden,  who  has  with  diligence  and  fidelity  compiled 
all  the  Roman  evidence  on  this  subject,  to  which  he  added  a 
meagre  topography,  a  puerile  heraldic  genealogy,  and  a  most 
wretched  attempt  at  a  description  of  Scotland  and  Ireland ; 
which  might  perhaps  have  entitled  him  to  the  office  of  king  at 
arms,  but  hathgainedfor  him,  amongst  his  own  countrymen,  the 
title  of  "  antiquarian,  the  most  learned  antiquarian,*'  to  which 
be  hath  no  more  pretensions  than  to  be  compared  with  Shak- 
speare.  Bacon,  or  Newton,  in  their  respective  walks ;  such  the 
miserable  state  of  the  knowledge  of  antiquity  amongst  a  people, 
by  whom  such  a  man  could  be  reputed  an  antiquary,  but  his 
large  book  was  written  on  antiquities,  and  in  Latin. 

Have  I  spoken  in  very  high  terms  of  the  Scythian  nations 
in  Britain,  I  must  deprecate  any  idea  of  my  having  so  done 
in  disparagement  to  the  Britons,  which  would  be  an  act  of  in- 


justice  and  of  folly  in  the  extreme  ;  the  reverse  being  recorded 
by  the  very  man,  the  brilliancy  of  whose  glory  was  cast  into 
shade  by  the  more  luminous  splendor  of  their  heroic  deeds, 
of  which  the  practical  demonstrations,  first  of  the  men  of  Kent, 
and  then  of  the  Cassii,  who  obliged  the  tyrant  to  fly  and  aban- 
don his  project,  and  struck  so  great  a  terror  in  the  heart  of  the 
deified  Ccesars,  their  disciplined  banditti  cased  in  steel,  their 
foreign  stipendiaries  hired,  and  their  wretched  slaves  forced 
to  be  the  instruments  of  enslaving  their  fellow  men,  that  the 
designs  upon  the  liberties  of  the  Britons  were  not  resumed  by 
the  imperial  spoilers  for  a  century  afterwards,  and  when  they 
did  at  length  succeed  in  the  work  of  subjugating  the  greater 
part  of  the  island,  they  were,  by  the  accounts  of  their  own 
writers,  more  indebted  for  their  criminal  success  to  the  excel- 
lence of  their  arms,  armour,  and  discipline,  and  above  all,  to 
their  skill  in  the  cursed  art  of  disuniting  the  people,  than  to 
their  superior  gallantry  in  the  field.  Had  the  nations  of  Bri- 
tain avoided  that  one  snare,  they  would  have  triumphed  over 
all  the  legions  that  Rome  could  have  poured  in  upon  them. 

O  unhappy  Eri,  hadst  thou  steered  clear  of  that  fatal  rock 
Disunion,  thou  wouldest  have  laughed  to  scorn  all  other  machi- 
nations of  foreign  blood-hounds  who  have  made  thee  desolate, 
and  by  their  wiles  and  abominations  have  estranged  from  thee 
the  affection  and  duty  of  thy  own  proper  children,  now  become 
traitors  to  thee,  rebellious  sons,  false  fawning  sycophants,  who 
bend  their  necks  to  the  yoke,  and  pay  respect  and  reverence 
to  men,  whose  hands  are  still  tinted  with  the  blood  of  thy  race, 
which  their  forefathers  poured  out  on  thy  bosom,  the  stain 
whereof  no  time  will  wear  out.  Degenerate  sons  who  have  so 
entirely  lost  all  relish  for  liberty,  as  to  dare  to  prophane  the 
sacred  name,  by  identifying  it  with  admission  into  the  foetid 
temple  of  corruption,  anxious  only  to  become  joint  spoilers  of 
thee,  even  in  a  small  degree,  and  call  their  treason.  Emancipa- 
tion, so  much  are  they  in  love  with  slavery  and  corruption ! !  .' 

Of  a  nation  so  lost  I  speak  not,  but  if  you  will  compare  the 
ancient  manners,  customs  and  institutions  of  the  various  Scy- 
thian tribes  through  the  whole  extent  of  the  eartli,  whereso- 


ever  they  have  abided,  with  those  of  the  Assyrians  in  Asia, 
the  Egyptians  in  Africa,  the  Cimmerii,  Cimbri,  or  Germanni, 
and  the  Kelikoi  or  Celtoe  in  Europe,  you  will  not  find  the 
sHglitest  similarity  between  the  customs  and  institutions  of  the 
Scvthians,  and  of  any  of  these  nations,  save  in  those  instances 
wliere  some  resemblance  is  ever  found  in  all  people  in  the  same 
stage  of  society,  before  it  had  entered  into  the  artificial  state, 
whilst  the  Sc^'thians  are  identified  every  where  by  perfect 
sameness.  Should  some  few  shades  of  likeness  be  discernable 
between  the  Scythians,  and  the  distinct  nations  on  whom  they 
bordered  for  centuries,  the  Cimbri  or  Germanni,  and  the  Celtas, 
for  example,  doth  not  long  contiguity  account  satisfactorily  for 
the  circumstance,  without  assuming  as  a  fact  therefi'om,  that 
the  neighbour  people  were  of  one  common  origin. 

The  memorials  of  Persians,  Chaldeans,  Hebrews,  Phoeni- 
cians, Greeks  and  Romans,  and  of  the  children  of  Eri,  testify 
that  they  were  worshippers  of  fire,  the  present  emblem  of  the 
sun,  the  chiefest  object  of  their  adoration,  nor  have  their  pos- 
terity departed  from  their  veneration  for  fire  to  this  hour,  as 
the  religious  ceremonies  of  the  Greeks,  Romans,  Spanish,  and 
Irish,  bear  witness.  To  which  primitive  essential,  there  is  not 
the  faintest  allusion  amongst  the  Germanni,  nor  the  Celtae,  as 
every  notice  of  these  people,  more  particularly  the  fine  des- 
cription of  the  former  by  Tacitus,  and  the  notices  of  the  latter  by 
Ca2sar  manifest,  nay,  so  entix'ely  different  were  they  from  the 
Scythians  in  doctrine  and  practice,  that  to  this  original  vari- 
ance may  be  traced  the  promptness  wherewith  many  of  the 
Germannic  nations  on  their  own  lands,  and  the  countries  whi- 
ther Germanni  had  emigrated,  abandoned  the  remnant  of  fire 
worship,  originally  adopted  by  the  influence  of  the  Roman 
power,  adherence  to  which  by  the  descendants  of  the  Scythi- 
ans, they  consider  a  relic  of  paganism  and  idolatry. 

If  in  the  Druidic  religion  of  the  Celtae  of  Gaul  and  Britain, 
some  resemblance  to  the  Scythian  be  discoverable,  the  fact  is 
easily  accounted  for  by  its  being  of  Phoenician  origin,  invented 
by  that  politic  trading  people  in  the  expectation  that  prosely- 
tisni  thereto  would  be  the  means  of  reconciling  the  natives  to 


the  intruders ;  and  when  it  is  considered  that  this  sect  pre- 
vailed only  in  Gaul  and  Britain,  your  mind  may  not  reject  the 
suggestion,  that  to  its  establishment  in  the  former  land  might 
be  ascribed  the  character  at  this  day  of  the  Gallican  church, 
a  sort  of  compromise  between  reason,  policy,  and  enthusiasm, 
and  on  the  latter,  the  marked  difference  in  religious  opinions 
amongst  the  ancient  Britons.  The  Scythian  Silures,  Brigantes 
in  Britain,  and  Scoti  in  Albion,  and  the  Germannic  Peucini 
Belg£e,  Jutes,  Sassons,  and  Angles,  the  first  wavei-ing,  moved 
to  and  fro  by  currents  of  contrary  fancies,  the  second  steadily 
attached  to  fire  worship,  and  communion  with  their  fraternity 
of  Rome ;  the  last  protesting  there  against. 

These  are  conclusions  of  modern  days,  drawn  from  the 
memorials  of  ancient  times,  from  which  will  be  demonstrated 
that  the  children  of  Eri  were  in  the  invariable  exercise  of  the 
manners  and  customs,  primitive  institutions,  and  religion  of 
the  ancient  Scythians,  of  which  traces  are  yet  visible,  the  pro- 
pensity to  which  still  exists,  and  are  practised  by  the  genuine 
race  in  all  cases  wherein  the  power  of  the  Sassons  that  for  the 
present  predominates,  doth  not  interfere. 

If  I  have  not  spoken  of  Spain,  Aquitania,  the  Waldenses, 
and  the  Massilii,  it  is  because  nothing  is  known  of  them, 
more  than  these  chronicles  attest ;  and  that  from  the  time 
these  countries  did  become  known  to  Greeks  and  Romans,  a 
mighty  change  had  taken  place  in  Spain  and  these  lands,  in 
consequence  of  the  great  innovation  in  religion  introduced  by 
Sesostris,  and  afterwards  by  Danaus,  into  Greece,  from 
whence  the  innovation  spread  far  and  wide,  but  not  to  Eri,  the 
colony  of  Scythian  Iberians  having  emigrated  to  this  island  in 
consequence  of,  and  almost  instantly  after,  the  invasion  ot 
Spain  by  Sesostris,  by  reason  whereof  we  of  Eri  knew  nothing 
of  image  worship  till  the  arrival  of  christian  missionaries,  who 
had  not  abandoned  (nor  even  yet)  veneration  for  fire,  and  merely 
changed  the  images  of  sniveling  mendicant  priests,  called 
saints,  for  the  statues  of  barbarous  plundering  warriors,  called 
heroes,  under  the  erroneous  idea  of  their  being  benefactors  to 



(a)  We  learn  from  Diodonu  Siculus,  in  the  commencement  of  liis  work, 
that  the  ancient  philosophers  held  two  different  opinions  concerning  this 

Some  supposing  that  the  world  had  neither  beginning,  nor  shall  ever 
end,  that  mankind  was  Irom  eternity,  there  never  being  a  time  when  he 
first  began  to  exist ;  others  imagining,  that  the  world  was  made,  is  cor- 
ruptible, and  that  there  was  a  certain  time,  when  man  had  first  a 

And  with  respect  to  the  cause  of  the  origin  of  man,  and  other  animals, 
and  other  things,  he  thus  expressess  himself : 

"  Whereas  moisture  generates  matter  firom  heat,  as  from  a  seminal 
principle,  things  so  generated  by  being  enclosed  in  the  dewy  mists  of  night, 
grew  and  encreased,  and  in  the  day  became  solidated,  and  were  made  hard 
by  the  heat  of  the  sun,  and  when  the  embryos  included  in  these  ventricles 
had  received  their  due  proportion,  then  those  slender  films,  being  burst 
asunder  by  the  heat,  the  forms  of  all  sorts  of  living  creatures  were  brought 
forth  into  the  light ;  but  when  the  earth  afterwards  became  more  dry  and 
solid,  had  not  the  power  at  length,  to  produce  any  more  of  the  greater 
living  beings,  then  each  that  had  animal  life,  began  to  encrease  their  kind  by 
mutual  copulation." 

Which  of  these  opinions  is  true,  which  false,  it  is  not  worth  while  to 
bestow  many  thoughts  upon,  some  fancy  this  mode  of  accounting  for  the 
original  production  of  animals,  &c.  is  the  most  rational ;  others  fancy  the 
Hebrew  notion  is  the  most  rational  of  all  schemes,  on  which  I  shall  make 
but  one  observation,  that  every  race  of  mankind  have  their  own  fancies, 
on  the  infallibility  of  which,  all  insist  though  each  is  opposed  to  other,  and 
all  is  but  fancy  ;  at  the  same  tune,  I  cannot  see  any  reason  for  the  outcry 
raised  against  the  doctrine  of  materialism,  on  the  grounds  the  outcry  is 
raised,  might  not  matter  have  been  created  by,  might  not  the  principle 
of  life  and  motion  teen  the  effect  of  a  primary  cause  ?  the  point  is  to  dis- 
cover what  that  first  cause  is  ;  to  which  I  answer,  read  the  book  of  Job, 
read  the  writing  of  Eolus. 

(b)  Par  example.  Divers  ancient  historians,  amongst  whom  Manetho 
the  Egyptian,  expressly  says,  the  Hebrews  were  originally  Egyptians,  re- 
siding in  the  district  of  Pelusium,  who  were  driven  out  of  the  country  on 
account  of  the  filth,  and  the  woeful  disease  of  leprosy,  with  which  they 
were  constantly  afflicted,  and  that  they  emigrated  to  Palestine,  when  they 
built  Jerusalem ;  here  Manetho  evidently  confounds  the  expulsion  of  the 
remnant  of  the  shepherds,  from  Abaris  or  Pelusium,  in  1100,  with  the 
escape  of  the  Israehtes  in  1450  before  Christ,  surely  no  one  will  take  the 
account  of  Manetho,  in  preference  to  that  of  the  chronicles  of  the  people 


(c)  From  the  bible  translators  you  are  given  to  understand,  that  tlie 
order  of  the  Pharaoh  of  Egypt  was  to  hare  houses  built  for  the  midwives, 
who  were  to  be  the  executioners  of  the  babes ;  but  I  beg  leave  to  say  the 
edict  was  to  oblige  the  children  of  Israel,  scattered  in  their  tents  after  the 
manner  of  their  Scythian  race,  to  come  together,  that  the  monstrous  decree 
might  be  carried  the  better  into  effect,  and  that  the  midwives  may  not 
avail  themselves  of  the  excuse  they  made,  for  the  escape  of  some  of  the 
infants,  by  saying  that  the  Hebrew  women  being  lively,  they  were  delivered 
before  they  could  come  to  them,  scattered  over  the  face  of  the  land  : — and 
here  I  beg  leave  to  observe,  that  the  bible  translators  have  most  scandal- 
ously disfigured  various  passages  of  the  writings  of  the  Hebrews,  from  the 
discordance  of  the  relatives  to  their  antecedents. 

((f)  With  some  exceptions  which  shall  be  noted  when  I  come  to  speak 
of  language,  instances  that  are  conclusive  to  the  difference  between  the 
Britannl  and  Brig  antes. 


Of  the  Language  of  the  Scythian  Race. 

PAllT  XII. 

XI AVING  conducted  you  thus  far,  pointing  out  in  our  pro- 
gress various  criterions  of  the  Scythian  race,  and  of  their  dis- 
similarity from  all  other  ancient  people,  I  come  now  to  exhibit 
a  record  that  hath  survived  all  the  columns,  erected  to  perpe- 
tuate the  memory  of  the  subjugation  of  once  independent 
nations,  and  the  indiscriminate  fate  of  the  millions  of  human 
sacrifices,  offered  up  on  the  sanguined  altars  of  ambition  and 
power,  by  merciless  barbarians  called  conquerors,  their  names 
held  in  veneration  as  heroes,  men  illustrious,  instead  of  being 
devoted  to  just  execration  as  enemies  of  the  human  race, 
destroyers  of  their  kind.  This  imperishable  memorial  is  lan- 
guage, which,  though  imperishable,  hath  undergone  divers 
mutations,  according  to  a  variety  of  circumstances  too  obvious 
to  require  particular  notice. 

This  is  a  subject  which,  whilst  it  admits  of,  and  hath  been 
involved  in  an  infinity  of  confusion  and  perplexity,  is  never 
the  less  susceptible  of  the  clearest  demonstration,  by  an  ob- 
servance of  the  plain  and  simple  rule  of  mounting  up  to  the 
very  source,  as  essentially  necessary  as  in  hydraulics,  wherein 
it  is  not  possible  to  succeed,  if  the  fountain  be  not  thoroughly 
explored,  and  perfectly  ascertained. 

Here,  as  on  former  occasions,  we  must  have  recourse  to  the 
Hebrews,  by  whom  we  are  informed  that  2247  years  ante- 
cedently to  the  christian  era, 

"  The  whole  earth  was  of  one  and  the  same  language^  which 
their  God  confounded,  insomuch  that  men  could  not  under- 
stand each  other's  speech,  to  prevent  the  prosecution  of  the 
building  of  the  tower  of  Babel." 


However  satisfactory  this  mode  of  accounting  for  the  variety 
of  languages  found  among  the  many  nations  of  the  earth  may 
be  to  ignorance,  or  may  be  openly  and  loudly  declared  to  be 
by  hypocrisy,  whilst  it  inwardly  laughs  at  the  whimsical  con- 
ceit ;  to  me,  who  am  not  in  the  trammels  of  ignorance,  with 
the  credulity  and  prejudices  of  which  I  will  not  palter,  at  which 
I  will  never  wink,  who  am  not  damned  in  hypocrisy,  with  the 
detestable  insincerity  of  which  I  will  enter  into  no  compromise, 
this  solution  is  not  convincing,  therefore  I  will  travel  higher 
for  the  spring  than  the  point  where  the  sacred  penman,  the 
inspired  writer,  hath  directed  us  to  find  it. 

As  it  hath  heretofore  been  noticed,  that  architecture  was  an 
art  altogether  new  to  the  Scythians,  till  the  invasion  of  the 
Assyrians ;  so  here  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  no  mention  is  to 
be  found,  in  the  writings  of  the  Hebrews,  of  any  difference  of 
language,  till  the  arrival  of  a  people,  who  "journeying  from 
the  East,  found  a  plain  on  the  land  of  Shinar,  and  dwelt  there  ;" 
and  "  built  the  tower  and  city  of  Ba-bel,"  that  is,  till  the  ar- 
rival of  the  Assyrians  oh  the  lands  of  the  Scythians.  To  these 
novel,  and  to  them  surprising  events,  the  Hebrews  assigned 
one  and  the  same  date ;  so  far  the  traditions  are  founded  on 
fact,  (as  most  traditions  are)  whilst  the  superstructure  is  the 
work  of  fancy,  the  falsity  of  the  tales  manifested,  not  only  by 
the  evidence  of  other  ancient  people,  but  by  the  right  reason 
of  man.  When  the  author  of  Genesis  asserts,  that  "  all  the 
earth  had  been  of  one  language,"  you  are  to  take  to  account 
their  invariable  mode  of  expression,  their  earth  was  the  por- 
tion of  the  globe  known  to  them  ;  true,  all  their  earth  was  of 
one,  the  Scythian  speech,  till  the  invasion  of  the  Assyrians,  on 
that  event  another,  the  Syriac  language,  was  introduced. 

That  the  Assyrians  were  much  farther  advanced  than  the 
Scythians  in  the  art  of  war,  is  proved  by  the  fact  of  their  dis- 
membering the  Scythian  empire,  and  in  their  progress  towards 
civilization  is  to  be  presumed,  from  their  amazing  skill  in  the 
science  of  architecture  ;  and  though  there  be  no  direct  autho- 
rity for  their  being  versed  in  the  knowledge  of  letters,  it  must 
be  inferred  from  the  circumstance  of  their  having  preserved  a 


register  of  their  astronomical  obsei*vations,  commenced  in 
twelve  years  after  their  occupation  of  Shinar,  carried  in  nine- 
teen hundred  years  afterwards  by  Cnlisthenes  to  Macedon, 
where  it  was  examined  and  found  correct  by -4 mto^/^  ;  and  as 
I  before  shewed,  that  subsequently  to  the  appearance  of  the 
Assyrians  west  of  the  Scind,  there  were  four  genera  of  the 
human  species  in  the  west  of  Asia,  and  the  east  of  Africa,  dif- 
ferent each  from  the  other,  the  variance  not  have  grown  out  of 
a  separation  from  one  parent  stock,  but  always  distinct  pro- 
ductions of  the  elements  of  their  several  climates  ;  so  here  I 
say,  there  were  from  that  epoch  four  primitive  languages,  the 
Arabian,  the  Scythian,  Egyptian,  and  Syriac,  totally  different 
one  from  the  other,  the  variance  not  the  effect  of  spiritual  in- 
tervenlion,  preter-natural  agency,  but  of  the  ordinary  opera- 
tions of  nature,  mankind  being  found  to  express  their  thoughts 
in  different  terms,  according  to  their  nati9ns,  insomuch  that 
language  hath  been,  and  ever  must  be  acknowledged  the  most 
unerring  conclusive  criterion  of  origin,  it  not  being  conceivable 
that  any  but  kindred  people  could  use  similar  words  to  make 
their  wants  and  passions  known. 

Though  I  may  content  myself  with  asserting  the  primitive 
difference  of  these  four  languages,  I  shall  illustrate  the  fact 
with  a  few  observations.  When  Abram  emigrated  from 
Chaldea  to  Canaan,  he  is  represented  not  only  in  the  practice 
of  the  manners,  customs,  and  religion,  but  in  the  use  of  the 
language  of  the  children  of  that  land,  with  whom  he  held  fre- 
quent conference,  no  mention  made  of  any  difference  of  speech. 
But  when  Jacob,  his  grandson,  entered  into  a  covenant  with 
Laban,  (in  the  same  degree  of  kindred  from  Terah,  and  abided 
in  Syria  of  Messipotamia  from  the  time  of  that  country  being 
subjected  to  the  power  of  the  Assyrian,  who  is  expressly  called 
a  Syrian,  and  had  adopted  that  language,)  and  they  piled  up 
stones  as  a  memorial  of  the  promise  of  friendship,  we  find 
Jacob  calling  the  heap  Galead,  which  is  Scythian,  which  Laban 
called  Jegar  Sahadutha,  which  is  Syriac,  both  having  the  same 
signification,  though  no  two  terms  can  be  more  unlike. 

So  in  the  time  of  Hezekiah,  when  Sennacherib  practised  on 


the  government  of  Judea,  the  old  Jacobinical  trick,  and  sent 
Rabshdkeh  to  speak  flattering  words  to  the  poor  of  Jerusalem, 
for  the  purpose  of  inducing  them  to  become  slaves  to  a  foreign 
yoke,  in  order  to  escape  from  native  slavery.  Eliakim  said 
"unto  him, 

"  Speak,  I  pray  thee,  to  thy  servants  in  the  Syrian  lan- 
guage, for  we  {Eliakim,  Shehna  and  Joah,)  understand  it,  and 
talk  not  Tvith  us  in  the  Jews  language,  in  the  ears  of  the 
people  that  are  on  the  wall ;"  so  entirely  different  were  these 
two  languages,  that  the  knowledge  of  Rabshakeh  of  Hebrew 
hath  been  attributed  to  his  being  one  of  the  children  of  Israel, 
carried  away  from  Samaria  into  captivity,  by  Shalman  Assurt 
and  now  selected  by  Sennacherib  for  this  purpose,  whilst  the 
acquaintance  of  the  Syriac  by  these  Hebrews,  is  accounted  for 
by  the  fact,  that  it  vas  studied  by  men  of  distinction,  and 
them  only  in  Judea,  as  a  refined  and  more  polished  language ; 
moreover,  is  it  not  a  fact,  that  on  the  return  of  the  children  of 
Israel  from  the  Babylonian  captivity,  (where  their  books  were 
written  in  the  Chaldean  language,  which  was  Syriac,  with 
some  mixture  of  Arabic  and  Scythian,)  was  it  not  the  practice 
for  the  priest  to  read  in  the  temple  of  Jerusalem,  the  portions 
of  the  service  in  that  Chaldean  language,  which  not  being 
understood  by  the  poor  people  who  returned,  nor  by  any  of 
those  who  still  remained  in  Judea ;  did  not  another  of  the 
priests  interpret  these  portions  of  the  writings  in  the  Hebrew 
tongue  ? 

If  the  Scythian  differed  so  entirely  from  the  Syriac,  so  did 
it  from  the  Arab  and  Egyptian,  the  difference  original,  radical ; 
of  the  variance  then  of  these  three  languages,  and  of  the 
Chinese  Indi,  Tatars,  and  the  many  nations  of  Afric,  from 
the  Scythian,  and  from  each  other,  I  shall  speak  no  farther 
for  the  present,  and  now  confine  myself  to  the  consideration  of 
the  Scythian  language,  and  its  kindred  dialects,  throughout 
the  earth. 

From  the  original  seat  of  the  Scythian  race,  as  on  the  chart, 
colonies  spread  themselves,  east  to  the  Scind,  south  to  the 
"Ocean,  west  to  the  Mediterranean  sea,  north  to  Caucasus,  the 


seat  of  the  government  of  this  vast  empire,  the  land  of 
Shinar  by  Euphrates,  from  which  being  expelled  by  the  Assy- 
rians, Noe  the  chief,  and  a  multitude  of  followers  called  Noe- 
maid-eis,  fled  to  Ardmenia,  all  the  countries  not  conquered  by 
the  Assyrians,  still  remaining  Scythian. 

Of  all  these  Scythian  nations,  Elam,  now  called  Persia,  is 
the  most  famous,  both  by  reason  of  the  maintenance  of  its 
independence,  and  therewith  the  preservation  of  the  primitive 
language,  as  well  as  its  celebrity  in  after  times ;  this  tribute 
paid  to  the  antiquity  and  prowess  of  this  Scythian  people,  on 
crossing  Euphrates,  and  passing  westward,  Sydon  stands  in 
the  first  rank  of  fame,  as  having  attained  to  the  science  of  vari- 
ous arts  unknown  to  their  kindred  tribes.  By  the  Hebrews 
it  is  said  to  be  founded  by  Canaan,  the  grandson  of  Noe^  their 
mode  of  expressing  its  high  antiquity  ;  mention  is  made  of  it 
in  their  traditions  of  JacoVs  blessing  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel, 
and  in  the  time  of  the  judges,  when  some  of  the  tribe  of  Dan 
broke  forth  in  quest  of  a  settlement,  in  describing  Laish,  it  is 
said,  how  "  the  people  of  that  place  dwelt  carelessly  after  the 
manner  of  thesf^ydonians,  quiet  and  secure ;"  nor  was  its  power 
shaken  in  the  least  by  the  Hebrews,  who  never  did  so  much  as 
enter  that  country,  notwithstanding  their  incoherent,  boast  of 
"  dwelling  amongst  the  Sydonians,  though  they  could  not 
utterly  drive  them  out." 

In  the  time  of  Solomon,  we  find  him  making  application  to 
Hiram  for  artificers,  to  instruct  the  Israelites  to  hew  timber 
for  the  temple,  "  for  there  was  not  amongst  the  Hebrews  that 
had  skill  to  hew  timber  like  unto  the  Sydonians,"  as  also  for 
carpenters  to  construct  ships  for  him,  and  for  mariners  to 
navigate  them,  on  his  acquisition  of  sea  ports  in  the  Arabian 
Gulph,  and  Gezer  on  the  Mediterranean,  with  wiiich  last 
Ammon,  his  wife's  father,  king  of  Eg3rpt,  had  presented^  him ; 
all  which  facts  denote  long  permanent  establishment.  The 
Sydonians  had  carried  on  extensive  commerce  in  various  parts, 
at  a  time  when  all  other  people,  as  far  as  we  know,  were  igno- 
rant of  the  science  of  navigation,  and  had  planted  colonies  in 
Spain,  in  Afric,  at  a  very  early  time,  and  even  in  Britain,  not 


many  years  after  the  names  of  Pelasgoi  and  Ellas  were  framed  s 
it  is  not  therefore  to  be  wondered  at,  if  necessity,  for  the  ends 
of  trade,  had  put  them  early  on  the  invention  of  characters 
durable,  signs  and  figures,  whereby  to  represent  words,  in 
which  accompts  may  be  set  down  and  preserved  ;  accordingly, 
we  know  from  unquestionable  authority,  that  to  their  know- 
ledge of  navigation,  and  astronomy,  the  Sydonians  added  the 
science  of  letters  and  arithmetic,  in  times  of  very  remote  anti- 

Now  you  will  be  pleased  to  recall  to  mind,  that  a  colony 
called  the  Gaal  of  Sciot,  having  emigrated  from  Ib-er,  under 
the  conduct  of  the  brothers,  Calrna  and  Ro-nard,  1491  years 
before  Christ,  arrived  at  Sydon,  from  whence  they  were  con- 
veyed to  Spain,  in  the  north  western  quarter  of  which  country 
they  seated  themselves,  between  the  Duor,  the  Iber,  and  the 
Ocean,  where  when  they  had  sojourned  for  the  space  of  one 
hundred  and  thirty  years,  Eolus,  the  then  chief,  went  to  Sydon, 
where  he  was  instructed  in  the  science  of  letters,  and  on  his 
return  to  Gaelag,  sent  nine  of  tiie  most  capable  of  the  people 
to  be  instructed  therein  also,  which  gave  rise 'to  an  order  of 
learned  men,  called  01am  in  Gaelag,  and  in  Eri,  of  great  im- 
portance in  the  community,  of  one  of  whom  it  was  the  office  to 
write  down,  and  preserve  the  chronicles  of  the  land  which  you 
are  about  to  read  ;  antecedently  to  our  fathers  becoming  ac- 
quainted with  letters,  they  used  the  dialect  of  the  Scythian 
tongue  peculiar  to  their  tribe,  and  neighbour  kindred  nations, 
from  the  time  of  their  acquiring  the  knowledge  of  letters,  they 
called  the  written  language  Beolrad-feine,  in  grateful  remem- 
brance of  the  obhgation,  Avhilst  the  unwritten  speech  was  called 
Gneat  Beolrad,  by  both  which  names  our  written  and  unwritten 
language  is  called  by  us  at  this  very  day. 

Such  being  the  traditionary  account  of  these  occurrences 
■which  hath  never  been  lost  sight  of,  preserved  in  various  re- 
cords often  cited,  though  on  many  occasions  so  absurdly  as  to 
subject  the  memorial  to  the  imputation  of  fiction,  the  truth  of 
which  is  now  put  beyond  question  by  the  writings  themselves  ; 
such  being  the  language  of  the  Scythian  race  of  mankind,  of 

'^"^TE  n 

^M  A     S\  A 

G   E    r  -^^ 



Persia,  Palestina,  and  all  the  land  of  Canaan,  of  Ardmenia, 
Colchis,  Iberia,  Albania,  and  the  whole  of  Asia  Minor,  of  the 
Scythian  Goths,  of  all  the  islands  of  the  Mediterranean  sea, 
of  all  the  tribes  of  Thrace,  from  thence  to  Panonia,  and 
Illurake,  both  inclusive,  and  of  Greece,  of  Italy,  of  Numidia, 
and  Carthage  in  Afric,  Spain,  Aquitania,  the  Waldensis, 
Massilia,  and  a  considerable  portion  of  Britain, 

I  shall  now  proceed  to  lay  before  you  a  variety  of  names  of 
celebrated  persons,  of  lands,  waters  and  institutions,  manners 
and  customs,  in  the  west  and  north  west  of  Asia,  that  occur 
in  the  writings  of  the  Hebrews,  and  other  ancient  people, 
which  I  shall  collate  with  the  language  of  Eri,  from  which 
every  one  who  can  see  and  read,  will  have  the  opportunity  of 
judging  for  himself  of  diversity,  similarity,  or  perfect  identity. 


I  shall  commence  with  the  lands  of  the  Parental  Scythians, 
as  marked  on  the  chart,  to  which  I  request,  your  constant  at- 
tention ;  but  previously  to  our  setting  out  on  our  voyage,  it 
will  nc-t  be  amiss  to  explain  the  radices  of  some  few  words  of 
the  more  ancient  Scythian  language,  and  to  point  the  variation 
therefrom  in  the  more  refined  dialects  of  Greece  and  Rome, 
which  will  be  the  means  of  saving  frequent  repetitions. 

Dialect  of  Greece.           of  Rome. 

of  Eri. 

Aia                          la 

Aoi  and  iat,  pronounced 

ia,  a  country 
Am-nis,  this  word  Aman,  pronounced  avan, 
in    compounds       and  aun,  a  river 
is      frequently 
pronounced  on 
and  aun 


Dun,    a  strong  hold,    or 
fortified  place,  generally 

on  an  eminence 

Dor,  Dour,  udor  Dur-um 

Duor,  water 

Taxis  and  es          Acies 

Eis  and  seis,  a  multitude. 

host,   colony,  any  great 



Mak-os  and  mak,  Mag-us 
in  compounds 

As,  is,  us,  ax,  ox  Isc-a.  osc-a 
Tan-ia  Tan 

number  of  people,  or 
matter  in  motion 
Mag,  pronounced  Mah,  a 
plain,  and  in  a  large 
sense,  a  widely  extend- 
ing country 

Tan,  a  district,  a  sub-divi- 
sion of  a  country 
Oi,  s^  I,  ii  Ig,  pronounced  ih,  the  no- 

minative plural  of  a  peo- 
Let  us  now  commence  on  the  lands  of  the  parental  Scy- 
tbians,  in  the  dialects  of  Greece,  Rome,  and  £ri,  with  their 
Anglo  Germatmic  significations,  wherefrom  you  will  see  at  a 
glance  the  identity  of  the  three  first,  and  their  difference  from 
the  last. 









I  m-ma-us 




Sagiotig,  this  original  word 
has  suffered  the  various 
mutations  of  Sciot,  Scolt, 
(a)  Scuten,  Scuit,  Skit, 
and  Scot 

iVlag-sagiotig,  (5)  "  the 
plains  or  wide  regions  of 
the  Scythians." 

Im-mag,  "  the  head  of  the 

lat-uisg-ard-eis,  (c)  "  the 
confluence  of  the  higher 
waters  of  the  country" 

Uisg,  the  water 

Tuat-sageotig,  the  north- 
ern Scythians 

KOTES    TO    SECTION    1. 

(a)  In  the  6th   chapter  of  Melpomene,   Herodotus  says,  "  generally 
speaking,  these  people  are  called  Scoloti,  but  the  Greeks  called  them  Sku- 



thai,"  in  Scoloti,  the  i  is  mere  termination,  and  the  latter  "  o"  is  Grecian 
for  Euphonia,  ore  rotundo.  Now  if  you  sound  the  comparatively  modern 
mutation  Scolt,  Sciot,  from  the  original  Sagiot,  you  will  readily  recognise 
the  identity  of  all  tlie  many  literal  changes  in  so  many  diflfereiit  countries, 
through  so  vast  a  space  of  time, 

(6)  Whenever  you  see  a  dot,  as  on  g,  the  final  letter  is  not  sounded. 
Here  you  pronounce  Mag,  Muh. 

(c)  This  compouiid  is  pronounced  "  Isk-ard-is  ;"  you  must  never  pro- 
nounce I  asj  ;  we  have  no  / ;  nor  must  you  ever  sound  c  as  *,  as  the  Anglo 
Saxons  do  almost  invariaMy. 


Moving  from  Parental  Scytliia,  and  proceeding  eastward  to 
the  extreme  limit  of  their  lands,  and  from  thence  to  Euphrates, 
I  find  the  following 

Dialed  of  Eri. 
Sgeind,    applied    to   water,    means  a 
current,  now  slow,  now  rapid,  of  an 
uneven,  unsteady  course 
El-am,  powerful  also 
Ce-duor-laoni-er,    earth,    water,   fire, 
and  air,  a  title  descriptive  of  his  ori- 
gin and  power 
Cai-bla,  the  point  of  devotion 

Indus,     Sind-us,     or 


Che-dor-laom-er,  chief 
of  El -am 

Ce-bla,  a  Persian  word 
denoting  the  point 
to  which  the  Per- 
sians directed  their 
face  in  worship 

Gaoi,  a  monstrous  er- 

Tigris  (a) 


Gaoi,  a  falsehood 

Tet-gris,  sparks  of  heat ;  descriptive  of 
the  peculiar  appearance  or  quahty 
of  this  river,  from  the  influence  of 
the  sun  on  its  waters,  which  are 
very  rapid 

lat-da-cal,  "  The  country  of  the  two 
enclosures,"  the  Messipotamia  of 
the  Greeks,  the  land  lying  between 
the  rivers  Tigris  and  Euphrates 




Aifreidg-eis ;  the  signification  of  this 
word  is  "  heaps  of  sudden   impe- 
tuous swells  or  risings,"  accurately 
descriptive  of  this  river,  which  rises 
suddenly    in     consequence    of   the 
dissolution  of  the   snow  in  Ardme- 
nia,  which  causes  the  swoln  current 
to  rush  with  vehemence  to  the  ocean 
Scian,  a  "  knife,"  though  we  of  Eri 
called  a  sword  colg,  from  the  land 
of  Colg,    in   the   mines   of    which 
country  they  were  had,  and  Clai- 
deam,  from  the  destruction  that  in- 
strument causes  ;  yet.  did  the  war- 
rior of  Eri  carry  a  scian  in  his  belt, 
which  was  his  sword 
Saoitreabaos,    pronounced   Setravesh, 
the  most  noble  and  learned  of  the 
Catar-rat-mann-sarac,  pronounced  Gar- 
rah-man-sara,  "  the  seat  of  the  sta- 
tion for  food."     In  Eri,  the  tent  or 
booth,  where  the  wayfaring  one  and 
the  stranger  received  the  rights  of 
hospitality,  'were  called  Rath,   pro- 
nounced Rah 
Shi  liar,  called  by  the     Mag-sean-atar,  pronounced  Ma-sean- 
Hebrews  the  plain         ar,  "  the  plain  of  the  old   father,'' 
of  Shinar  or  "  of  ancient  men" 

Ur-o-maz,    the   great     Ur-a-mas,  "  fire  how  excellent" 
god  of  the  Persians 

Note.  The  Greeks  have  made  Oraniazes  of  this  word,  whence  it  appears 
they  have  formed  it  in  compliance  with  their  idea  of  Euphonia,  to  the  vio- 
lation of  propriety,  having  changed  the  original  "  Ur,"  to  "  Or,"  which 
hath  no  signification,  and  added  "  es,"  for  termination  ;  but  you  will  have 
frequent  occasions  of  observing  in  our  progress,  that  they  made  very  light 
of  sacrificing  a  radix  to  Euphonia,  or  to  speak  more  correctly,  to  their 
fancy  of  harmony. 

Satrapes,  chieffc  of  pro- 
vinces in  Persia 

Caravan  sera,  houses  of 
hospitality  in  Persia, 



Ai-d-sei  Jrd-\g,  the  noble.     Herodotus  says, 

in  the  4lst  chapter  of  Polymnia, 
tliat  the  Persians  were  called  by 
themselves,  and  their  neighbours, 
Art-aei,  the  d  changed  to  the  softer 
t,  and  ce  a  Greek  termination 

Artacheeei  Ard-aice.   In    the   117th   chapter   of 

Polymnia,  Herodotus  calls  an  illus- 
trious Persian  by  the  Greek  name 
of  Art-achaees ;  now  Ard-aice  sig- 
nifies the  noble  one  of  the  tribe 

NOTE      TO    SECTION    II. 

(a)  Pliny  fancied  this  river  was  called  Tigris,  from  the  Persian  word 
for  an  arrow.  The  Scythian  race  had  their  name  from  sagiot,  an  arrow  ; 
they  would  therefore  call  an  arrow  Tigris,  from  the  swiftness  of  the  river, 
metaphorically,  but  in  very  late  times,  and  I  am  speaking  of  remote  days 
and  origins. 

SECTION  lit. 

Let  us  now  pass  over  Euphrates,  and  traverse  the  lands 
from  thence  to  the  Mediterranean,  whereon  I  shall  present 
you  with  a  catalogue  of  names  of  persons,  places,  and  cus- 
toms, in  alphabetical  order,  that  occur  in  the  writings  of  the 
Hebrews,  over  against  which  I  will  set  down  the  term  in  the 
language  of  Eri,  bearing  the  same  import,  of  which  I  will 
give  the  mere  literal  derivation,  with  its  just  pronunciation, 
frequently  very  different  from  what  one  ignorant  of  the  lan- 
guage would  suppose,  from  seeing  the  written  word  ;  and  for 
greater  clearness  I  will  use  the  letter  h,  though  not  one  of  our 
letters,  in  the  place  of  the  note  of  aspiration  (■-) 

Hebrew    or    Phoenician     Eri,  or  Phaeiiian  Dialect  of  the  Scythian 
Dialect  of  the  Scythian  Language. 


Ab-ram  Ab-ram,  even  a  chief 

Ab-raham  Ab-radh-am,  pronounced  Ab-rah-am  ; 

let  him  even  be  called  a  chief 










Ab-i-muUac,  "  the  head  chief  of  the 
land,"  the  title  of  the  superior  of 
the  five  Lords  of  the  Philistines. 
That  this  was  a  titular  denomina- 
tion attached  to  station,  appears 
from  the  circumstance  of  the  chief 
of  Philistia,  with  whom  Isaac  held 
conference  nearly  a  century  after 
Abraham,  being  then  also  called 
by  the  same  name 

Ard,  the  height,  high  land 

Eisshoir,  "  multitudes  from  the  east." 
These  are  the  people  called  Assy- 
rians, who  are  represented  in  Ge- 
nesis "  Journeying  from  the  East, 
finding  a  plain  on  the  Land  of  Shi- 
nar,  and  dwelling  there,"  who  built 
the  city  and  tower  of  Ba-bel,  hav- 
ing disseated  the  ancient  Scythian 

A  ttean,  brambles,  low  growing  shrubs, 
now  usually  applied  to  furze 

Bearna,  "  chasms,  clefts,  or  gaps  in 

Both- scan,  pro.  Bo-shane,  "  the  old 

Bior,  "  a  well  or  spring  of  water" 

Bior-sheba,  a  well  made  sure,  or  as- 
sured by  covenant 

Both-el,  and  so  pronounced,  because 
of  the  vowel  e,  to  prevent  an  hiatus, 
the  house  of  the  powerful 

"  Caldiath,"  pronounced  "  Caldia,"" 
the  enclosed,  well  protected  coun- 
try, derived  from  Calad,  to  enclose, 
shut  up,  or  protected,  and  iath,  a 



Ce-mosh,  a  name  for 

the  sun 

Dagon,  an  idul  of  the 


Elohe,  and 


The  City  of  Enoc 

Ce-mus,  "  the  excellence  or  delight 
of  the  earth" 

Cin,  a  mournful  lamentation,  a  me- 
lancholy singing,  practised  to  this 
day  in  woeful  Eri ;  the  word  is  ap- 
plied to  the  funeral  song  over  the 
dead  before  burial 

Daigon,  literally  signiiies  the  mark  of 
fire,  which  hath  by  the  bible  trans- 
lators been  metamorphized  into  a 
temple,  and  the  statue  of  a  god, 
long  before  image  worship  was 
practised  even  in  Egypt,  where  the 
novelty  originated 

Duor,  water 

El-aoi-e,  pronounced  El-o-e 

El-aoi-im,  and  El-o-im,  the  former 
expressing  emphatically,  "  he  or  it 
is  the  might  and  power  of  the  land ;" 
the  latter  is  singular  and  plural,  as 
the  word  to  which  it  is  joined,  and 
signifies  "  the  head  or  summit,  or 
perfection  of  power,"  precisely 
meaning  Almighty  power 

En-duor,  "  one  water,"  as  one  branch 
of  a  river 

"  Uail-ol-uagh,"  "a  mournful  loud  cry 
or  howling  ;"  the  two  words  are  the 
very  same,  though  in  these  latter 
days  differently  applied,  that  of  the 
Hebrews  signifying,  praising  the 
Lord  joyously ;  but  were  not  all 
their  religious  ceremonies  sad  and 
mournful  ?  did  they  not  thanksgive 
piteously  and  whiningly  ? 

Canad,  to  collect  or  gather  together ; 
and  so   should  the  Hebi-ew  word 



Esek,  the  well  from 
which  Isaac  was  ex- 
cluded by  the  Phi- 

Galeed  the  name  by 
which  Jacob  called 
the  heap  of  stones 
whereon  he  and  La- 
han  exchanged  pro- 
mise of  friendship 

Gohah  of  Gath,  the 
champion  of  the 
Philistines,  with 
whom  David,  the 
son  of  Jesse,  fought 





Kedoshah,  the  name  of 

Machpelah,  the  field 
and  cave  purchased 
by  Abraham  from 
the  children  of  Heth 
to  inter  Sarah 


have  been  rendered,  the  true  signi- 
fication of  the  passage  in  the  ori- 
ginal, being,  that  this  person  gather- 
ed together  a  multitude  of  asso- 
ciates, such  being  the  only  mean- 
ing of  the  word  "  Canas" 
Eisc,  exclusion 

Gealad,  a  promise  or  assurance 

Gol-iath  of  Gath,  the  champion  of 
the  land,  who  bore  a  long  spear 


Caoralm,  a  shepherd 
Arnaman,    the    ravaging   river, 

nounced  Arnaun 
Jardamahan,  pronounced  Jardaun,  the 

western  river  with  reference  to  the 

great  river  Euphrates 
Ce-deas,  the  south  country 
De-dobhaise  pro.  Cedoshah,  the  Holy 

Magh-beala,  the  field  of  death 

Mulloc-ce-saoi-deag,    the    good    and 
well  instructed  chief  of  the  land 




Phicol  the  chief  cap- 
tain of  the  host  of 
the  Philistines 

Rim  men 



Siddim,   the   vale 
slime  pits 

Sinai,  the  mount 
whereon  Moses  pro- 
mulgated the  laws 

Mo-ab,  my  chief 

Naoi,  pronounced  Ne,  "  a  ship,"  the 
name  of  the  last  chief  of  the  an- 
cient Scythian  empire,  who  escaped 
by  means  of  a  boat  to  Ardmenia 
from  Shinar 

Fic-ol,  chief  warrior,  a  title  amongst 
the  Philistines 

Re-moin,  "  the  mount  of  the  moon" 
Sa-both,  literally  beneath  the  tent,  re- 
pose, rest 
Seidein,  quick  sands 

Sin-a-i,  this  word  conveys  an  idea  as 
sublime  as  can  be  conceived  by  the 
mind,  and  is  an  expi'ession  as  nobly 
eloquent  as  was  ever  uttered  by  the 
lips  of  man.  In  Egypt  the  cliildren 
of  Israel  were  in  bondage,  (slaves 
have  no  country,)  nor  had  they  yet 
acquired  an  home,  and  it  being 
necessary  that  rules  should  be  con- 
stituted for  the  good  order  of  the 
commonwealth,  Moses  having  as- 
sembled all  the  people  about  this 
mount,  their  temporary,  only  dwel- 
ling place,  he  called  it,  Sin-a-i 
"  This  is  their  country/' 
Tabor  Ta-bior,  this  is  the  spring 

1  Tabor  1-ta-bir,  this  is  the  land  of  springs 

Urim  and  Thumim  Ur-im,  andl  the  perfection  of  fire 
Teth-im,  f  and  heat 
As  I  have  entered  so  far  into  this  subject,  I  cannot  refrain 
from  making  a  few  observations  on  the  foregoing.  There  can- 
not be  a  greater  error,  than  in  supposing  that  the  ancient 
names  of  countries  or  districts,  were  derived  from  individuals, 


on  the  contrary,  the  appellations  were  almost  always  derived 
from  natural  properties,  or  particular  situation.  In  the  present 
case,  it  happens  that  this  practice  is  demonstrated  by  the  ac- 
curate propriety  of  every  term,— Par  example. 

If  you  will  cast  your  eye  on  the  chart  of  the  land  of  Canaan, 
you  will  see  two  springs  of  the  river  Kison,  one  issuing 
from  Mount  Tabor,  the  other  from  I  Tabor,  towards  the 
head  of  which  last  stands  En-dor.  Now  pray  look  to  the 
southward,  you  see  the  river  Besor,  which  takes  its  rise  in  a 
chain  of  heights,  not  of  sufficient  magnitude  to  deserve  the 
name  of  mountains,  through  these  the  waters  of  Besor  work 
their  way  to  the  Mediterranean,  you  perceive  Kedesh  Barna,  a 
little  above  the  southern  source  of  the  river,  in  front  of  an 
opening  in  the  hills,  the  only  passage  from  the  desert  of  Paran 
into  the  Champaign  ;  you  are  distinctly  informed  in  the  2Cth 
chapter  of  Genesis,  that  Abraham  removed  from  Mamre  to 
Kadesh,  which  is  called  the  south  country,  not  only  in 
reference  to  IMamre,  but  that  it  was  in  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  land  of  Canaan.  How  would  a  man  of  Er-i  at 
this  very  day  call  places  so  situated  ?  precisely  as  I  have  set 
down  above,  whilst  the  term  Kadesh,  or  as  in  Er-i,  Cedeas 
avouches  identity  of  origin,  Deas  being  the  only  word  whereby, 
at  this  day,  we  of  Er-i  express  the  right  hand,  and  also  the 
point  of  the  south,  because  our  fathers  always  directed  their 
faces  to  the  east  in  worship,  as  did  the  Scythian  race,  and  of 
them  the  children  of  Israel,  till  thet/  ceased  to  adore  Baal,  when 
amongst  the  various  alterations  in  their  ceremonies,  they  turned 
their  backs  on  the  rising  sun. 

Having  now  laid  before  you  names  of  persons,  places,  and 
things,  some  derived  from  the  natural  quality,  some  from  situa- 
tion, some  from  particular  occcurence,  which  have  precisely  the 
same  signification  in  the  two  dialects  of  the  Scythian  language, 
as  represented  by  the  letters  of  Phoenicia,  used  by  the  tribes 
of  Palestina  and  of  Er-i,  I  entreat  your  attention  to  the 
several  terms  applied  to  the  traditions  and  writings  of  the 
Hebrews,  many  ages  after  the  tribe  of  Ib-er  emigrated  from 
Asia,  the  coincidence  of  which  hath  amazed  me,  the  more  and 


more  1  have  pondered  thereupon,  in  order  to  explain  which 
clearly,  it  will  be  necessaiy  to  say  a  few  prefatory  words  on 
this  part  of  our  subject. 

When  Ezra,  whom  I  consider  the  author  of  the  Pentateuch, 
compiled  various  traditions  of  his  nation,  as  set  down  in  that 
work,  he  consigned  a  much  greater  portion  of  tales  still  to  oral 
delivery,  to  which  the  Hebrews  were  as  much,  if  not  more  at- 
tached, and  in  which  they  placed  as  much  faith,  as  in  the 
writing  itself.  These  traditions  in  process  of  time  produced  a 
cast  of  men,  called  Tannaim,  or  mishnical  doctors,  who  em- 
ployed themselves  in  the  explanation  thereof,  expounded  ac- 
cording to  the  conception  of  each  commentator,  which 
expositions  being  from  time  to  time  ingrafted  into  the  mass  of 
the  original  tales,  and  having  acquired  equal  respect,  were 
encreased  to  such  a  bulk,  that  about  an  hundred  and  fifty 
years  since  Christ,  it  was  thought  adviseable  to  make  a  book 
of  the  traditions  allowed  by  Ezra,  and  the  men  of  the  great 
synagogue  of  his  days,  together  with  the  expositions  of  the 
mishnical  doctors,  which  book  was  called  the  Mishnah,  which 
was  no  sooner  pubHshed,  than  their  preachers  set  about 
making  thereon  comments,  called  Gemara,  the  Mishnah  and 
Gemara,  being  called  the  Talmud,  the  teachers  whereof  first 
had  the  name  of  Mazorites,  then  Cabbalists,  then  Am-o-raim, 
then  Seb-uraim,  then  Geon-im,  then  Rabbi,  and  last  of  all 
Chacam  :  Whilst  the  mode  used  by  the  Hebrews  of  dividing 
their  writings  into  verses,  was  by  two  points,  denoting  the  end 
of  each  verse,  which  points  or  stops  were  called,  *'  Soph  Pasuk," 
the  verse  or  section,  termed,  "  Pesuk-im,"  their  two  first  letters 
being,  "  Aleph,  Beth."" 

These  things  being  thus  very  briefly  explained,  permit  me 
to  place  before  you,  in  the  order  of  the  application  of  the  above 
technicalities,  each  term  in  the  dialects  of  Palestina  and  Eri, 
with  the  literal  translation  of  both,  wherefrom  you  will  be 
qualified  to  form  an  accurate  judgment, 


Shan  ah,  tradition       .      Shean-as,  tradition 

Mishnach,  a  collection     Mtois-shean-eis,  a  collection  of  tradi- 



Comaradh,  pronounced  Camara,   the 
agreement  or  correspondence  in  the 
composition  of  writings  only 


the   improved    augmen- 

of  traditions 

Gemara,  a  compHment 
or  addition  in  cor- 
respondence with  an 

Talmud,  the  traditions 
and  comments  toge- 

Masorah,  same  as 

Cabbala,  the  recep- 
tion of  the  traditions 

Am-oraim,  dictators. 

Seburaim,  opinionists 
on  examination. 

Geonim,  the  sublime 

Rabbi,  teacher. 

Chacam,  a  wise  man. 

Pesukim,  the  head  of 
the  verse,  that  is, 
the  point  whereat  a 
a  verse  began. 

Soph  Pasug,  two  stops 
or  points. 

Aleph,  Beth,   the  two 
first  of  the  Hebrew 
To  all  which  let  me  add   that  our  writers  of  ancient  days, 

when   a   sentence   or  verse   ended   in   the  middle  of  a  line 

denoted  the  termination  thereof  by  two  stops,  thus  () 

Was  I  not  apprehensive  of  drawing  the  catalogue  to  a  length 

tiresome,  unsuitable  to  a  treatise  of  this  kind,  I  could  have  ex- 
tended it  to  a  moiety  of  the  vocabulary  ;  but  it  is  to  be  hoped 

that  the    specimen    here  given  will   suffice,  more  particularly 

as  it  embraces  so  great  a  variety  of  terms. 

Mass-radh,  a  collection  of  sayings 
Gabailta,  received,  taken,  or  accepted 

Am-a-radh,  even  their  saying 

Suraim,  I  investigate,  search,  or  ex- 

Gnia-im,  the  head  or  perfection  of 

Rabach,  an  admonisher  or  teacher 

Shagach,  a  wise  man 

Beasg-im,  the  head  point 

Saim  Beasga,  pronounce  Sauph  Beas- 
ga,  a  pair  or  couple  of  stops  or  points 

Ailmh,  Beith,  the  two  first  of  the 
letters  of  Er-i 


It  may  be  thought  that  the  difficuiy  would  be  insurmount- 
able of  drawing  a  just  conclusion  of  the  sameness  of  these  two 
dialects  of  the  Scythian  tongue,  because  of  the  Hebrews  not  using 
vowels,  and  the  danger  of  substituting  the  sound  of  one  vowel 
for  that  of  another,  but  in  all  the  instances  I  have  adduced, 
the  identity  of  language  is  manifested  by  the  same  words  being 
accurately  descriptive  of  persons,  places,  situations,  qualities, 
and  even  technicalities,  had  the  variance  being  tenfold  greater 
than  it  is,  it  might  reasonably  be  accounted  for  by  time,  and 
a  multitude  of  circumstances  which  that  great  transformer,  nay 
consumer,  seldom  fails  to  produce. 

Should  you  be  desirous  to  become  acquainted  with  the 
history  of  the  Hebrew  writings,  and  the  explanation  of  the 
various  traditions,  readings,  and  the  terras  applied  thereto,  and 
to  the  expounders  thereof,  I  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  the  3th 
book  of  the  1st  part  of  Prideaux's  Connection,  where  you  \nll 
find  the  whole  made  perfectly  clear  and  satisfactory, 


Taking  our  departure  Irom  Palestine,  let  us  move  to  Ar- 
menia, whither  Noe  fled  from  Magh-seanar ;  before  we  enter 
these  parts,  I  must  notice  that  Colchis  received  an  Egyptian 
colony  a  thousand  years  before  Christ ;  that  the  Greeks  tra- 
versed, and  the  Romans  subjected,  all  these  countries,  wherein 
the  latter  people  changed  names  of  places  to  a  conformity  with 
their  own  construction  of  the  primitive  Scythian  language,  the 
alterations  easily  discernable  by  reason  of  kindred  speech,  an 
observation  not  called  for  in  the  preceding  section,  because  the 
Greeks  did  establish  themselves  in,  and  the  Romans  did  re- 
duce to  the  state  of  provinces  the  land  of  Canaan,  we  have 
from  the  Hebrews,  names  of  persons,  places,  and  things,  in 
their  original  name,  hundreds  of  ages  before  these  Scythian 
tribes,  who  had  moved  westward  as  colonists,  returned  east- 
ward in  the  shape  of  conquerors,  long  antecedently  to  the  emi- 
gration of  a  Gaal  of  Sciot  from  Ib-er,  a  circumstance  that 
marks  the  preservation  by  the  children  of  Israel,  and  the  ad- 
herence of  the  children  of  Er-i  to  the  primitive  language  of 



which  you  can  judge, 
tions,  are  set  before 
phabetical  order. 





Mare  Eux-in-um 

,  when  the  original  words,  with  the  ahera- 
you,  to  which  1  shall  now  proceed  in  al- 

Ard-mionn,  the  summit  of  the  height. 

Air-rearacht-mionn-e,  "  This  is  the 
apex  of  the  ascent,"  in  fact  the  land 
of  Ardmionn  had  its  name  from  this 
famous  mountain 

Ar-ursg-eis,  "  The  impetuous  ravag- 
ing confluence  of  waters." 

Ailb-binn,  "  The  pinnacle  of  the 
heap  of  confused  heights,"  as  shall 
be  farther  remarked  on,  and  ex- 

Gaba-Casan,  pronounced  Grou-Casan, 
"  The  Smith's  path,"  see  note  in  the 

Colg,  a  sword,  in  this  country  were 
the  mines  from  whence  all  the 
neighbouring  tribes  had  their  swords, 
and  vessels  of  brass 

Moir  Eis-amhan,  pronounced  Eis-aun, 
*'  The  sea  of  the  multitude  of  ri- 

Gomer,  the  tribes  of 
Pontus  on  the 
Euxine,  and  on  the 
coast  of  Phrygia 




Gomur;    to  the  sea,    which   circum- 
stance gave  rise  to  the  specific  de- 
nomination- Gomurig 

lathfoth,  pronounced  la-foth,  "  The 
foundation  of  the  land."  This  son  of 
Noe  was  the  first  chief  of  the  Scy- 
thian race  who  commenced  his  reign 
as  a  native  of  Ardmionn 

lath-ban,  the  emigrator,  pronounced 

Ib-er,  the  place  of  Er,  "  The  land  of 
heroes,"  now  pronounced  by  mo- 





dorns  ive ;  the  preposition  to  nu- 
merous districts  in  Eri,  at  this  day 
strangely  corrupted  by  Englisli 
Avritcrs  to  "  Hy,"  neither  of  which 
letters  are  in  our  alphabet,  in  which 
they  have  been  followed  by  native 
scribblers,  who  have  pretended  to  a 
knowledge  of  our  ancient  language 

Magh-og,  the  plains,  or  lands,  or  re- 
gions of  Og,  see  note  in  the  Chro- 
nicles, where  it  is  demonstrated 
that  the  name  of  this  chief  was  Og, 
as  Og  of  Bashan,  Og-eis,  Ceann, 
and  the  hke,  and  that  the  country 
he  ruled  was  Magh-og,  the  cause  of 
the  corruption  made  palpable  and 
obvious  at  first  sight 

Meas-aice,  "  The  tribe  of  the  land  of 

Noniades  Naoi-maid-eis,      "  Noe's     multitude 

routed  in  battle."  This  is  the  true 
signification  of  this  term,  the  follow- 
ers of  Xoe  from  the  plains  of  Shinar 
to  Araxes 

Tubal  Tubal,    the  original  name  of   Ib-er, 

preserved  by  the  Hebrews,  it  was 
the  people  of  this  country  that  Og, 
and  the  children  of  the  Noe-maid-eis, 
drove  north  of  Gaba-Casan,  as 
mentioned  in  the  chronicles  of  Eri, 
and  more  particularly  explained  in 
the  note  on  the  word  Caucasus. 
They  were  famous  in  the  use  of  the 
sling,  which  we  adopted,  and  still 
call  from  them  Crann  Tubail,  the 
staff  of  Tubal. 
Such  are.  the  primitive  names  of  these  celebrated  persons  and 


places  in  Armenia,  and  the  neighbour  countries,  which,  as 
you  perceive,  do  not  differ  much  fx-om  the  Roman,  indeed  in 
nothing-  more  than  the  terminations,  save  Euxinum,  in  which 
they  have  made  great  havoc ;  with  Arrarat  iNIinii,  la-foth, 
Mescheth,  and  Tabal,  they  have  not  meddled,  they  stand  in 
their  original  form.  That  the  names  given  by  the  Romans 
are  correct,  I  presume  you  are  capable  of  judging;  whether  I 
am  literally  accurate  or  not  in  the  orthography  and  explanation 
of  the  terms  in  the  Gael-lag  language,  I  appeal  with  confi- 
dence to  all  those  of  Er-i,  and  of  Ailb-bin,  who  have  know- 
ledge of  the  ancient  language.  In  truth,  every  word  is  set 
down  with  undubitabk  exactness,  and  is,  as  you  will  discover 
by  acquiring  adequate  information,  accurately  descriptive  of 
the  object  presented  to  you. 


Though  the  tribes  of  Og-eag-eis  have  precedence,  as  the 
first  that  had  separated  from  the  stock  of  the  Noe-maid-eis, 
yet  for  the  sake  of  connecting  our  subject  more  closely,  I  shall 
first  pass  to  the  north  of  Caucasus,  and  notice  the  names  of  the 
principal  tribes,  lands  and  waters,  in  that  quarter,  adhering  to 
the  method  and  order  hitherto  pursued. 
Artiscus  Arduisg,  the  upper  water 

Ror-is-then-eis  Borr-uisg-tan-eis,    the    confluence  of 

the  swoln  waters  of  the  land 
Cimmerii,  Cimbri  Geimarig,    people    of    a    dark   and 

gloomy  region 
Celts?  Ceiltig,  "  concealed,"   "  hidden  from 

view,"  another  term  applied  by  the 
Scythians,  to  the  European  tribes, 
because  of  their  being  concealed  in 
the  forests  with  which  that  quarter 
of  the  world  was  encumbered 
Dacia  Deas-iath,  the  south  country,  the  tribe 

whereon  was  called  by  the  Romans 
Daci,  they  were  a  Gael  or  kindred 
of  the  Gothic  Geta;,  and  had  the 


specific  denomination  of  Daci, 
merely  because  they  dwelled  in  the 
south,  and  were  in  fact,  the  most 
southern  of  all  the  Goths.  I  shall 
always  remark  on  this  word  Deas, 
which  is  to  be  found  amongst  all 
the  Scythian  tribes  from  the  Sgeind 
to  the  utmost  extremity  of  Eri,  to 
signify  the  south,  and  the  right  hand, 
as  before  noticed  in  Ke-desh,  in  the 
land  of  Canaan,  and  again  and 
again  to  be  repeated,  through  the 
entire  course  of  the  migrations  of 
the  Scythian  race 

Dauria  Douriath,  the  land  of  water,  Dor  of 

the  Hebrews,  Udor  of  the  Greeks, 
Dur-um  of  the  Romans,  as  appears 
in  the  termination  of  compounds, 
and  Hydro,  in  the  beginning  of 
others.  We  learn  from  Von  Strah- 
lenburg,  that  "  This  country  is 
called  Dar-ia  or  Dauria,  from  its 
being  I'ull  of  waters  and  rivers,  in 
comparison  with  the  Mungal  and 
Kaln)uck  countries,  which  are  very 
dry  and  barren" 

Gothi  Gcth  and   Gath,  a  long  spear,  from 

adopting  which  on  the  invasion  of 
the  lands  of  the  Geimarig  or  Ceiltig. 
This  Scythian  tribe  assumed  the 
specific  denomination  of  Goth,  so  in 
Philisiia  Gol-iah  of  Gath,  the  haft 
ol'  whose  spear  was  like  a  weaver's 

Getfe  Geat,  Milk,  this  tribe  of  Goths  derived 

their  name  from  their  living  on  milk 









Theyss  or  Tobesk 


Sucli  are  the  names 
thian  language  of  the 
observed,  that  besides 
was  introduced  into  th 

and  cuid,  they  are  the  Galactophagi 
of  Horner,  which  signifies  milk- 
eaters,  and  in  the  language  of  Eri, 
is  Geallacd-Foghac,  a  livei  on  white 
(that  is)  unskimmed  milk,  but  by 
the  addition  of  fogh-ac  should  with 
more  propriety  be  rendered  curd- 

Garbuisg,  the  rough  boisterous  water 

Cc-buaid-e,  it  is  the  land  of  a  mixed 

Eac-seig-aos,  "  Champions  on  horses,'" 
these  were  Sarmatas  auxiliary 
cavalry  to  the  Goths,  who  gave 
them  grants  of  lands  for  military 

Uisg-tur,  the  water  of  the  land 

Mor-uisg,  a  great  water 

Ban-amhan-iath,  pronounced  Bannaun- 
nia,  "  The  river  barrier  country,'" 
critically  descriptive  of  its  situation 
and  circumstance 

Tir-uisge,  of  the  self-same  significa- 
tion as  Ister,  with  merely  a  different 
construction  of  a  term 

Taoi-uisg,  the  winding  river  or  watei-, 
as  will  be  farther  noticed 

Tain-uige,  the  water  of  the  country 

Traig-uisg-ti,  "  The  men  of  the 
country  to  the  sea  shore,"  the  name 
of  a  tribe  of  Goths  who  dwelled 
about  the  lake  Moeotis,  and  down 
to  its  mouth  on  the  shore 
and   signification  in  the  primitive  Scy- 

above  tribes  and  places.  It  is  to  be 
the  Scythian,  another  Asiatic  language 
is  northern  <]uarter  of  Europe,  by  the 



Sarmatae,  called  Sclavonic,  whilst  the  native  tongue  was  Finn, 
Litwa,  Tudesque,  Scandinavian,  as  different  from  the  Scythian 
and  Sclavonic,  as  these  latter  were  from  each  other,  or  as  the 
Scythian  was  from  the  Assyrian,  Arab  and  Egyptian,  as  dis- 
tinct as  their  respective  origins. 

To  these  let  me  add  as  properly  belonging  to  these  parts. 

Oghus  Khan 





Og-Eisceann,  <*  Og,  the  head  of  the 
host,"  this  was  the  celebrated  chief 
of  the  Goths  who  invaded  Media, 
about  640  years  before  Christ 

Tabite,  Herodotus  says  in  the  59th 
chapter  of  Melpomene,  that  in  the 
Scythian  tongue,  Vesta  is  Tabite  ; 
when  we  arrive  in  Greece,  you  will 
be  distinctly  informed  that  Estia 
was  a  Grecian  mutation  from  Asti, 
the  dwelling  of  the  conservator  of 
the  sacred  fire,  the  Roman  name 
for  which  was  Vesta,  all  of  them  sig- 
nifying, and  alluding  to  fire,  which 
Asti,  Estia  or  Vesta,  are  called  by 
the  unlettered  Goths  Tahiti,  now 
Teth-biota  pronounced  Thebitha, 
means  the  heat  of  life 

Siam-mole,  the  fire  of  the  Sun,  a  man 
of  these  Getag  who  was  worshipped 
by  the  above  name 

Beacaire,  "  A  feeder  of  bees."  There 
is  a  tribe  of  Nomades  in  Russia, 
called  Baskars,  whose  occupation  is 
tending  bees,  and  they  live  on  the 
borders  of  the  river 

Ur-iat,  "  The  place  of  the  fire,"  the 
names  of  the  chief  place  of  all  the 
Scythian  tribes  had  reference  to  fire 



From  tlie  time  of  our  departure  from  the  land  of  Canaan, 
whilst  we  traversed  Ardraenia,  the  countries  neighbour  thereto, 
and  the  lands  of  the  Goths,  you  have  had  no  certain  criterion 
to  resort  to,  resting  your  opinion  principally  on  the  aptitude 
of  the  terms  to  the  description  of  the  objects ;  but  when  we 
shall  pass  the  Bosphorus,  whither  I  am  about  to  conduct  you, 
the  case  will  be  altered ;  there  you  will  have  abundant  means 
of  judging  of  the  diversity,  or  identity  of  the  language  of 
Greece  and  Eri,  but  previously  to  our  undertaking  this  voyage, 
a  few  observations  are  to  be  made  touching  the  positive  and 
relative  circumstances  of  the  two  countries,  and  the  causes 
which  have  produced  the  variance,  that  is  to  be  found  in  the 
dialects  at  the  era  of  the  greatest  refinement  of  the  former,  as 
appears  at  this  day  in  the  writings  of  their  purest  style,  and 
in  the  original,  rude,  unpolished  form  of  the  latter,  in  its 
highest  state  of  improvement,  as  written  by  the  01am,  and 
educated,  when  it  was  the  living  language  of  the  children  of 
the  land. 

Though  the  Hellenes,  Pelasgt/i,  and  Akaioi,  were  all  of 
Scythian  origin,  you  have  seen,  in  a  former  part  of  this  trea- 
tise, that  the  connexion  was  very  remote,  even  between  the 
two  last,  though  much  more  nearly  allied  to  each  other  than 
either  was  to  the  Hellenes ;  yet  all  spoke  in  the  same  tongue, 
though  in  dialects  somewhat  different,  the  Hellenes  in  the 
primitive  speech,  the  Pelasgoi  with  a  tincture  of  Egyptian, 
and  alien  terms  and  phrases  adapted  to  new  acquirements, 
during  their  sojourn  of  SoO  years  in  a  foreign  land ;  whilst  the 
Akaioi  had  been  for  ages  versed  in  the  science  of  letters,  first 
introduced  into  Ogygeia  from  Sydon,  by  Cadmus,  about  1040 
years  antecedently  to  the  christian  era,  and  thence  propagated, 
and  became  the  standard  of  all  the  Scythian  tribes  of  Greece; 
from  that  time,  though  the  progress  of  the  refinement  of  the 
language  was  slow,  it  was  gradual,  yet  so  great  is  the  variance 
between  the  sound  of  the  voice  in  the  pronunciation  of  words 
before  the  attainment  of  letters,  and  that  which  characters  re- 



DEMONSrilATION.  clxix 

presenting  the  same  word  produce,  that  the  circumstance  had 
wrought  a  wide  distinction  between  the  dialects  of  the  Phoe- 
nicians, of  the  Hellenes,  and  of  the  Pelasgoi ;  and  so  in- 
veterate is  ancient  usage,  that  the  Akaioi  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Hellenes  on  the  one  side,  and  of  the  Pelasgoi  on 
ihi  other,  abandoned  their  more  improved  dialect,  and  adopted 
the  more  primitive  dialects  of  these  two  unlettered  tribes,  their 
speech  being  more  consonant  to  the  ear  of  their  equally  un- 
lettered brethren  ;  for  it  must  not  be  presumed,  though  Cad- 
mus, the  Idaei  Dactyli,  and  men  of  eminence,  were  conversant 
witli  letters,  that  the  mass  of  the  people  were  instructed  in 
the  use  thereof.  But  in  process  of  time,  from  the  universal 
prevalence  of  education,  when  letters  became  the  fixed  and 
durable  standard,  all  the  tribes  of  Greece  conformed  with 
trifling  variations  to  one  and  the  same  mode  of  expression,  the 
first  step  towards  the  improvement  of  which  was  a  rude  com- 
pounding of  primitive  terms,  invariably  monosyllables,  which 
improvement  was,  from  time  to  time,  carried  to  that  degree  of 
exquisite  refinement  for  the  purposes  of  writing,  or  the  ends 
of  speech,  as  all  ^vho  read  the  works  of  the  Greeks  feel  and 
admire;  to  such  a  state  of  refinement  did  they  bring  their 
language,  so  metaphorical,  not  in  style  only,  but  in  the  compo- 
sition of  the  terms  themselves  did  it  become,  in  which  more 
respect  was  had  to  elegance  than  to  literal  signification,  so 
closely  was  Euphonia  observed,  that  original  form  was  made 
as  much  as  possible  to  bend  thereto,  by  which  practices  the 
ancient  language  was  taken  off  its  basis,  many  primitive  words 
were  wholly  abandoned ;  whilst  many  more  are  recognizable 
only  in  compounds,  and  there  in  a  shape  somewhat  changed. 
In  consequence  of  all  which,  a  new  department  in  the 
republic  of  letters  was  created,  called  etymology,  and  speak  if 
doth  in  more  nice  and  delicate  articulation,  than  the  powers 
of  those  modems  of  Cimmerian  origin,  who  have  assumed 
the  office  of  being  instructors  in  the  science,  are  capable  of 
uttering,  as  appears  from  their  absurd  ill-digested  perform- 
ances. Yet  why  say  ill-digested  ?  nought  can  be  digested  by 
mind  or  body  that  hath  not  been  received  therein.     How  can 


one,  unskilled  in  the  primitive  simple  terms  of  a  compound, 
separate  the  parts  so  as  to  shew  the  value  and  signification  of 
each  and  of  the  whole  r  What  would  be  said  of  a  man  pro- 
fessing the  art  of  chemistry,  who  was  wholly  ignorant  of  the 
several  properties  and  elements  of  which  a  mass  was  com- 
posed ?  If  a  considerable  difference  appears  in  the  dialects  of 
Greece  and  Eri,  it  is  possible  your  mind  will  not  reject  with- 
out due  consideration,  the  solution  to  be  found  in  the  fore- 
going, and  in  the  different  circumstances  of  the  two  people ; 
the  one  isolated  either  in  Gael-ag  or  in  Eri,  for  2500  years, 
without  intercourse  with  any  other  people,  save  the  Phoeni- 
cians, and  those  of  their  own  race  in  Biscay ;  and  that  only 
for  the  first  500  years  of  that  time,  no  attempt  made  to  invent 
a  new  figure  besides  the  sixteen  originally  received,  to  express 
a  customary  sound,  but  recourse  had  to  a  dot  thus,  •  or  to  the 
addition  of  some  consonant  with  which  the  word  had  thereto- 
fore been  overcharged  to  supply  the  defect.  The  other  in  com- 
munication with  the  whole  civilized  world  known  to  them ; 
themselves  the  foremost  in  the  file,  who  had  formed  figures  to 
represent  every  tone  of  the  human  voice,  and  had  attained  an 
excellence  inimitable  in  all  arts  and  sciences  ;  notwithstanding 
these  causes,  sufiiciently  adequate  to  effect  a  variance  so  great^ 
as  to  render  an  attempt  to  prove  their  identity  a  work  of  great 
difficulty,  the  most  perceptible  difference  to  be  found  at  this 
day  between  these  two  dialects,  consists  in  the  greater  number 
of  compounds  in  the  Grecian,  and  hath  proceeded  from  the 
Grecian  fashion  of  forming  words  to  sound  harmoniously  to 
the  exquisite  ear  of  that  highly  polished  people. 

I  have  therefore  to  request  that  you  will  not  suffer  yourself 
to  be  led  astray  from  the  original  language  by  Grecian  ter- 
minations, nor  yet  by  the  alterations  of  the  radix  for  the  pur- 
pose of  adapting  words,  particularly  compounds,  to  the  genius 
of  the  refinement  of  the  Greeks.  In  simples  the  change 
wrought  by  them,  consisted  for  the  most  part  in  the  expulsion 
of  letters,  with  which  the  primitive  Scythian  language 
abounded,  (as  in  all  original  unimproved  languages)  and  doth 
abound,   as  to  be  seen  at  this   day  in  the  language  of  Er-i, 


enough,  however,  of  the  radix  hatli  been  preserved  by  the 
Greeks,  to  enable  one  acquainted  with  the  original  tongue,  on 
whicli  they  have  formed  their  dialect,  to  discern  and  demons- 
trate the  family  likeness  to  the  dialect  of  Er-i,  notwithstanding 
the  elegant  and  more  captivating  dress  in  which  they  have 
decked  the  ancient  language. 

From  the  same  source  that  the  Greeks  derive  their  language, 
do  the  children  of  Er-i  derive  theirs,  from  the  same  font  that 
the  Greeks  drew  their  original  sixteen  letters,  did  the  children 
of  Er-i  draw  theirs.  Cadmus  having  taken  from  Sydon  the 
sixteen  Phoenician  characters  of  the  Scythian  language  (all  that 
were  then  in  use)  to  Ogygeia,  1040  years  before  Christ,  Eolus 
having  taken  the  same  letters  from  Sydon  also  to  Gael-ag, 
about  1360  years  before  that  era,  to  which  number  our  Ailm 
Beth  (alphabeta)  is  still  confined. 

To  these  observations  I  take  the  liberty  of  assuming  as  a 
fact,  which  shall  be  fully  demonstrated  when  I  come  to  com- 
pai'e  the  dialects  of  Sydon  and  of  Er-i,  that  the  dialect  of  Eri- 
8tands  in  a  shape  more  hke  unto  the  original  language  than 
that  of  Greece,  the  former  having  been  subjected  to  very  few 
and  trifling  alterations,  the  latter  so  cut  up,  as  to  be  rendered 
susceptible  of  various  derivations  of  an  infinity  of  compounds, 
(a  vast  number  of  which  serve  but  to  expose  the  total  ignor- 
ance of  Etymologists)  the  fashion  of  uniting  the  simples  of 
which  they  are  composed,  being  mere  matters  of  taste,  but  as 
the  language  of  Er-i  consists  for  the  most  part  of  simples,  you 
must  not  expect  to  find  them  put  together  after  the  same  man- 
ner, in  the  same  figure  or  order  wherein  the  Greeks  have  con- 
joined tlicir  simples,  whilst  the  primitive  words  once  common 
to  both,  still  adlxu-ed  to  in  Er-i,  on  which  the  Greeks  have 
formed  their  dialect,  shall  be  set  down  and  literally  explained, 
which,  when  you  shall  have  carefully  examined,  and  duly  con- 
sidered, probably  your  first  sensation  may  be  of  surprize,  that 
no  greater  difference  should  be  found  to  exist  between  the  two 
dialects ;  to  which  may  probably  succeed  that  of  amazement 
at  the  identity  of  the  language  of  tribes,  so  long  and  so  widely 


separated,   so  inveterate  is  language,  so  adamantine,  so  con- 
clusive a  criterion  of  the  origin  of  nations. 

This  exposition  is  so  novel,  so  opposed  to  opinions  long 
established,  that  men  will  be  loth  to  surrender  the  knowledge 
they  have  acquired,  and  accepted  for  wisdom,  to  information 
conveyed  through  the  medium  of  a  language  they  have  been 
in  the  constant  habit  of  despising,  and  calling  by  all  manner 
of  foul  and  opprobrious  epithets,  though  wholly  ignorant  of 
its  elements,  construction,  yea,  of  its  very  name  ;  but  the  world 
is  never  too  old  to  learn,  and  though  prejudice  may  be  too 
strong  at  the  present  against  the  admission  of  truth,  an  hope 
may  reasonable  be  entertained  that  such  may  not  always  be  the 
case,  especially  as  the  more  the  facts  herein  set  forth  are  in- 
vestigated, the  more  and  more  veracious  will  they  be  found. 

These  things  premised,  let  us  now  proceed  to  the  examina- 
tion of  all  the  names  of  countries  marked  on  the  chart,  as  the 
seat  of  the  Og-eag-eis,  Pelasgoi,  and  Akaioi,  and  of  some 
celebrated  persons,  institutions  and  events ;  to  which  I  shall 
subjoin  a  catalogue  of  Greek  words,  which  I  shall  collate  with 
words  of  Eri  of  'the  same  signification,  observing  the  foregoing 
order,  except  that  I  shall  commence  with  lavan,  and  the  Og- 
eageis,  the  people  whose  lands  they  invaded,  and  the  passage 
by  which  they  entered,  as  the  most  suitable  introduction  to  this 
most  interesting  subject. 

Dialect  of  Greece.  Dialed  of  Eri. 

la-van,  this  is  not  a     lath-ban,  tlie  emigrator.     He  was  the 
word  of  the  Grecian         first  that  separated  from  his  bre- 
dialect,    though     it         thren    the    Noe-maid-eis  of    Ard- 
be  of  the  language,         mionn,  the  literal  translation  of  the 
by    reason    of    its         word  «  He  went  from  his  country'* 
kindred     with     the 
Hebrews,  it  was  not 
amongst  the  letters 
of    the    Scythian?, 
therefore,  the  Greeks 
would  call  this  per- 
son, Aiaban 



Ogyges,  supposed  to 
be  an  individual,  a 
king  of  Attica,  in 
1766,  before  Christ 

Allo-genes,  translated 
Gentiles,  the  term 
applied  to  the  abori- 
ginal people  of  the 
part  of  Europe  in- 
vaded by  the  Scy- 
thian Og-eag-eis 

Bos-Phorus,  the  name 
of  the  water  by 
■which  the  Euxine 
discharges  its  water 
into  the  Mgean  sea, 
the  passage  of  the 
Og  -  eag  -  eis  into 
Thraxe,  supposed 
to  be  derived  from 
Bous,  cattle,  and 
Porus,  a  way  or 

Og-eag-eis,  "  the  diminution  of  Og's 
multitude,"  the  explanation  hereto- 
fore given  on  this  head,  has,  it  is  to 
be  hoped,  confuted  all  the  fabulous 
relations,  and  demonstrated  the  fact; 
it  is  to  .be  farther  remarked,  that 
the  name  of  Og-eag-ia  hath  been 
applied  to  Eri,  from  tradition,  and 
fragments  of  old  poems,  at  a  time, 
and  by  men,  who  had  no  idea  of 
founding  a  system  thereon,  but 
merely  because  the  fact  of  the  Gaal 
of  Sciot  having  emigrated  from 
Ib-er,  which  was  one  of  the  nations 
of  Magh-Og,  has  never  been  lost 
sight  of,  and  you  will  find  by  the 
chronicles  of  the  Iberian  tribes  in 
Spain,  they  called  themselves  Og- 
eag-eis,  and  Noe-maid-eis 

Gein-aile,  "  Of  another  genus  of  the 
human  species,"  as  before  mention- 

Cos-foras,  compounded  of  Cos,  the  foot, 
and  Foras,  a  way  thiough  or  over 
water.  In  the  dialect  of  Greece, 
Pous  came  to  signify  the  foot,  which 
I  take  to  be  a  corruption  of  Cos, 
and  that  Phuras  was  a  way  over 
water,  we  find  in  the  accusative  of 
Ge-phuras  a  bridge;  here  let  us 
remark  that  neither  p  h  nor  <p  were 
of  the  original  letters  of  Greece  or 
Eri,  the  sound  of  the  former  being 
denoted  by/,  therefore  Phuras  must 



Amphyction,  a  sup- 
posed son  of  Deu- 
calion, by  whom 
the  council  called 
Amphyction  was 


Astu,  the  name  given 
to  Ce-cro-pia  by 
Theseus,  on  his  con- 
solidating the  12 
Astus      established 

have  been  an  alteration  from  Foras, 
for  these  reasons  as  well  as  the  want 
of  meaning  in  Bous-poros,  I  con- 
ceive the  true  signification  of  this 
term  to  be,  the  way  by  which  the 
Og-eag-eis  passed  into  the  land  of 
the  Allo-Genes,  and  that  the  ori- 
ginal words  were  Cos-foras,  first 
changed  to  Pous-foras,  and  at  length 
on  the  acquisition  of  the  letters  p 
and  A,  to  Bos-Phorus. 

Am-fic-tain,  "  as  well  town  as  coun- 
try,"" a  name  derived  from  the  na- 
ture of  the  institution  ;  the  election 
of  deputies  by  certain  communities 
of  Greece,  to  represent  the  whole 
thereof,  "  those  in  villages,  as  well 
as  those  scattered  over  the  territory  ; 
an  individual,  Amphyction,  is  a 
creature  of  fable,  whose  existence 
may  be  more  than  doubted,  when 
his  era  is  misconceived  by  nearly 
500  years ;  moreover  the  Greek 
wcard  must  be  a  corruption,  for 
they  had  no  such  letter  as  (p  till 
Palamedes  invented  it,  and  he  did 
not  live  for  600  years  after  the  sup- 
posed age  of  the  fabulous  Amphyc- 

Airceadig,  the  people  from  the  first ; 
proof  of  the  aboriginality  of  the 

Asti,  "  a  dwelling ;"  at  this  day  it  de- 
notes "  within,"  "  at  home."  This 
was  the  term  applied  to  the  fixed 
dwelling  of  the  guardian  of  the 
sacred  fire,  from  which  the  Tethgne 



by  Cecrops,  and 
erecting  this  city 
into  a  metropolis, 
afterwards  called 

Achaia,  a  district  of 
Greece,  first  called 
the  land  of  the  Cu- 
retes,  said  to  derive 
its  name  f  rom  Achos, 
sorrow.  What  ab- 
surdity ! 

Eleusis,  a  city  in 
the  north  of  Atti- 
ca, the  first  perma 
nent  establishment 
in  Greece,  of  the 
tribe  of  the  Og-eag- 

Ephori,  officers  of 
Sparta  appointed  to 
watch  over  the 
rights  of  the  people 

iEtol-ia,  a  district  of 
Achaia,  or  the  land 
of  the  Curetes 

was  kindled  on  the  bri,  or  mount  to 
assemble  the  congregation  of  the 
people,  which  continued  burning 
whilst  they  abided  together.  This 
dwelling'bjcame,  after  the  introduc- 
tion of  the  gods  of  Egypt  into 
Greece,  transfigured  into  Estia,  the 
Goddess  of  Fire 
A  gh-cath-iath,  pronounced  A-cah-ia, 
"  the  land  of  the  feats  of  arms  in 
battle."  This  shall  be  fully  explain- 
ed under  the  head  of  Kadmos 

"  El-eis-eis,"  the  accumulation  of  the 
powerful;  eis-eis,  hterally  means, 
multitude  on  multitude,  changed 
by  the  Greeks  to  Nesis.  That  they 
did  not  in  after  times  call  this  place 
Elnesis,  cannot  be  accounted  for 
only  by  Eleusis  being  considered  a 
word  of  more  softness  and  harmony, 
to  which  they  never  scrupled  to 
sacrifice  the  original  language 

Faire,  a  watchman 

Eitleadh-iath,  from  Et-l-ia,  "  the 
land  of  flight."'  This  country  had 
its  name  from^  a  tribe  of  the  Og- 
eag-eis,  (expelled  from  Peloponne- 
sus, by  the  Pelasgoi)  flying  thither, 
where  they  were  granted  a  settle- 
ment by  the  Achaioi.  It  is  also  said 
that  the  chief  of  this  tiibe  of  Og- 



Herodotus  says,  in  his 
41st  chapter  of  Po- 
lymnia,  that  the 
Persians  were  once 
called  Cephenes 

Bo?o-t-ia,  the  first  re- 
corded name  of 
which  was  Og-eag- 
ia,  then  Kadmeis. 
It  is  said  to  owe  its 
name  to  oneBoeotus, 
a  son  of  one  Itonus; 
or  "  a  bove,"  from 
a  cow,  by  which 
Kadmos  was  con- 
ducted into  the 
country.  Mercy  on 
us  !  after  this  man- 
ner are  the  youth 
of  Europe  instruct- 
ed. Here  we  have 
Cimmerian  etymo- 
logists, speaking  in 
the  Roman  tongue, 
and  deriving  from 
it  a  Grecian  name, 
hundreds  of  years 
before  the  Roman 
language  was  fonued 

eag-eis,  whose  name  was  CEtolus, 
fled,  on  having  killed  Apis,  to  this 
country,  from  El-is,  and  that  from 
him  the  land  was  called  CEtolia ; 
but  the  fact  is,  both  individual  and 
country  derived  its  name  from  the 
flight,  be  the  cause  thereof  what  it 

C^abfine,  the  head  or  chief  tribe 
Bo-iath,  "  the  land  of  cattle  ;"  the  let- 
ter t  introduced  by  the  Greeks  to 
prevent  hiatus.  The  soil  of  this 
country  was  very  rich,  and  abound- 
ed in  cattle ;  and  from  the  people 
indulging  themselves  in  eating  ani- 
mal food,  and  from  the  weight  of 
the  atmosphere,  they  were  account- 
ed the  most  dull  and  rude  of  all  the 



Bri-ses,  a  priest  of  Ju- 
piter, the  father  of 
the  girl,  for  the  pos- 
session of  whom,  ac- 
cording to  Homer, 
Agamemnon  and 
Achilles  contended 

De-meter,  said  to  be 
derived  from  Ge  and 
Meter,  the  mother 
of  the  earth.  This 
is  a  whimsical  alter- 
ation of  the  word 
Ge,  for  which  there 
is  no  accounting. 
She  was  the  God 
dess  of  Agriculture, 
according  to  mytho- 
logy, the  absurdity 
of  which,  I  wish  to 
correct^  as  the  bane 
of  history,  destruc- 
tive of  the  truth  of 
the  memorials  of 



part  of  Greece  pro- 
perly so  called 

Bri-seis,  "  he  sat  at  the  mount."  In 
this  word  we  recognize  the  ancient 
term  Bri,  the  mount  where  the 
Demoi  assembled,  close  to  the  Asti, 
the  dwelling  of  the  priest ;  though 
the  Greeks  accepted  the  gods  of 
Egypt,  they  never  abandoned  their 
veneration  for  fire,  the  present  em- 
Wem  of  the  Sun,  the  primitive  ob- 
ject of  their  adoration 

Ce-maid-ar,  "  the  breaking  up  of  the 
earth  by  ploughing."  This  person- 
age, who  had  also  the  name  of  Ce- 
res, was  of  Sicilian  origin,  a  coun- 
try remarkable  for  its  fertility  and 
€arly  improvement  in  agriculture. 
She  might  have  come  from  thence 
to  Eleusis,  and  might  have  instruct- 
ed the  young  chief  of  that  land  in 
the  science  of  husbandry,  for  which 
she  was  held  in  grateful  remem- 
brance. The  mother  of  the  earth 
she  could  not  be  called  with  any 
colour  of  propriety,  her  era  being 
perfectly  ascertained.,  and  compara- 
.tively  modern 

Aoi-bir-eis,  "  the  country  of  many 
springs,"  critically  descriptive  of  its 
natural  property 

El-aos,  "  the  country  of  the  power- 
ful." El  is  synonymous  with  all; 
ol,  a  word  of  great  signification,  de- 
noting excellence,  and  eminence  in 
the  highest  degree,  a  name  given  to 
tills  land  of  a  tribe  of  the  Og-eag- 



Ellen,  a  supposed  son 
of  a  person  called 
Deucallin,  a  crea- 
ture of  fable 

EUenes,  a  tribe  of 
Greece,  of  wbom  a 
most  confused  and 
incoherent  account 
liath  hitherto  been 
presented  to  the 
youth  of  Europe 


Emathia,  the  most  an- 
cient name  of  Make- 
don,  supposed  to 
have  had  its  name 
from  a  king  Ema- 

Ce-cro-pia,  in  latter 
times  Attica;  sup- 
posed to  be  called 
from  a  man  Ce- 
crops,  it  is  to  be  ob- 
served that  Kroke 
is     a     shore,     and 

eis,  on  becoming  stationary,  after 
the  manner  of  the  Pelasgoi  and 

Elen,  "  the  powerful  one."  This  per- 
son was  the  chief  of  a  tribe  of  the 
Og-eag-eis,  who  advanced  to  the 
country  south  of  Thettalia,  and 
abided  there ;  he  rendered  himself 
illustrious  by  curbing  the  Pelasgoi, 
who  issuing  from  Peloponnesus,  had 
invaded  divers  occupations  of  the 

El-en-eis,  "  one  host  of  the  powerful/' 
they  were  a  tribe  of  the  Og-eag-eis, 
who,  proceeding  from  Thrake, 
strayed  south  to  Thettalia,  and  from 
thence  settled  on  the  land  immedi- 
ately south  thereof,  called  Ellas, 
from  them  all  the  Greeks  were  in  a 
large  sense  EUenes 

Allod-eis,  the  people  of  ancient  days. 
Allod,  signifies  time  beyond  record 
or  memorial 

Aoi-magh,  "  the  land  of  plains,"  a 
level  country,  the  same  name,  and 
for  the  same  reason,  as  the  Hebrews 
called  the  country  of  Canaan,  of 
which  Sydon  was  the  capital,  Ha- 
math  ;  called  in  the  chronicles  of 
Eri,  Aoi-magh 

Ce-cro-baidh,  pronounced  Ce-cro-bi, 
"  the  narrow  land  of  waves,**  an 
Isthmus;  the  individual  Cc-cro-ps 
is  a  child  of  fable,  the  above  com- 
pound is  accurately  descriptive  of 



the  transposition  of 
the  words  to  Kec- 
ro,  would  be  nor 
thing  in  the  estima- 
tion of  the  Greeks 
(a)  Kad-m-os,  the  Sy- 
donian  chief,  who 
emigrated  from  Sy- 
don  to  Og-eag-ia, 
from  him  called 
Kad-m-eia, where  he 
founded  Kadmeis, 
afterwards  called 

Kal-u-don,  a  town  of 
(Etolia,  saidtohave 
its  name  from  a  son 
ofCEtolus,  who  fled 
hither  from  El-is 

lapides,  a  region  to 
the  west  of  Illurike, 
inhabited  by  Scy- 
thians. Cimmerii, 
and  Ceiltig 

Illurike,  the  western 
extremity  of  the 
'  lands  of  theScythian 
tribes,  extending 
from  Thrake  to  la- 

Liburn-ia,  a  district  of 
Illurike,  on  the 

Cath-im-eis,  "  the  head  of  the  host  in 
battle,"  from  this  chief  the  Akaioi, 
and  the  northern  land  of  Akaia, 
had  their  names ;  he  it  was  who  in- 
troduced the  sixteen  Phoenician 
characters  of  the  Sydonian  dialect  of 
the  Scythian  language  into  Greece, 
A  B  cdefgilmnorstu,  to 
which  Palamedes,  who  died  during 
the  Trojan  war,  added  Th,  H,  ^.^  <p, 
and  Simonides,  who  lived  540  years 
before  Christ,  made  the  farther  ad- 
dition of  e,  z,  ■]^,  o 

Cal-a-dun,  ''shut  up  amongst  hills," 
and  shall  be  farther  explained  when 
we  come  to  the  Wal-den-ses,  and 
the  north  of  Britain 

lath-buid-eis,  pronounced  la-bid-es, 
"  the  land  of  a  mixed  multitude," 
corresponding  exactly  with  the  ac- 
counts of  antiquity 

Eil-ear-aice,  "  the  other  end  or  ex- 
tremity of  the  tribe,"  this  term  shall 
be  more  fully  explained  when  we 
arrive  on  the  banks  of  the  waters  of 
Ib-er  in  Spain 

Libearn-iath,  "  the  country  of  a  par- 
ticular kind  of  ships  called  Libearn," 
called  by  the  Greeks  Liburnon 



Meas-iath,  <*  the  land  of  acorns' 

Makedon,    said   to     Mag-eaden,  "  the  face  of  the  planes," 

owe  its  name  to  a         the  chart  shews  the  strict  propriety 

king  Makedo,  such         of  the  name 

another    as     Ema- 

thion,  of  neither  of 

whom  did  the  world 

ever  hear,tiU  created 

to  give    names    to 

Mses-ia,   a  district  of 

the  vast  country  of 

Pelasgia,    the  ancient 

name   of   Pelopon- 
nesus, the  people  of 

which    were   called 

Pelasgoi,  by  which 

names   all    Greece, 

and  all  the  Grecians, 

were  in  a  large  sense 

oft  times  called,  de- 
rived as  is  supposed 

from  an  individual 

called  Pelasgos,     a 

creature  of  the  ima- 


Peloponnesos,  sup- 
posed to  derive  the 
name  from  Pelops, 
the  son  of  Tantalos, 
and  Nesos,  an  island 

the  land  of  permanent 
hich,  till  the  arrival  of 
this  Scythian  tribe  from  Egypt,  as 
heretofore  explained,  had  never  been 
seen  by  the  Og-eag-eis,  the  general 
voice  of  antiquity  attests,  that  the 
first  houses  erected  in  any  part  of 
Greece,  were  built  in  Peloponnesus 
and  Cecropia;  when  priests  from 
Rome  inundated  Eri,  they  imported 
the  letter  P,  from  which  tiine  it  was 
used  in  our  language,  from  this  word 
is  derived  Palace,  wherein  kings 
and  bishops  consume  the  fruits  of 
the  earth 
Beol-ob-an-inis,  "  an  island  all  but  the 
mouth,"  to  whatever  transpositions 
and  elisions  the  Greeks  had  recourse 
for  the  sake  of  Euphonia,  they  were 
never  carried  to  such  an  excess  of 
absurdity  as  to  call  Chersonesos, 
Nesos,  Inis  is  the  primitive  word, 
on  which  the  Greeks  formed  their 
Nes-os,  and  the  Romans  their  Inis- 
ula,     contracted    to    Ins-ula;    and 



Pleuron,  a  town  of 
^^tolia,  said  to  be 
called  from  a  son  of 

Tlirake,  said  to  derive 
its  name  from 
Thrax,  a  son  of 

though  Beol,  a  mouth  which  makes 
part  of  this  compound,  was  disused 
by  the  Greeks  as  to  the  human 
mouth,  Ave  find  it  preserved  in  Ek- 
bolai,  the  mouths  of  water,  which  is 
not  derived  from  Ek-out  and  Bole 
casting,  but  from  Uisg  water,  cor- 
lupted  to  Ek  and  beola,  lips,  and 
is  synonymous  to  the  Roman  Os, 
or  Ostium,  the  mouth 

Blur-aon,  "  the  choice  one,-'  this  town 
and  Kal-u-don  were  built  by  the 
tribe  of  the  Og-eageis,  who,  as  be- 
fore mentioned,  fled  from  the  Pelas- 
goi,  the  latter  place  situated  amongst 
hills,  this  the  other  in  the  Champaign, 
therefore  considered  more  choice  or 
excellent  than  Kal-ud-on 

Traig-ce,  "  the  land  of  strands  or 
shores,"  accurately  descriptive  of 
this  vast  region,  bounded  on  three 
sides  by  the  shore  of  the  Euxine,  the 
Bosphorus,  and  the  Ister 

Till  it  touched  lUurike,  Mesia  being 
originally  but  one  of  its  subdenomi- 
nations,  Thrax,  the  son  of  Mars,  is 
one  of  the  children  of  mythology,  as 
a  farther  proof  that  the  name  of  this 
vast  tract  is  connected  with  water,  I 
have  to  remark  that  the  most  potent 
of  the  tribes  thereof  had"  the  specific 
appellation  of  Odrysae,  and  that  in 
a  general  sense  the  name  of  Odry- 
sius  was  given  to  a  Thracian,  which 
words,  OdrysaR  and  Odrysius,  are 
derived  from  Udor  water ;  English 
bible  translators  say  the  country  had 


its  name  from  Thiras,  one  of  the  sons 
of  Japheth,  but  these  Cimmerian 
traductors  either  forgot,  or  did  not 
know,  that  the  land  was  called 
Thrake,  not  Thrase 
Sigyiiaf  Seigionig,  "  Champions."  Herodotus 

says,   in  tlie  Pth  chapter  of  Terpsi- 
core,  that  a  tribe  of  the  Medes  called 
Sigynse,  extended  almost  to  the  Eneti, 
in  the  Adriatic,  and  he  adds,  "  how 
this  can  be,  I  am  not  able  to  deter- 
I  beg  leave  to  observe,  these  people  were  foot  au.xiliaries,  aa 
laziges  were  horse  auxiliaries  (both  Sarmatag)  to  the  Scythians, 
and  this  notice  of  Herodotus  confirms  me  in  the  opinion,   that 
the  Sarmatse  were  Assyrian  Medes,  who,  though  not  incorpo- 
rated,  were   confederated   with   the  Scythians  in  the  north  of 
Pru-tanei-on  Pru-tanis  Bri-tethgne  pronounced  Bri-tinni^ 

"The  fire  hill" 
Thus  defined  by  those  who  To  illustrate  the  true  meaning 
pretend  to  knowledge  of  of  this  word,  it  will  be 
the  Grecian  language,  the  necessary  to  state  the  an- 
former,  a  "  Chamber,'"  or  cient  institution  of  the  Scy- 
Conclave,"  a  "  Common  thian  race,  which  gave  rise  to 
hall,"  or  "  Council  house."         it. 

*'  A  place  at  Athens  where  In  every  commune  of  the  Scy- 
those  who  deserved  well  of  thian  lands,  there  was  a  small 
the  republic  were fedj^'item,  mount  either  natural,  or  arti- 

"  A  large  and  magnificent  ficial,  nigh  unto  which  was  a 
house,"  item,  a  "  Store  permanent  booth,  the  only 
house,"  item,  a  "  Fire  one  in  the  district,  wherein 
court."  dwelt  the  individual,   whose 

The  latter,  "  a  prsefect,"  office  it  was  to  guard  a  por- 
"adniinistrator,"or  "keep-  tion  of  sacred  elementary 
er,*"  quasi  "  purotamis."  fire,    to    prevent    its    being 

From  which  it  appears  that         extinguished,    and    also    to 



Pru-tanei-on  was  u  cliani- 
ber  or  hall,  where  certain 
officers  called  Pru-tan-es 
assembled,  and  that  the 
term  was  also  applied  to  a 
store-liouse  for  corn,  dis- 
tributed by  these  Pru-tan- 
es,  or  by  officers  bearing 
the  same  title 

Now  prithee  attend  to  llie 
radices  from  which  "  Pru- 
tan-es''  is  by  the  etymolo- 
gists fancied  and  confidently 
declared  to  be  derived  ;  it 
is,  say  they,  derived  from 
*'  Puro-tamis,"  a  "  praefect 
of  corn,"  vel,  a  "protos," 
"  the  first,""  which  word 
"  Puro-tamis,"  they  are 
pleased  to  inform  us,  is  de- 
rived from  "  Puios,"  qua- 
si, "  Spuros,""  pronounc- 
ed "  Sporns,"  '•  Corn"" 
and  "  Temno,"  "  Seco" 
to  cut,  from  which  "  Pru- 
tanei-ou"  is  also  derived, 
wliilst  some  of  the  order, 
suppose  the  original  word 
to  be  "  Puros-tameion,""  a 
"  Fire  court" 

To  apply  terms  of  reproba- 
tion suitable  to  this  impo- 
sition on  the  minds  of 
youth,  anxious  for  a  know- 
ledge of  the  trutb  heing 
impossible,  1  shall  content 
myself  with  first  exposing 

kindle  therefrom  an  artificial 
fire  on  the  summit  of  the 
adjoining  mount,  the  signal 
for  the  assembling  the  people 
of  the  commune  for  the  pur- 
pose of  transacting  their 
affairs,  and  which  continued 
to  burn  whilst  the  congre- 
gation abided  there  about. 
This  hill  was  called  "  Bri,"  the 
artificial  fire  *' Tethgne,"  and 
the  dwelling  nigh  thereto, 
"  Asti,"  accordingly,  we  learn, 
that  when  the  Pelasgoi  arriv- 
ed in  the  southern  quarter 
of  Greece,  they  divided  the 
district  of  Attica,  into  16*0 
"  Asti,"  afterwards  reduced 
to  12,  over  which  Theseus 
established  superior  jurisdic- 
tion at  Ce-cropia,  the  name  of 
v.hich  he  changed  to  "  Asti," 
as  much  as  to  say  the  Asti, 
the  metropolis;  in  like  manner 
did  all  the  nations  of  Greece 
change  places  and  manner  of 
holding  public  assemblies, 
first  from  the  Bri-tethgne,  to 
villages,    and    then   consoli- 




ties  mto  one  principal  Asti, 
Avhereby  a  city  came  to  have 
the  name  of  Asti,  which 
originally  was  applied  to  the 
hut  of  the  leros,  guardian  of 
the  sacred  fire.  In  like  man- 
ner as    to    the   Bri-tethgn6; 



the  lbregoin<r  farago  of 
absolute  nonsense,  suffici- 
ently obvious  one  might 
have  thought,  from  the 
various  transpositions,  in- 
congruities, and  the  Vel 
"  Protos,"  and  then  ex- 
plaining and  demonstrating 
the  genuine  signification  of 
these  words 
Pru-tanei-on  composed  of 
Pru  and  tanei,  the  "  on" 
being  merely  a  termination, 
the  first  of  which  some  of 
the  etymologists  change 
from  puros,  the  invariable 
signification  of  which  is 
fire,  but  as  that  does  not 
answer  on  the  present  oc- 
casion, they  have  made  it 
a  mutation  from  Sporos, 
quasi,  poros,  corn,  and 
Tanei,  say  they,  is  from 
Temno,  seco,  to  cut,  divide 
or  distribute ;  but  consci- 
ous as  it  were  of  the  absur- 
dity of  these  conceits,  they 
abandon  that  conjecture, 
and  venture  on  an  alias,  in 
the  shape  of  Protos,  first, 
others  of  the  etymologists 
say  this  word  is  quasi 
"  Puros- tameion,""  a  fire 
court,  Puros  changed  to 
Pru,  and  tameoin  to  tanei- 
on  ;  it  is  not  a  little  curious 
that  though  fire  is  the  chief 

the  custom  of  the  whole  com- 
munity assembling  in  the 
open  air,  round  the  mount, 
being  violated  ;  it  happened 
in  process  of  time,  that  indi- 
viduals in  the  cities  erecting 
themselves  into  what  they 
pleased  to  call  an  aristocracy, 
assumed  privileges  to  which 
they  were  continually  making 
additions,  whereby  the  body 
of  the  people  were  excluded 
from  the  original  power,  the 
right  cceval  with,  and  a  ne- 
cessary appendage  of  theif 
being,  and  existing  in  a  state 
of  perfect  security,  of  manag- 
ing their  own  concerns,  or 
actually  and  bona  fide  choos- 
ing the  persons  in  whom  they 
had  confidence,  to  transact 
their  affairs  subject  to  the  will 
of  the  majority  of  the  society, 
and  the  usurpers  being  few, 
and  easily  accommodated  in  a 
chamber  or  hall,  within  an 
house,  the  ancient  name  of 
the  primitive  institution,  and 
the  institution  itself  shared 
the  same  fate  of  being  cor- 
rupted. Bri  became  Pru, 
and  Tcth-gne  suffered  the 
slight  alteration  to  Tanei,  on 
being  merely  a  termination 
of  the  neuter  gender 
That  these  were  the  primitive 
words  of  this  term  is  obvious- 



ingredient  in  tliis  compo- 
sition, it  is  not  denoted 
here  by  *'  Puros,"  but  by 
"Tanei,"  the  term  in  its 
present  form  being  an  al- 
teration from  the  original, 
"  Bri-tethgne,"  as  you  will 
find  illustrated  in  the  dia- 
lect of  Eri.  Had  Pui--os 
made  part  of  this  word, 
the  Greeks  would  not  have 
altered  it  to  Pru 

from  the  Pri-tane-um  of  the 
Romans,  whereon  we  tind  p 
only  substituted  for  b,  a 
practice  to  which  they  were 
prone,  and  though  "  Tane," 
signifies  fire,  changed  from 
Tethgne,  pronounced  Tinni, 
on  which  the  Romans  formed 
their  "  Ignis,"  whilst  the  fact 
of  Tetligne  being  the  original 
wor  1  for  fire,  not  elimontary, 
is  proved  in  this  compound 
of  the  Greeks.  Mount  Sinai 
was  a  Bri-tethgne,  mount 
Palatin-us  was  a  Bri-tethgne, 
Bri-ses  was  the  priest  whose 
station  was  in  Asti,  near  the 
mount,  every  page  of  the 
chronicles  of  Eri  proves  the 
ancient  institution,  and  the 
primitive  term  for  the  place 
of  assembly,  as  you  will  wit- 
1  have  gone  to  some  length  to 
expose  the  absurdities  of  pre- 
tenders to  etymology,  as  also 
to  demonstrate  the  value  of 
the  unadulterated,  unimprov- 
ed dialect  of  Eri,  whereby  it 
is  yet  possible  to  ascertain  the 
most  ai;cient  signification  of 
words,  and  to  point  out  the 
alterations  that  have  been 
made  therein  by  the  Greeks 
and  Romans,  to  form  dialects 
conformable  to  their  respec- 
tive tastes 



I'hermo  Pulai,  the 
celebrated  pass  into 
Greece,  said  to  owe 
its  name  to  warm 
baths  in  the  neigh- 

Thettaiia  said  to  have 
the  name  from  one 
king  Thessalus  ! ! ! 
of  the  same  cast  as 
kings  C)gjgcs,  Boeo- 
tusj  Emathion,  Ma- 
cedo,Pelops,'l  hrax, 
with  a  long  catalo^- 
gue  of  &c. 

Triptolcmus  the  son 
of  Celeus,  he  was 
chief  of  Eleusis  a 
city  of  the  Og-eag- 
eis,  tlie  first  of  that 
tribe  who  isrecorded 
to  have  been  skilled 
in  the  science  of 
Agriculture,  and 
the  use  of  the 
plough  by  Ceres, 
a  Scicilian  woman 

Tearni-ob-aile,  the  limit  or  boundary 
of  obstruction, 

Here  it  was,  the  famous  council  Am- 
fic-tain  assembled  and  here  was  the 
barrier  of  Greece.  Had  the  Greeks 
derived  the  name  from  warm  baths, 
fanciful  as  they  were  in  compounding 
simples,  they  would  have  called  the 
place  Hierraa-Pulia,  which  would 
liave  been  more  agreeable  to  the 
tongue  and  ear,  though  even  so,  they 
would  have  been  guilty  of  a  great 
absurdity,  with  which  I  would  not 
charge  them  of  applying  the  epithet 
Therma  to  Pulai,  because  of  warm 
baths  in  the  neighbourhood 

Teth-aille-iath,  "  The  most  beautiful 
warm  country." 

English  Etymoligists  usually  speak 
Latin-Greek,  the  former  being  the 
language  they  are  better  versed  in, 
here  they  derive  Thettalia  from  a 
man  Thessalus,  because  the  Romans 
called  the  country  Thessalia 

Tir-tolaimac,  '*  One  that  perforates  the 

That  the  Pelasgoi  were  acquainted 
with  the  art  of  i-aising  corn  for  bread 
during  their  sojourn  in  Egypt  must 
be  presumed,  nor  can  it  be  doubted 
that  the  Sydonians  had  acquired  the 
knowledge,  but  it  is  not  equally 
certain  that  the  Og-eag-eis  were 
versed  in  husbandry,  they  lived  on 
acorns,  on  fruits,  flesh  and  milk  of 
cattle.    It  is  probable  notwithstand- 


ing  the  fables  of  Ceres,  that   the 
chief  of  Eleusis  might  have  learned 
the  art  of  ploughing  and  tilling  the 
earth,  and  raising  corn  from  a  female 
from  Sicily,  an  art  that  appeared  so 
wonderful  to  them  as  to  be  venerated 
and   celebrated   for   ages,     by   the 
name  of  the  Eleusinian  mysteries 
Chomages,  the  name     Comalcei,  heaps  of  earth,  the  descrip- 
of  the  tomb  or  heaps         tion  of  the  tomb  of  Allyattes  differs 
of  earth,     beneath         in  nothing  from  a  Tuam  of  a  chief 
whicli  Aillyattes  was         of  Eri,  but  in  the  superior  magniH- 
buried  near  Sardis  cence  of  the  former 

Of  the  names  of  persons  and  places  the  definitions  here  given 
are  very  different,  as  you  pereeive  from  those  generally  re- 
ceived, I  have  therefore  to  impress  more  deeply  on  your  mindj 
that  the  Noe-maid-eis,  the  Og-eag-eis  of  Greece  and  of  Eri, 
the  children  of  Sydon  and  of  Israel,  having  had  one  and  the 
same  original  language,  become  more  or  less  diverse  according 
to  currents  of  communication  between  these  several  tribes  and 
stranger  people,  climate,  taste,  and  a  great  variety  of  other 
circumstance,  if  the  dialects  of  the  Scythians  of  Greece  and 
of  Eri,  were  originally  represented  by  the  same  figures,  to  the 
number  of  sixteen,  to  which  in  process  of  time,  long  time,  an 
addition  of  eight  characters  was  made  to  the  Alpha,  Beta,  of 
the  former,  whilst  the  Ailm,  Beith,  of  the  latter,  received  no 
increase.  If  you  find  in  the  vocabulary  of  the  former  radical 
monosyllables  confessedly  subjected  to  mutations,  compounded 
in  a  fantastical  manner,  for  utterance  most  agreeable  to  the 
tongue,  for  sound  most  pleasing  to  the  ear,  an  infinity  of  words 
denoted  by  letters  not  of  the  sixteen  originals,  whilst  the  rude 
nomenclature  of  the  latter,  stands  nearly  in  its  primitive  cum- 
brous form,  moreover,  if  you  recognize  the  words  in  their  new 
fashioned  attire,  expressive  of  the  same  ideas  as  their  kindred 
in  their  antique  garb,  methinks  you  will  not  hesitate  to 
acknowledge  the  identity,  the  latter  bearing  a  nearer  resemb^ 



lance  to  the  parent  of"  both  ;  and  that  such  is  tlic  truth,  I  re- 
assert shall  be  proved  when  I  come  to  treat  of  the  Phoenician 
language,  the  middle  term  by  which  we  can  arrive  at  satisfactoy 
proof.  These  observations  made,  I  shall  now  set  before  you 
a  variety  of  words  in  the  dialects  of  Greece,  Italy,  and  Eri,  of 
the  same  signification  in  all,  wherefrom  you  will  have  an 
opportunity  of  witnessing  that  the  dialects  of  Greece  and  Eri 
bear  a  nearer  resemblance  to  eaeh  other,  than  either  doth  to 
that  of  Italy,  allowed  io  be  of  the  same  family  as  that  of 

Dialect  of  Greece, 

Of  Hall,, 

Of  Eri,     Germnnnic. 

A-bus-os,  said  to 

Infinitae  profundi. 

.  Aoi  Baidh-seis,  pron.  Ai 

be  derived  from 

tatis  vorago 

Bai-seis,  the  land  of  heaps 

A,  when  it  gives 

of  waves  ;   the  Scythians 

additional  power. 

called     the     sea,     "the 

nnd  Busos   Fro- 

world  of  waters." 




Ag-aim,  I  am  astonished 



Giola,     a     messenger   or 

Agkura  Anchora 

Agkuran  Kal-an  Anchorara  demit- 
This  is  not  the 
right  expression 
in  Roman,  the 
word  should  be 
Cel-are,  wherein 
you  perceive  the 
original  word, 
and  the  varia- 
tions of  Greece 
and  Italy,  thus 
Ceil  KafCal 

Anccolre,  an  anchor 
Ancoire  Ceil-an,  hide  or 
conceal  the  anchor,  that 
is,  in  the  water.  The 
expression  now  used  is 
cast  anchor,  of  course 
into  the  water,  whereof 
course  it  was  concealed. 
Here  let  me  once  for  all 
note,  that  neither  we  of 
Eri,  nor  those  of  Italy, 
ever  bad  the  letter  K, 
our  C  Deing  always  pro- 
nounced as  K,  whilst 
those  of  Greece  substi- 
tuted the  figure  K  for  C 




A  g-nos 

Ag-on,  said  to  be 

derived  from  A, 

bearing     what 

signification   is 

not  stated,  and 
Gonia  an  angle 

or  corner !  !  ! 
Aia,  supposed  to  Terraia 

be  for  Gaia 

Eag-nous,  deficient  in  in- 
Agh,  a  conflict  or  struggle 

Aidoi-os,  suppo- 
sed Aidos,h-om 
A,  non,  et  eido, 
video  ! 



Venerandus,  Pu- 
us  enim  intueri 
non  audet 

Laus,  honor 


Aiteo                      Peto,  Postulo 
Art-ia                      Culpa,  Crimen 
Akedes,  supposed  Negligens 
from  a, non,  and 

kedos,  cura 


Robur,  Vires 











Aoi  and  ai,  a  region  or 
particular  independent 

Aidide,  bashful,  respectful 

Ain,  worthy  of  respect  and 

Airioch-seis,     pronounced 
Aurosis,  the  congrega- 
ting of  the  clan  for  the 
purpose      of     electing 
Aithcim,  I  entreat 
Aithis,  shame,  rebuke 
Cedaid  pron.  Cedai,  sloth 

Craos,  gluttony 

Alga,  brave,  noble,  power- 

Aile,  another 

Aile-ait,  another  place 

Aile-tur,  another  land 

A  madan,  pronounced  am- 
adhan,  a  fool 

Mian-aisde,  out  of  mind 



Am  phi 





Domo  carens 





Ares  Mars 







Nomen  fluvii 






Ursa  , 











Lith-ois  Ball-ein    Saxis  incessere 

Bath-roi),  suppo-  Gradus,  subselli 

sed  from  Baino,       um 

Bath-eos  Alte 

Bat-os,   supposed  Rubus  sentis 

from   Bia   and 

Ato,  quod  vio- 

lenter  la>dat 
Belos,     supposed  Limen  domus 

from     Bao    et 

lian  ;  quod  per 

*  Here  we  have  the  original  Uisg 

Uimb,  about,  pron.Umph 
the  b,  being  aspirated 

No-beo,  new  hfe 

An-asti,  houseless 

Aus-mos,  an  original  cusr- 

Ar,  Havoc,  desolation 

Arg,  white 

Ard,  high 

Ardi-usage,      the      high 

Ard-uisge-eis,    raising 

streams  of  water 
Arg-aim,  I  spoil  or  drive 

off  a  prey 
Art,  a  bear 

E-raite,  untold,  a  secret 
E-time,  without  estimation 
Ann  air,  untimely 
Bachal,  a  staff 
Bual-aim,  I  strike 
Lith-ib   Bual-ad,   to    pelt 
.  Bath-as,  the  top,  pre  emU 

Bath-as,  the  top,  Sec, 
Bat-a,  a  cudgel 

Beal-ac,'a  much  frequent- 
ed path 

water,  nearly  i)reservtd. 



limiiia    saepius 



Ictus                       Buile,  a  stroke 

Bolg-os,  (Eolian 

Saccus                    Bolg,  a  sack 


Bora,  supposed  a 

Pabulum    bruto-  Bo-rae,  abundance  for  cat- 


rum                         tie  (that  is)   cows  and 


Boun-os,    suppo- 

Collis, tumulus      Binn,  the  highest  summit 

sed  a  Baino 

of  a  hill 

Brom-os,  a  Bremo  Fragor                 ") 

Brom-os,    suppo- 

Foetidus              >  Breim,  a  breaking  wind,  a 
3      fart 

sed  a  Baru 


Stridor                    Brusg-aire,   a  noisy  tur- 

bulent fellow 


Gressus                   Beim,  a  step 


Enim                       Gur,  for 


Senilis                     Graintheac,  grey  from  age, 


Gno-rim-os,  sup- 

Notus                     Gno-reima,     famous    for 

posed  them  Gi- 

great  exploits 



Angulus                 Cuine,  an  angle 


Quidam,  vocabu-  Duine,     every   one,    any 

lum  infinitum         one,  the  people 


Bi-foris                    Dis-doras,  a  double  door 

Dromes,     suppo- 

Cursus                   Drom,  the  back,  the  ob* 

sed  them  Treko 

ject  of  the  racers  being 

curro ! 

to  shew  their  backs 


Eo                          Imthigh-im,    pronounced 

Imim,  I  go 


Aut                        Acht,  but 


Ille                          Ceana,      the     same;     as 

red   ceana,     the    same 

thing,  Fear  Ceana,  the 

same  man,  &c. 


Me                         Me,  I  and  me 



Epikouria,     sup- 


posed       theme 

Epikouros     ab 

epi,an(l  kouros, 

quod  juvenum 

sit       belligere, 

theme    kouros, 

koreo,  purgo ! 









theme  Edo,  dcr- 








Cabhair,  pro.  Cour,  help, 
assistance,  the  true  sig- 
nification of  the  word  is 
an  union  of  force 

Earrr-alre,  an  artificer,  a 
workman,  but  not  at 

Er,  an  hero 

Ruadh,  pro.  Ruah,  red 

Socair,  easy,  quiet,  as  go 
Socair,  gently 

Imthig,  depart,  begone 

0-cas,  and 

Glan,  neat,  clean,  decent 
to  Kalon,  and  an  Glan 
have  precisely  the  same 




Cal-uimb,  a  wrapper,    a 

posed    a 


covering  all  round 

upto,  tego 



Cal-aim,  I   enclose,   keep 
safe,  surround 



Carra,  a  car 

Kath-eand  Katli- 


Cath-aoir,  a  chair 



Camus,  froemige- 

Cam,  crooked 

nus,    so 



of  its 





Cam,  crooked 



Ceir,  wax  of  l>ees 



Ciste,  a  chest 



Kleia,  a  Kle-os 

Gloria,  laws 








Inclino,  reclino 















Leo-phoros,  sup- 
posed       from 
Laos,   populus 
and  Phero,  fero 

Via  publica 











Clu,  praise,  renown 

Clu-im,  I  praise 

Cal-im,  I  enclose,  shut  up 

Ceilte,  hidden,  concealed 
Claon-aim^    I   bend,   in- 
cline, recline 

Clut-eac,  praised, renown- 

Coll,  a  rising  ground 

Col,  an  impediment 

Crit,  a  trembling 

Crion-a,  discerning,  ju- 

Crad-aim,  I  vex,  torment 

Laom,  blazing  fire 

Lath-radh,    pronounced 
Lathra,  a  secret 

Go-leor,  plentifully 

Luis-f bras,  a  way  for  the 
people,  from  Lus,  the 
people,  andforas,away, 
now  generally  applied  to 
a  passage  over  or  thro' 
water,  by  usof  Eri 

Lemain,Loman,the  names 
of  three  celebrated  lakes 
on  lands  occupied  by 
Scythians,  the  first  in 
Eri,  now  vulgarly  called 
Kilarney,  second  in 
CaUdun-seis,  now  cal- 
led Geneva,  third  in 
Cala-donia,  now  Loman 

Liath,  a  stone 

Logh-aim,  I  rot,  putrify 

Mir,  a  part,  or  share 

Measg-aim,  I  mix 





Meisge,  drunk 



Mion,  diminutive 


Ingens,   infinitus  Mur,   infinitely  great,  or 




Nas-cras,the  body  in  death 



No,  new 



£is-Eis,multitude  on  mul- 



Samuil,  like 


Qui  eadem  lingua 

Samuil-glor,  of  the  same 





Uair,  time 

Or-os,    supposed 

Limen,  terminus 

Or,  a  coast,   or  border  of 

from  Oro,  video 

a  country 

Or-os,  accusative 


Ar-an,    coarse  land,  not 

Or-on,    suppo- 


sed  from  Oro, 




Earr,  Earbal,  an  end,  ex- 
tremity, the  tail 



Bear-im,  I  carry 



Fer-bo,  fodder  for  cattle 



Titt-im,  I  fall,  stumbling 



Leathan,  wide,  broad,  ex- 



Por-nos,    suppo- 


Foirneadh,      pronounced 

sed  from  Perao 


For-ne,  a  violent  pas- 


sion  or  inclination,  that 
Pome  is  not  derived 
from  Perao,  vendo,  is 
on  sight  confuted  by 
the  masculine  term 
Pornos,  which  would 
have  to  be  derived 
from  Em-por-euomai, 
Mereor,    as  if  the  fe- 


male  sold,  the  male 
bought,  I  marvel  En- 
glish etymologists,  ne- 
ver happened  to  sp}- 
the  syllable  Por  in 
Em-por-euomai,  an  ac- 
cident that  miglit  have 
turned  out  to  be  of 
great  value,  and  the 
theme  of  much  plausi- 
ble nonsense ;  the  sy- 
nonimous  terms  in 
Roman  should  have 
been  Forni-catrix  and 
Fornicator,  and  that 
the  original  word  is  not 
applicable  to  gratifica- 
tion of  passion  only,  is 
clear  from  the  28th  ver. 
of  the  5th  chapter  of 

"  But  I  say  unto  you, 
that  whosoever  looketh 
on  a  woman  to  lust 
after  her,  hath  commit- 
ted adultery  with  her 
already  in  his  heart." 

It  must  be  presumed  that 
Matthew  took  every 
pains  in  the  composition 
of  the  short  treatise  on 
morals,  in  which  the 
above  sentiment  is  con- 
tained, and  that  every 
word  was  set  dowp  on 
mature  reflexion  and 



Poros,  sup.  from 
Peiro,  transadi- 

Transitus,  Ora 
maritima  rec- 
tius  Ora  aqua- 


Conspicuus  sum, 





Ret-or,  from 










Palus  praeacutus 

spinea      fades. 
Oh,  mercv! 

Foras,  a  passage  over  or 
through  water,  the  ra- 
dix both  of  Poros, 
and  Peiro,  and  so  the 
Latin  transadigo,  and 
the  Ora  maritima,  which 
I  have  taken  the  liber- 
ty of  correcting  to  its 
true  signification  Ora 
aquaria,  plainly  point 

Breab-aire,  a  man  fore- 
most in  gallant  actions 

Sioc-aim,  I  dry  up 

Bris-im,  I  break 

Raite,  said  or  told 

Radht-aire,  a  speaker 

Radh-im,  I  say 

Sith,  quietness,  tranquil- 

Scab-im,  I  disperse,  spread 

Scath,  pronounced  Scab, 
a  shade,  or  shadow 

Scolb,  a  sharp  pointed 
stake,  now  applied  to 
the  very  sharp  pointed 
stakes,  or  twigs  that  the 
straw  is  fastened  on  the 
roofs  of  the  sties  where- 
in the  children  of  un- 
happy Eri,  are  now 
huddled  like  pigs, 
whilst  the  murderers  of 
heir  fathers  repose  in 
palaces,  on  lands  where- 
on the  legitimate  own- 
ers toil  and  sweat  for  a 
















(Estas,  Messis 


Honor,  poena,  ti- 







Tumulus,  Sepul- 

posed  a  tupho, 


uro     cadavera 




Altus,  subliniis 



Salto,  et  saltando 

poor  hire,  even  of  which 
they  are  defrauded 

Stad,  stand,  rest 

Staon,  a  contraction 

Geir,  suet,  tallow 

Strath-aire,  a  lewd  idle 
fellow,  the  sparrow  is 
proverbial  for  lewdness 

Toil,  the  will 

Tetli,  pronounced  Teh, 
heat,  warmth 

Teth-ros,  delightful  heat 
or  warmth 

Time,  respectful  awe 

Tonna,  a  tune 

Tu,  thou  or  thee 

Tuaim,  an  artificial  mount 
heaped  over  the  dead  ; 
it  is  not  derived  from 
tupho,  uro,  but  is  an 
original  term,  in  use 
with  tribes  who  did  not 
burn  their  dead,  as  you 
will  learn  from  the 
Chronicles  of  Eri 

Uasal,  well  descended, 
noble ;  as  duine  uasal 
is  the  term  by  which 
hath  hitherto  been  ex- 
pressed, a  gentleman, 
applicable  now  to  very 

Cailc,  chalk 

Cor,  music,  the  Greek  is 
compounded  of  Cor, 
music,  and  Eio,  changed 


to  Euo,  for  Euphonia, 
that  is,  I  dance 
Chreia  Necessitas,    indi-   Eag-Craos,     now    called 

gentia  Ocrus,    want   of  food, 

The  foregoing  is  a  Catalogue  of  words  of  divers  subjects 
which  occurred  to  me,  from  my  knowledge  of  the  dialects  of 
Greece  and  Er-i,  so  evidently  derived  from  one  common  ori- 
gin, as  not  to  admit  of  two  contrary  opinions,  being  nearly 
identic,  the  translation  of  the  former  to  the  dialect  of  Italy, 
analyzed  according  to  the  dictation  of  some  soi-disant  etymo- 
logists, received  by  ignorant  pretenders  to  the  science,  and 
now  so  firmly  established,  that  even  the  proofs  here  adduced 
will,  it  is  to  be  feared,  hardly  remove,  or  perhaps  shake,  so 
absolute  is  the  tyranny  of  spurious  literature  over  ignorance  ; 
the  translation  of  the  latter  to  the  present  language  of  England, 
the  mere  literal  signification  of  each  term  servilely  adhered  to, 
observations  on  which,  I  shall  reserve  for  the  concluding  part 
of  this  section,  and  now  present  to  your  view,  for  the  investi- 
gation of  your  senses,  a  list  of  words  by  which  the  Scythians 
of  Greece,  Italy,  and  ol"  Eri,  denoted  the  elements,  ethereal 
objects,  time,  and  seasons,  land,  sea,  rivers,  lakes,  and  waters ; 
mankind,  their  attributes,  members,  primary  necessities,  pas- 
sions, and  relations,  their  poHcy,  religion,  and  other  customs  ; 
their  reading,  writing,  speaking,  and  music,  divers  species  of 
cattle  and  birds,  terms  of  war,  and  some  of  its  horrors  ;  in  the 
manner  of  laying  which  before  you,  I  shall  depart  from  alpha- 
betical order,  and  range  the  woi*ds  according  to  the  class  to 
which  each  term  belongs,  as  the  method  best  calculated  to  im- 
press the  whole  more  effectually  upon  your  understanding. 
The-os,  from  The-o,     Deus  Teth    pronounced     The, 

pono,     facio,    as  Heat,  it  is  synonimous 

fancied  to   Thummum   of  the 

Scythians  of  Palestina, 
accoi'ding  to  the  deri- 
vation fi'oni  Thc-o,  a 
weaver    or   bricklayer, 



El-ios,     theme, 
Ele,  splendor 

Selas,  Theme, 
Ele,  splendor 



Selene,  Theme, 
Seio,  agito,  and 
ele,  splendor 


Anatole,  Theme,  Oriens 

&c.  may  with  equal 
propriety  be  called 
The-os,  OS  is  merely  a 
Grecian  masculine  ter- 

El-ios,  the  messenger  of 
the  powerful,  it  is  syno- 
nymous with  El-ohe, 
the  word  by  which  the 
Hebrews  expressed  the 
incomprehensible  Al- 
mighty power 

Sulas,  light,  from  which  it 
is  clear  that  the  Gre- 
cian term  Elios  was  a 
metaphorical  personifi- 
cation, a  compound 

Sul-lu-ain-e,  "it  is  the  light 
of  the  lesser  orb  or  ring,'" 
and  that  this  is  the  cor- 
rect etymology  of  the 
word,  is  demonstrated 
by  the  Roman  Luna, 
that  is  Lu-ain,  the 
transposition  of  the  a 
and  the  elision  of  the 
ri,  to  give  the  word  a 
feminine  termination, 
and  for  Euphonia.  We 
of  Eri  adhere  to  the 
original  word  Re,  Sele- 
ne is  a  metaphorical 

An-no-tul-e,  it  is  the  new 

*  None  of  these  words  are  derived  from  Ele,  splendor,  but  from  El,  the 
original  term  for  power  and  majesty,  from  which  Ele  itself  is  to  be  derired. 


anatello,     cxo- 
Orth-ros,       quia  Diluculuni 
nos    ad   opera 
Orthoi  erigit 

En   to  Orthro        Mane 





The-reia,      quia  CEstas 

Opora,  Theme  AuUimnus 
open  and  ora, 
seu'ora,  tempus 
et  cura  fruc- 
tuum ;  it  is 
true  ora  signi- 
fies time,  but 
why  cura  fruc- 
truuni  should 
be  added  I  can- 

appearance,  as  shall  be 
more  fully  explained 

Oir-t-ruis,  the  breaking 
in  the  east,  day  break, 
which  shews,  as  doth 
the  next  word,  that  Oir 
is  the  primitive  terra 
for  the  east 

On-oirthir  and  Oir-maid- 
ean,  in  the  morning,  at 
the  breaking  forth  in 
the  east 

Ainn,  Bael-Ainn,  the  ring 
or  circle  of  Baal,  the 
full  course  of  the  sun 
through  the  year 

Ear  the  spring,  Ear-ratha, 
the  spring  season 

Teth-ratha,  pronounced 
The-raha,  the  warm 
quarter  of  the  sun's 
yearly  circuit,  from  the 
original  word  The,  in 
this  compound,  it  is 
manifest  that  The-os  is 
not  derived  from  Theo, 
pono,  facio,  &c. 

Fogh-muair,  harvest,  lite- 
rally this  word  means 
the  time  of  hospitality, 
and  is  the  only  term 
now  in  use,  but  ancient- 

Meas  and  Cruininig, 
were  the  words  denot- 
ing that  season,  the 
first      meaning     fruit. 



not  understand, 
the  etymolo- 
gists might  as 
well  have  said, 
tempus  eden- 
di,  or  any  thing 

particularly  acorns,  the 
other  ingathering,  the 
Greeks  it  seems  called 
this  season  by  the  name 
of  Opora,  which  in  the 
language  of  Eri  is 
Obair,  work  at  agricul- 
ture, which  must  be 
the  true  signification, 
an  original  monosylla- 
ble, the  more  soft  p 
introduced  in  the  place 
of  h,  for  Euphonia, 
autumn  being  the  most 
busy  season  of  the  year; 
the  expression  is  meta- 




Geim-ratha,    Winter,    li- 

cheo, seu  cheio. 

terally    it    means    the 



season  when  the  earth 



is  dark  and  gloomy 

ct  nives 



Noct,  night 



Am-ratha,  pronounced 
Amra,  the  arch  of  time, 
that  is,  the  time  from 
the  rising  to  the  setting 
of  the  sun,  but  the  only 
word  of  Eri  now  is 

Lae  pronounced  Lau,  and 
that  this  word  had  been 
in  use  amongst  the 
Greeks  shall  be  pre- 
sently shewn 



Ce,  the  earth 



Ur,  the  element  of  fire 



*      Duor,  the  eliment  of  water 





Aer,  the  air 



Eat-ear,  pure  air 



Neamh,  pronounced  Neaf, 
the  heavens 



Fos,  light 



Sbeir,  the.  sky 



Tuil-eis-e,  it  is  a  multitude 
of  floods 



Uisge,  running  water,  as 
rivers,    &c.  not  the  ele- 
ment of  water,  here  you 
have  the  primitive  term 
Uisge,  preserved  in  the 



Lac,  a  lake  of  water 



I-nis,  an  island 



Naoi,  pron.  Ne,  a  ship 



navigioli  Libearn,  a  kind  of  vessel, 
a  ship  with  two  prows, 
no  stern 



Scafa,  a  light  boat 



Ceforas,  a  way  over  water, 
from  land  to  land 


Ager  arenae  sub  Tan,  a  district  of  a  coun- 


latens            try,  from  the  Latin  de- 
finition   of  this  term  it 
would  appear,  that  the 
Romaics  applied  it  only 
"  to   maritime  countries, 
and  without  reference  to 
extent,  as  Mauritania, 
Lusitania,     Aquitania, 
Britannia,but  it  shall  be 
satisfactorily  shewn,  that 
such   was   not  the  true 
signification  of  the  word, 
Tan  being  a  primitive 








A  net 












Pais-da  . 




























name  for  a  chiefry  of  a 
district,  subordinate  to 
a  superior  jurisdiction 

Bith,  and  Biota,  life 

Nas,  death 

G-nee,  a  woman 

Nae,  a  man 

Mathair,  mother 

Athair,  father, 

Mama,  the  breast 

Gein-im,  I  beget 

Ua,  a  male  descendant 

Baisde,  a  boy  growing 

Fream-tir,  pron.  Freav-tir, 
brother ;  this  word  is 
now  vulgarly  pronoun- 
ced Braheer  and  Dra- 
heer,  the  true  word 
Fream-tir,  means  the 
roots  of  the  land. 

Gein,  a  genus  or  kind  of 
a  species 

Ga-al,  a  near  kindred  of 
the  same  tribe. 

Fuil,  blood 

Freamtir-iath,the  brother- 
hood of  the  land 

Failac,  a  social  companion 

Eiris,  a  friend 

A  inim  a  name 

A  nam,  the  soul 

Nous,  the  intellect 

Croide,  the  heart 

Ceann,  pron.  Caun,  the 

Fuil-bos,  the  case  of  the 
















, curro ! 








G aster 


Gonu  Genu 

Chthon,    theme    Terra 
Cho,  capio 

Eaden,  the  forehead 
Deor,  tears 
O,  the  ear 
S-ron,  the  nose 
Drom,   the  back  ;  here  is 
proof  that  the  original 
word  for   the    back    is 
Drom,  the  word  Drom- 
os  being  appHed  to  a  foot 
race,  from  the  competi- 
tion  of    the   racers   to 
shew  their  backs,  besides 
who  would  agree  to  such 
a   derivation   of  Drom- 
os  as  Trecho,  curro 
Brae,  the  arm 
Uilean,  the  elbow 
longa,  a  nail  of  the  hand 

or  foot 
Cas-tarr,  the  paunch,  the 

inside  of  the  belly 
Glun,  the  knee 
Thon,  the  arse  ;  it  will  be 
thought,  till  explained, 
that  a  term  supposed  to 
be  synonymous  with  the 
Roman  terra  should  be 
set  down  as  identic  with 
The,  the  arse,  but  so  it 
is,  as  would  appear 
clearly  enough,  if  the 
Lexicon  manufacturer 
had  even  said  humi,  in- 
stead of  terra,  that  they 
are  the  same  word  will 
be  proved  in  the  Chroni- 
cles of  Eri 










Cos,  the  foot 
Cior,  the  hands 
Deas,  the  right  hand 
Lamh,  pron  Lauv,  the 
left  hand 
The  explanation  of  these  three  terms,  ought  of  themselves 
to  be  considered  sufficient  proof  of  identity  of  origin,  all  the 
tribes  of  the  Scythian  race  directed  their  faces  towards  the 
east  in  their  worship,  being  the  point  Cebla,  where  Baal  the 
Bun  first  makes  his  appearance,  consequently  the  south  was  on 
the  right  hand,  nor  had  they  originally  any  other  word  than 
Deas  to  represent  the  right  and  the  south,  though  in 
aftertimes  the  Greeks  called  the  south  Not-os,  not  from  NeOy 
Jluo,  they  were  not  so  absurd,  but  from  the  original  word 
Not-a,  discovered,  the  whole  orb  being  then  visible,  the  sun 
having  reached  the  summit  of  his  course  ;  and  that  Deas  was 
the  primitive  term  for  the  south  as  also  for  the  right,  is  proved 
in  the  word  Caldees,  in  lot-da-cal,  Ka-desh,  the  south  country  in 
the  land  of  Canaan,  by  Deas,  corrupted  to  Dac-ia  in  the  land  of 
the  Goths,  and  by  Deas-Mumham,  that  is  south  Munster,  still 
farther  corrupted  to  Des-mond,  and  divers  other  districts  in  Eri; 
the  Greeks  and  Romans  and  another  term  by  which  they  ex- 
pressed the  left  hand,  besides  Laios,  and  Laevus,  the  former  call- 
ing it  Skai-os,  the  wordsof  the  lattei',  synonymous,  to  which  are 
Sinister,  Scoevus,  Opacus,  which  word  Skai-os  is  not  derived 
from  Shazo,  Claudico,  to  halt,  but  from  Skia,  Umbra,  because 
the  sun  never  visited  the  northern  quarter  of  the  heavens,  the 
shadow  only  was  on  that  part  of  the  earth,  for  which  reason 
it  was  accounted  unlucky,  precisely  so  in  Eri.  Lamh  that  is 
Lauv,  the  left  hand  having  the  epithet  Cle  attached  to  it,  the 
signification  of  which  is,  unlucky,  wicked  ;  we  of  Eri  have 
preserved  another  wora  by  which  we  express  the  north,  Thuath, 
pron.  Thua,  which  though  grown  obsolete  with  the  Greeks,  we 
find  in  use  in  the  time  of  Herodotus,  who  in  his  account  of  the 
Scythians,  north  of  Caucasus,  places  the  tribe  of  the  Thy- 
Sagiote  farthest  north,  which  word  is  evidently  a  corruption 
of  Thua,  as  the  Greeks,   Romans,  and  children  of  Eri  ex- 


pressed  themselves,  as  to  the  points  of  the  heavens  and  the 
hands,  face,  and  back,  so  did  the  children  of  Israel,  from  the 
particular  account  of  which  I  trust  you  will  excuse  me,  as  you 
can  and  ought  to  satisfy  yourself,  by  investigating  the  scources 
of  antiqnity  fully,  and  not  content  your  mind  with  incidental 



Dearc-im,  I  see 



Clu-in-im,  I  hear 



Cot-laidh-im,  I  lye  in  a 
state  of  restoration,  I 



Tac-im,  I  roar,  or  shout 



Ed-im,  I  have  intimate 



Staid-aim,  I  stand 



Ith-im,  I  eat 



Fogh-ad,  to  give  feasts, 
and  live  hospitably 



Bin,  a  drop  of  liquid 



Toil,  the  will 



Caob,  the  inside  of  the 


Comedo  avide 

Caob-im,  I  devour 



Eagcraos,  hunger 



Frogh-fiad,  pronounced 
Trophi,  delicate  food  for 
children  after  they  have 
lost  the  breast 



Geal-lact,  unskimmed 
milk,  that  is  white  milk 



Mil,  honey 



Breotad,  to  be  grievously 



Reuma,  phlegm 



Bian,  punishment,  pain 



Gair-im,  I  laugh,  rejoice 



Fearg,  anger 












Honor,  laus 













Tass-o,  unde 


Instructio  aciei 

Ordino,    Colloco 

Aite,  revenge 

Aidide,  bashful,  respectful 

Mios-cais,  hatred 

Tim^,  estimation 

Fubt-ad,  to  menace, 

Uabh-an,  fear 

Tradh-ma,  pronounced 
Trauma,  a  lance  wound 

01-ar-threas,  a  mighty 

Niadh  Cath,  pronounced 
Nicah,  the  champion  of 
the  battle,  in  these 
terms  you  recognize  the 
primitive  words  Magh, 
a  plain,  and  Cath,  a 

Laighean,  a  long  spear 

Sread-iath,  the  host  of  the 

Ar-tag-seis,  the  host  in 
order  of  battle 

Taoiseach,  pronounced 
Tausah,  a  chief 

Here  are  many  original 
terms  of  war  nearly  in 
their  primitive  form, 
from  the  last  of  which 
you  see  the  liberties 
the  Greeks  took  with 
their  ancient  language, 
Tass-o  is  to  range  and 
place  in  order  the  army, 
from  which  they  called 
the  dux,  chief;  Tag-os 














'Dictio,  narratio, 

*     oratio 


These  are  terras 
used     by    the 
Greeks  for  ora- 




Quidam   v 

lum  est 





Basi-leus,  theme, 
Basis,  the  base, 
or  foundation, 
and  laos,  popu- 
lus, people 


from  Taoiseach,  which 
one  would  think  they 
might  have  called  Tass- 
os,  but  there  is  no  ac- 
counting for  taste 

Cal-astrad-en,  to  shut  one 
up  apart 

Leigh-im,  I  read 

Graf-aim,  I  write 

Radh-aim,  I  say 
Ag-Leig,  reading 

VAg-Radli,  relating  not 

-/     from  a  writing 

/  Fais-neis,speaking  from 

These  are  the  terms  used 
by  the  children  of  En 
for  oration 

Triam-im,  I  bewail,  la- 

Lus,  the  people 

Duine,  any  one,  or  every 
one,  the  public,  precise- 
ly of  the  same  significa- 
tion in  the  three  dia- 

Duine-mais,  "the union  of 
the  people,"  the  origin, 
and  only  legitimate 
source  of  power 

Bathas-luis,  pronounced 
Bas-luis,  the  head  of  the 
people,  the  etymology 
of  this  word  has  been 
perverted,  the  chief,  the 
free  choice  of  the  peo- 


pie,  was  placed  at  their 
head,  not  at  the  feet, 
nor  yet  could  an  indi- 
vidual be  the  basis  of 
the  people  ;   that   basis 
is    not    always    meant 
for  foundation,  appears 
from  its  other  significa- 
tions, and  from  the  verb 
baino,  to  go,  whence  it 
is  supposed  to  be   de- 
rived, I  say  supposed, 
because  it  is  an  error  to 
fancy,  that  it  is  a  deri- 
vative, being  an  original 
term  ;  what  becomes  of 
bathron,  a  seat,    above 
the  basis,  and  said  to  be 
derived  from  the  same 
bamo,  eo,  to  go ;  every 
Scythian  epithet  for  the 
chief  is  expressive  of  an 
€xalted    station,    never 
of  such  an  idea  that  he 
was  the  foundation  of 
the  people,  who  were 
the   foundation   of  his 
power  and  eminence,  as 
the  words  used  for  chief 
denote  Ceann,  vulgarly 
called   Khan,  the  head 
Ri,   Rex,  the  director, 
Dux,   Princeps,  &c.  as 
vi^ell  as  the  next  term 
Anax  Rex  Anac-ol,     the    powerful 

protector,    the   annak- 
im  of  the  Hebrews,  of 







Terrarum  divisio 

Commoror,  dego 

Geneth-le,      Ge- 

Origo,  Natalitia 


Sine  genere 













whom  the  translators  of 
tlieir  works  have  made 
giants,  who  were  in  fact 
so  only  in  power 
Turnae,  the  chief  of  the 
land,  which  shews  that 
Tur  is  an  original  word 
for  land,  or  a  country 
Tus-mos,  an  original  cus- 

Ce-d''aice,  the  land  of  the 

Di-treab-eac,  one  that 
leaves  his  own  tribe, 
and  tarries  from  it;  a 
name  given  to  one  of 
the  kings  of  Eri,  for 
the  above  reason,  whilst 
it  appears  from  this 
term,  that  the  word 
treab,  tribus,  a  tribe, 
M'as  also  used  in  Greece 

Gein-ead-lae,  birth-day, 
from  whence  it  is  mani- 
fest that  the  primitive 
word  lae,  a  day,  was  in 
use  in  Greece 

E-gein-e'alac,  without  a 
family,  or  having  no 
pedigree ;  novus  homo 

Ar-im,  I  plow 

Ar-an,  bread 

Bro,  a  hand  mill,  quern 

Asti,  a  dwelling 

Bal-eis,  the  place  of  the 

Dom,  a  house  v 





,  domus 

Teac,    a   hut,   cabin,    or 




Dorus,  a  door 

Mule       * 


Creitir,  a  cup,  goblet 
•  Muilenn,  a  mill 



Lin,  linen 




Eraid,  wearing  apparel 
Buille-meas,     strokes    of 
weapons.     The  bell  of 
the  Romans  shews  tlie 
origin  of  the  term  ac- 
cording  to   the   dialect 
of  Eri 




Pugna  Magh-Cath,    pronounced 

Ma-cah,  the  field  of 

Gladius  ?vlagh      Cath-ar,      pron. 

IVIacar,  the  desolation 
of  the  field  of  battle, 
the  correctness  of  the 
definition  proved  by 
Gladius  of  the  Romans, 
from  Clades,  slaughter 

Arma  a^rea  Colg,  a  sword.  The  swords 

and  other  weapons  of 
the  tribes  of  Iber  and 
of  Greece  were  origi- 
nally made  of  brass 
from  the  mines  of  Col- 
chis; therefore  we  of 
Eri  call  a  sword  Colg, 
whilst  the  Greeks  call- 
ed all  weapons  Chalk- 
os,  and  gave  the  name 
of  Machaira  to  the 
sword,   a  term  descrip- 






.  Ethelo  threskia 





Lapis,  qui  manum 
implere  potest 


tive  of  its  destructive 
Beilt,  a  buckler 
Tarrad,  to  protect 
Iris,  the  law  of  revelation, 

called  religion 
Trosga,  a  fasting 
Toil  Trosga,  a  voluntary 

Tearm-ann,  a  limit,  land- 
mark, in  after  times 
made  the  god  'J  erminus 
_  Cam,  signifies  a  heap  ot 
/  small  stones.  It  was  a 
Acervus,  parvo-  ^Carn  that  Jacob  and 
rum  lapidum  J  Laban  piled  up  and 
covenanted  on ;  a  pri- 
mitive memorial  antece- 
dently to  the  knowledge 
of  letters.  Herodotus 
says,  in  the  92d  chap- 
ter of  Melpomene,  that 
the  army  of  Darius 
erected  a  pile  of  stones 
at  the  river  Artiscus, 
by  each  man  throwing 
one  stone;  this  was  a 
Carn.  In  such  vene- 
ration are  these  Carn- 
eis  held  in  Erl  at  this 
hour,  and  ever  have 
been,  that  there  are 
thousands  of  them  yet 
remaining  on  that  land, 
notwithstanding  the  in- 
troduction of  the  mo- 
dern philosophy. 

DEMONSTRATION.                             CCXlll 



Bo,  a  cow 



Caball,  a  pack  horse 



Caor,  a  sheep 



Tarb,  a  bull 



Bo-cal-e,  an  herdsman,  the 
one  who  encloses  and 
protects  the  cattle 

Amnos,     Anine, 

Agnus,      Agna, 

Uaghn,  pronounced  Uan, 

ace.  6  on 

male    and 
male  lamb 


a  lamb 



Cuin,  dogs 



Gena,  geese 



lasc,  a  fish 



Cor-eis,  a  concert 



Cor,  music 



Uail-oluagh,  a  great  la- 
mentation at  the  grave, 
the  origin  of  hallelujah 
of  the  Hebrews. 


An    utrum, 


•  Ara,  why,  anon,  what ;  it 

tur,       neu] 


is  a  word  I  cannot  de- 

&c. &c.  &c. 

scribe,  and  is  now  vul- 
garly pronounced  Yerra 



Airgiod,  silver,  now  the 
term  for  money  in  ge- 


Aurum,  moneta 

Oir,  Cruisg.     The  reason 


for  the  Greeks  calling 
money  of  gold  Chrus-os, 
was  from  the  process  of 
fire  being  necessary  for 
the  formation  of  it,  and 
Cruisg,  is  the  original 

word  of  Eri,  for  a  pot, 
or  crucible,  you  see  the 
primitive  term  Oir,  pre- 


served  in  Aur,  in  the 
Chake  ,  Caco  Cac,  ordure 


(a)  It  is  said  that  this  chief  derived  his  name  from  Cedem,  which  is  the 
Hebrew  for  the  east,  answering  to  (before)  as  lexiographers  say,  and  for 
that  reason,  because  the  East  was  before,  in  front  of  them  in  worship.  In 
the  language  in  Eri,  Ceadam  means  the  first  time,  as  though  lime  com- 
menced with  the  first  appearance  of  the  sun  ;  if  Cadmus  is  to  be  called  from 
Cedem  the  east,  he  is  the  first  man  of  the  world  that  ever  bore  a  name 
from  a  circumstance  so  general,  you  will  therefore  decide  according  to 
your  own  judgment. 

•  I  may  be  asked  what  authority  I  have  for  asserting  that /was  one  of 
16  letters  originally  introduced  into  Greece  by  Cadmus,  to  which  I  reply, 
because  it  is  one  of  the  letters  brought  from  Phoenicia  by  Eolus  to  Gaelag, 
and  because  as  the  figure  f  was  not  invented  for  one  hundred  and  fifty 
years  after  the  time  of  Cadmus,  I  cannot  conceive  how  the  Greeks  could 
have  managed  wrthoiU  the  letter/during  that  interval. 


From  Greece  let  us  bend  our  course  to  Italy,  a  country 
colonized  by  Scythians  from  Greece,  Crete,  Lydia  and  Phry- 
gia,  as  heretofore  mentioned,  whereon  I  will  proceed  to  set 
down  a  variety  of  terms  not  introduced  in  the  preceding 
section,  which  shall  be  collated  with  words  of  Eri,  of  the  same 
signification,  observations  before  made  as  to  compounds  and 
terminations,  you  will  have  the  goodness  to  bear  in  mind, 
being  applicable  to  the  dialect  of  the  Romans  also,  though  not 
to  the  same  extent. 

I  shall  first  set  before  you  a  catalogue  of  names  of  persons, 
places  and  institutions,  and  then  of  such  words  as  demonstrate 
kindred  of  tlie  people,  amongst  whom  they  were  in  use,  so 
clearly,  as  to  leave  no  room  for  doubt  or  uncertainty,  first, 
noticing  Janus,  Saturn  and  .Eneas,  the  leaders  of  the  Scy- 
thians, to  the  land  of  the  Um-bri. 

Ja-nus  lath-nons,  pronounced  la-nons,  '*  The 

intellect  of  the  country."    This  war- 
the  name    by  which  Onotrus,   the 








son  of  Lycaon,  a  Pelasgian,  who 
led  the  first  colony  of  Scythians  to 
to  the  land  of  the  Umbri,  from 
Peloponnesus,  was  called 

Onotr-iath,  the  land  of  Onotrus,  the 
name  given  to  the  part  of  the  lands 
of  the  Umbri,  occupied  by  the  co- 
lony of  the  Pelasgoi 

Saoi-tur-nae,  the  learned  chief,  he 
emigrated  from  Crete,  and  first  in- 
troduced letters  into  the  country  of 
the  Umbrij'  he  was  the  leader  of  the 
second  Scythian  colony  into  that 

Lat-uaim,  the  secret  cave.  This  was 
the  place  where  Saturn  concealed 
himself,  on  his  ariival  on  the  lands 
of  the  Umbri  from  Crete 

Aon-gaos,  the  prudent  and  discreet 
one,  he  led  the  third  colony  from 
Troy,  to  the  land  of  the  Umbri 

Uambi'i,  **  A  cave  in  a  mount,"  a  name 
given  by  the  Scythian  Pelasgoi  to 
the  aborigines  of  Italy,  who  lived 
in  caves  of  the  earth,  till  instructed 
by  Onotrus,  to  erect  huts ;  this  is 
not  quite  the  definition  of  the  name 
according  to  Pliny,  which  I  shall 
give  you  as  a  sample  of  Roman 
etymology,  to  shew  how  completely 
ignorant  they  had  become  of  the 
ancient  language 

•*  Umbrorum  gens  antiquissima  Italiai 
existimatur,  ut  quos  Ombrios  a 
Graecis  dictos  putent,  quod  inun- 
datione  terrarum  imbribus  super- 
fuissent."    What  think  you  of  that 


derivation  from  Fliny,  the  greatest 
reader  of  his  day  ?  but  tho'  laugh- 
able, it  proves  remoteness  of  origin  ! 

Itallia  lat-aille,  the  most  beautiful  country, 

the  latter  name  of  the  land  of  the 
Umbri,  the  aborigines  of  that  part 
of  Europe 

Alba  et  Alpes  Ailb,   a    country  of   high    lands,  as 

Ailb-bin,  cfn  the  Caspian  sea,  ancJ 
the  Ailb,  in  Italy,  the  former 
changed  to  Alban-ia,  the  latter  to 
Alps,  by  the  Romans,  and  Ailb-bin 
in  Britain 

Aven-tin  u.  Amhan  Tethgne,    pron.   Avan-tinne, 

"  The  fire  hill  of  the  river,"  that  ir 
hear  unto  the  river.  This  place  hath 
been  supposed  by  some,  to  owe  its 
name  to  an  Alban  king,  Aventinus, 
a  most  convenient  source  for  igno- 
rance, others,  ab  avibus,  from  birds 
that  used  to  fly  thither  from  the 
Tiber.  But  it  had  another  name, 
Re-mon-ius,  which  signifies  the 
mount  of  the  moon,  such  as  Rim- 
mon  in  Palestina,  and  elsewhere 
through  the  land  of  Canaan,  where 
fire  sacred  to  Re,  the  moon  was 
lighted  and  venerated,  and  this 
mount  for  that  reason  was  always 
held  sacred.  Re-moin  in  the  dialect 
of  Eri,  signifies  the  hill  of  the  moon ; 
it  was  called  Aven-tinus,  to  distin- 
guish it  from  Pal-a-tin-us 
Calerva  8000  men  Cath-arbhar,  pronounced  Catarvar, 
warriors  the  host  for    battle,  this   body  of 

warriors  consisted  of  600  in  Eri 
Mons  Cal-iui"  Moih    Ceilte,   the  concealed   hill ;    it 

Demonstration.  ccxvii 

had  another  name,  Querculanus, 
from  the  gi-eat  quantity  of  oaks 
which  grew  there,  which  occasioned 
the  name  of  Ceil-ius,  concealed,  the 
same  cause  of  the  name  of  Ceilte, 
corrupted  to  Cchje,  heing  given  to 
the  aboriginal  Europeans 

Cen-sus  Cc  an-seis,  the  heads  of  the  multitudes 

from  the  practice  of  taking  the 
number  of  the  people 

Cin-cin-a-tu5  Cean-cean-iat-eis,  "  The  head  over  the 

head  of  the  people."  This  was  thefirst 
title  given  to  the  supreme  officer, 
afterwards  called  dictator.  The 
name  of  the  first  person  invested 
with  this  power  was  Titus  Largius 
Flavius ;  the  nature  of  the  institu- 
tion, which  set  the  individual  over 
the  consuls,  and  clothed  him 
in  absolute  authority,  is  well  des- 
cribed by  the  epithet 

Curet  es  Coraid-aos,  "  A  fellowship  of  champi- 

ons," as  shall  be  explained  when  I 
ccme  to  speak  of  Phoenicia.  It  was 
three  companions  of  this  order,  not 
brothers  by  birth,  but  connected  by 
a  brotherhood  of  fellowship,  who 
fought  with  the  Horatii 

Eq-ues  Eac-aos,  "  A  fellowship  of  horsemen,"" 

the  Eques-trian  order 

Ex-er-cl-tu  ■  Eis-air  Cat-uis,  "  The  gathering  toge- 

ther the  multitudes  for  battle" 

Jani-cul-um  la-nois-cal-uim,    the    cave    in   which 

la-nous  is  enclosed  ;  Janiculum  was 
the  place  where  lanus  was  interred 

Pal-a-tin-us  Bala-tethgne-eis,  pron.    Ealta-tin-eis, 

the  high  place  of  the  fire  of  the 


multitude.  "  This  mount,"  says  Ken- 
nett,  "  has  ever  had  the  preference, 
whether  so  called  from  the  people 
Palantes,  or  from  the  bleating  and 
strolling  of  cattle  ;  in  Latin,  balare 
and  palare,  or  from  Pales,  the  pas- 
toral goddess,  or  from  the  burying 
place  of  Pallas,  we  find  disputed, 
and  undetermined  amongst  their 
authors.  It  was  in  this  place  Ro- 
mulus laid  the  foundation  of  the 
city,  and  here  he,  and  Tullus  Hos- 
tilius  kept  their  courts,  as  did  after- 
wards Augustus,  and  all  the  suc- 
ceeding emperors."  So  far  Kennett, 
but  he  omitted  a  very  material  point. 
On  this  mount  it  was,  that  Romu- 
lus, the  elected  chief,  and  the 
elders,  and  the  people  of  this  small 
Scythian  community,  entered  into 
a  covenant  founded  on  their  ancient 
institutions,  by  which  they  rose  to 
an  eminence  of  power  unattained  by 
any  other  nation,  maintained  so 
long  as  they  adhered  to  the  spirit 
and  substance  of  the  compact,  from 
which  they  were  tumbled  headlong  ? 
when  the  spirit  evaporated,  the  sub- 
stance became  corrupted,  and 
nought  but  forms  remained,  inj- 
prcgnated  with  the  most  destructive 
poisonous  product  of  putridity,  che- 
rished by  the  few  false  traitors  who 
came  by  imperceptible  degrees  to 
usurp  authority  ;  by  them,  and  their 
patricide  instruments,  administered 
with    unsparing  hand   to  all,   and 


every  one,  wlio  strove  to  reform  the 
commonwealth.  Here  it  w&s,  that 
the  rude  laws  of  this  Scythian  tribe 
were  promulgated,  the  sacred  em- 
blem of  fire  blazing  on  the  summit 
of  the  mount,  precisely  as  Moses, 
the  elected  chief  of  the  children  of 
Israel,  delivered  the  laws  and  the 
judgments  on  Mount  Sinai,  *'  all  in 
a  smoke,  for  the  Lord  had  descend- 
ed on  it  in  fire,"  to  the  elders  and 
the  people,  which  all  entered  into 
the  covenant  to  observe.  This  was 
the  same  as  the  Bri-tethgne,  the 
fire  hill,  of  the  Greeks,  as  hereto- 
fore explained ;  this  was  the  same 
as  the  Bri-teigne  of  the  Gaal  of 
Sciot  of  Ib-er,  never  abandoned  till 
the  sophistication  of  the  intellect,  by 
means  of  miracles  and  mysteries, 
and  a  contemptible  species  of  sliim- 
ble-sharable  logic,  which  would  dis- 
grace the  understanding  of  a  school 
boy,  yet  made  auxiliary  to  doctrines, 
to  this  hour  inculcated  with  unaf- 
fected seriousness,  or  a  gravity  so 
weU  assumed,  as  to  deceive,  and  be 
received  with  a  servility  that  shud- 
ders at  investigation,  least  freedom 
to  th6  mind  should  ensue.  Vaunt 
not,  O  man !  be  not  puffed  up  !  are 
•jome  of  you  wiser  than  any  of  the 
brute  kind  ?  many  more  of  you 
there  are,  greatly  inferior  in  intel- 
lect to  the  wisest  of  those  animals 
you  pronounce  irrational.  Be  as- 
sured  this   Mount   oweth   not  its 


})anie  to  the  people  Palantes,  nor 
tlie  bleeting  and  strolling  of  cattle, 
Balare,  or  Pal  are,  nor  yet  to  the 
Goddess  Pales,  nor  even  Pallas; 
but,  as  I  have  said,  because  it  was 
the  chief  place  of  the  sacred  fire,  at 
which  the  Duine,  Demoi,  tribus  of 
that  land  assembled,  to  transact 
their  own  affairs.  And  here,  once 
for  all,  permit  me  to  remark,  that 
wherever  you  find  etymologists, 
giving  two  or  more  definitions,  as 
those  of  the  modern  Romans  for 
this  ancient  place,  and  innumerable 
others,  you  may  conclude  they  had 
recourse  to  conjecture,  and  were 
ignorant  of  the  true  signification  of 
the  term  they  attempted  to  explain 
Pb-mor-ium  Bo-mur-uim.  It  is  not  always  possible 

to  give  the  translation  of  words  thus 
confounded ;  these  three  original 
terms  signify  a  cow  or  ox,  a  wall 
and  ground,  the  correct  explanation 
of  which  is  best  shewn  by  the  ob_ 
ject  the  word  was  to  represent.  The 
Pomoerium  of  Rome  was  the  origi- 
nal wall  of  the  city,  the  foundation 
of  which  was  laid  in  a  trench  made 
by  a  plough  with  a  brazen  share 
drawn  by  a  cow  and  a  bull  yoked 
together.  This  word  is  said  to  be 
derived  from  pone  maenia  ;  had  they 
said  even  pone  murum,  it  would 
be  something  near  the  mark ;  but 
why  make  Pone  of  Po,  I  cannot 
conceive  ;  but  when  you  consider 
that  the  Romans  were  prone  to  sub- 


stilutc  p  for  b,  and  as  Bo  or  Bos  is 
tlie  original  word  for  a  cow,  and  as 
this  animal  is  the  chief  agent  in  the 
ceremony,  I  leave  you  to  decide  be- 
tween the  two.  Pone-maenia,  or 
Bo-mur-uim,  as  the  etymology  of 
the  term 

Qucestor  Cios-taire,  the  man  who  collects  tribute, 

taxes,  or  rents 

Re-mon-ius  Re-moin,  "the  mount  of  the  moon,"  the 

Rimmon  of  Canaan,  this  hill  being 
always  reputed  Holy,  was  never 
enclosed,  saith  Gellius,  within  the 
city,  till  the  time  of  Claudius  ;  the 
moon  was  held  in  peculiar  veneration 
by  the  Scythian  nations 

Sen-ator-es  Sean-athair-aos,   "  a  fellowship  of  old 

fathers,'"  critically  descriptive  of  the 
order,  which,  though  a  term  com- 
pounded by  the  Romans,  was  an 
institution  of  the  Scythian  race 

Ti-ber-us  Tiobar-eis,  a  multitude  of  springs 

Trib-un-us  Treab-bin,  the  head  of  the  tribe,  us,  is 

a  mere  masculine  termination 

Sug-grun-dar-iimi  Sug-grin-deor-uaim,    "  the    grave   on 

which  the  tear  was  shed  for  the 
perished  suckHng."  This  was  the 
name  of  the  place  set  apart  at  Rome 
for  the  burial  of  infants,  who  died 
before  the  breeding  of  teeth,  that 
is  suckling,  and^such  is  precisely 
the  meaning  of  this  term  so  com- 
pounded in  the  language,  or  rather 
dialect  of  Eri 
Vesta  Asti,  "the  dwelling  of  the  guardian  of 

the    sacred   fire,"  converted  to  the 



goddess  of  fire  by  the  name  of  Vesta, 
Estia  of  Greece,  Tabite  of  the  Goths 
These  few  terms  of  the  most  remarkable  persons,  places,  and 
customs,  that  occurred  to  me,  being  explained,  I  shall  now- 
present  you  with  a  catalogue  of  words  in  the  dialects  of  Italy 
and  Eri,  from  which  you  will  draw  such  conclusion  as  you  think 
just,  and  have  but  to  request  you  will  do  your  utmost 
to  eradicate  from  your  mind,  any  prejudice  it  may  *have  formed. 


Acar,  sharp,  sour 


Comail,  a  heap, 


Aile-ib,  another  place 


Ail-im,  I  feed  or  nourish 


Aman,  a-  river 


Ainn,  a  ring,  circle 


An  ?  is  it  ?  is  he  ?  &c. 

I  sea  Osca 


Uisge,  water 


E-scath,  unshaded,  without  a  shadow 


Asal,  an  ass 


Bacol,  a  staff 


Balb,  a  stammerer  in  speech 


Bard,  a  bard 

Bu-bile,  Bo-vile 

Bo-bal,  a  place  for  cattle,  a  cow-house. 

Here  is  an  instance  of  an  alteration 

of  the  very  radix,  from  Bo  to  Bu,  in 

these  two  terms,  such  is  taste 


Cad-aim,  a  fall 


Cleath,  a  basket 


Gail,  a  hot  vapour,  exhalation 

Caligo  occui 


Cail-gin,  a  distemper  that  closes  up 
the  eyes 


Calc,  chalk 


Cain,  chaste,  pure 


Caintic,  a  song 


Gaber,  a  goat 


Cara,  dear,  beloved 


Ceilte,  concealed,  the  origin  of  theCelta? 














Ms,  zeris 






Flam  ma 






Ccart,just,  right 

Serb-o,  a  stag 

Ce-seis,  the  congregation  of  th  e  lancj 

Colam-uin,  a  post  or  pillar 

Curam,  a  care  or  charge 

Cormas,  sweet  music 

Glaim,  a  loud  noise 

Clo,  a  nail,  a  print,  or  mark 

Diu,  a  long  while 

Brotad,  very  sick 

Eac,  a  horse  for  riding 

Iras,  brass 

Fill-im,  I  deceive  or  I  am  treacherous 

Bi,  be  tliou 

Fuin,  an  end  or  conclusion 

Feod,  a  sod  of  the  earth  with  the  her^ 
bage,  from  whence  the  feodal  system 

Foirneadh,  pron.  Forneah,  a  violent 
inclination  or  excitement  of  the 

Fuil-ua,  a  son  of  one"'s  blood 

Laom,  a  blazing  fire 

Srian,  a  restraint  or  curb 

Claideam,  a  sword,  the  Roman  word 
is  derived  from  Clades,  slaughter 

Glor,  a  loud  expression  of  praise 

Gneat,  born 

Gab-aim,  I  have 

Mogh,  a  man 

lb,  there,  that  place,  the  place 

Tethgne,  fire,  not  the' element,  but  the 
emblem  thereof,  and  derived  there- 
from, speaking  critically,  it  sig- 
nifies the  fire  not  lighted  from  the 
beams  of  the  sun,  though  it  came 
to  denote  any  fire  however  kindled 




Im-bifjr,  the  water  mi  high,  rain 


In-tinn,  the  intention 


Idir,  between 


Olain,  wool 


Lar,  the  floor,  the  ground  pressed  and 

made  level,    as  a  dancing  floor,    a 

ball  court,  a  threshing  floor  ;  when 

applied   to  an  house   it  means  the 

fire-place,  which  was  in  the  middle 

of  the  chamber,  Lar  having  that  sig- 

nification. The  Lares,  or  household 

gods  of  the  Romans,  near  the  hearth 


.      Latar,    clandestine 


Leabta-cuil,  a  couch  for  a  bed 


Leabar,  a  book 


Mugh-aim,  I  kill 


Moir,  the  sea 


Midhe,  the  middle  of  any  thing 


Meas,  harvest,  literally  acorns 


Mian,  the  mind 


R,eis-mear-gradh,   a   blameable  fond- 

ness for  many,  or  an  over  fond  error 

with  many 


Modh,  a  mode,  or  manner 


Morb,  death 


Mos,  a  custom 


Ni,  not 


Ni-mogh,  no  man 


Nead,  a  nest 


Ob-im,  I  hinder,  prevent,  or  obstruct 


Ob,  an  impediment 


Ob-ar,  labor 


Oir,  the  east 

Pass-er,  a  sparrow 

fiaois,  lust,  the  sparrow  is  remarkable 

for  lechery 


Falainn,  a  mantle 




Pry-taneum,  a  council 

house,   or   common 




Reor,  I  suppose,  ima- 

Clum,  a  feather 

Britetgne,  pronounced  Britini,  the 
fire  hill,  on  which  a  community,  or 
tribe,  assembled  for  the  public  af- 
fairs, altered  in  after  times,  (when 
edifices  came  to  be  erected)  to  a 
common  hall,  the  original  term 
changed  with  the  change  in  the  in- 
stitution, from  every  individual  of 
the  society  been  entitled  to  give  his 
opinion  on  his  own,  and  the  general 
concerns,  a  few  individuals  came  to 
infringe  the  original  right  of  the 
society,  and  to  usurp  the  power  of 
making  privileges  for  themselves, 
who  have  never  failed  to  consider 
their  own  private  interest  in  prefer- 
ence to  those  of  the  commonwealth, 
to  their  exclusive  aggrandizement, 
and  the  ruin  of  the  people  at  large 

Ci,  who 

Ca,  pronounced  Cau,  where 

Cia-red,  wherefore 

Ceasd,  a  question 

Cad-am-diu,  how  long 

Can,  when 

Ciod,  what 

Raighe,  a  ray  of  light 

Reacht,  a  law,  direction,  a  right 

Ram-ha,  an  oar 

Reir,  discretion 

Red,  a  thing 
Ri,  a  king,  a  director 
Ros,  arose 
Ru-ad,  red  colour 
Saighiot,  Sciot,  an  arrow 

CCXXVl                            li 



Sail],  salt 


Saimh,  pronounced  Save,  sweet 


Sasat,  sufficient,  enough 


Suid-im,  I  sit 


Sith-im,  I  calm,  or  appease 


Se,  him,  he 


Sean,  an  old  nmn,  or  old 


Samhail,  like 


Saide,  a  seat 


Socair,  tranquil 

Sicc-o,  I  dry  up 

Sioc,  a  hoar  frost 


Sic,  dry- 


Son,  sound 


Sul,  the  sun 


Suas,  upward 


Sugh-aim,  I  suck 


Scriob-aim,  I  write 


Scuib,  a  broom 

Salt-o,  I  dance,  or  leap 

Suit,  mirth 


Stan,  tin 


Sciath,  a  shiela 


Talarm,    pron.    Thauluv,  the   earth. 

that  is,  the  productive  part  of  the 



Tur,  the  element,  earth 


Toit,  the  whole 


Treab,  a  tribe 


Eata,  old 


Fion,  wine 


Fear,  a  man 


Focal,  a  word 

Ur-o,  I  burn 

Ur,  the  element  of  fire 


Having  made  a  comparison  of  the  dialects  of  the  Scythian 
language  in  the  northern  and  central  migrations  of  that  race, 
with  the  dialect  of  Eri,  let  us  now  measure  back  our  steps  to 


Pboenicia,  of  the  language  of  which  country  I  have  given  vou 
divers  specimens,  in  all  the  regions  we  have  traversed,  which 
I  have  undertaken  to  prove  identic  with  the  speech  of  Canta- 
bria  and  Ew,  a  pledge  about  to  be  redeemed  on  its  native  soil. 
This  celebrated  countr}'  was  one  of  many  districts  of  the 
land  of  Canaan,  a  name  first  to  be  explained.  According  to 
the  traditions  of  the  Hebrews,  the  land  owed  its  name  to  an 
individual,  the  son  of  Ham,  the  son  of  Noah,,  a  practice  I 
have  had  frequent  occasion  to  notice,  and  have  as  frequently 
condemned,  between  which  signification  and  mine  you  can  now 

Canaan  Aoi-Ceanaen,  "  the  land  of  merchants."     This 

country,  which  extended  from  the  Euphrates 
east,  to  the  salt  sea  west,  from  Syria  of  Da- 
mascus north,  to  the  land  of  the  Arabs  south, 
was  so  celebrated   for  its  commerce  in  the 
very  earliest  times  we  have  mention  of,  that 
I  have  no  occasion  to  make  farther  comment 
on  the  propriety  of  this  name  for  this  coun- 
try, of  which  one  of  the  nations  was 
Phoinike  of    Feinece,  "  the  land  of  husbandmen."    You  have 
the  Greeks       been  instructed    to  believe  that  the  Greek 
Phoenicia  of  the     name  for  this  country  is  derived  either  from 
Romans  Phoinix,   a  palm-tree,   from   the  quantity  of 

them  with  which  it  abounded,  or  from  Phoi- 
nix, the  colour  red,  the  latter  derivation 
maintained  even  by  Newton,  on  the  authority 
of  Herodotus  and  Strabo,  and  after  the  fol- 
lowing manner  :  "  When  David,  chief  of  the 
children  of  Israel,  invaded  the  land  of  the 
Edomites,  numbers  from  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Red  Sea  fled,  and  settled  themselves  in 
Phoenicia,  that  is  in  all  the  sea  coasts  of  Sy- 
ria from  Egypt  to  Zidon,  and  by  calling 
themselves  Phoenicians  in  the  language  of 
Syria  instead  of  Erythreans,  gave  the  name 
of  Phoenicia  to  all  that  coast,  and  to  that 


only,  Edom,  Erythra,  and  Phccnicia,  being 
names  of  the  same  signification,  the  words 
denoting  red  colour.'^ 
From  which  you  perceive  there  is  a  difference 
of  opinion,  one  supposing  that  the  coun- 
try had  its  name  from  palm-trees,  the 
other  conjecturing  it  derived  tlie  name 
from  the  colour  red,  both  resting  on  the 
fancy  that  Phoinix  is  the  Greek  for  both. 
In  a  subject  of  astronomy,  I  would  not  ven- 
ture to  dissent  from  that  Leviathan  of  the 
air ;  but  on  the  present  occasion  I  must  take 
tliat  liberty,  by  shewing  that  both  conjectures 
are  erroneous,  that  this  famous  country  did 
not  derive  its  name  from  either  of  these 
causes ;  that  it  was  distinguished  by  the  ap- 
pellation 500  years  before  the  age  of  David, 
consequently  before  the  flight  of  the  children 
of  Edom  to  Azoth  in  Filest-ia,  and  1200 
years  before  the  name  of  Suria  M'as  given  to 
all  the  land  of  Canaan,  w^hich  was  not  till  the 
time  of  the  Macedonian  Scythian  Alexander, 
to  distinguish  it  from  the  west,  by  its  eastern 
position,  with  respect  of  Macedon,  the  word 
Suria  signifying,  "  an  eastern  country." 
Though  the  reason  assigned  by  Newton  for  the 
name  of  Phcenicia,  is  too  whimsical  to  admit 
of  refutation  by  argument,  yet  respect  for  the 
memory  of  this  benefactor  of  mankind,  in- 
duces me  to  attend  to  his  words,  at  the  same 
time  to  offer  an  apology  for  them,  which  may 
be  found  in  the  fact,  that  the  work  ^vherein 
they  are  set  down  is  PosthumuK,  and  there- 
fore was  deprived  of  the  final  correction  of  the 
illustrious  author.  But  let  us  examine  these 
contrary  fancies  respecting  the  name  of  this 
country, and  first  of  Phoinix,  "which  is  Greek 


for  a  palm  tree,  and  palm  trees  abounded  on 
this  land."    This  may  be  areason  for  the  Greeks 
calling   the   district  Phoini-ke,  but  it  is  not 
Greek  words  I  am  explaining,   and  Phoinix, 
nor  any  thing  like  thereto,  is  Phoenician  for  a 
palm  tree.     Ailm  being  their  term  for  that 
tree  on  which  the  Roman  Scythians  formed 
their  Palm-a,    and,    in  my  judgment,     the 
Greeks  would  rather  have   called   the   tree 
from  the  country,  than  the  country  from  the 
tree,  even  if  the  land  did  abound  extraordina- 
rily therewith,  and  that  this  was  the  case  will 
presently  appear. 
But  it  seems  there  is  another  reason  for  the  name, 
"  the  country  was  called  Phoenicia  from  the 
vernacular  word  Phrpnicia,  which  means  red  ; 
mark  the  circumstances  under  v^^hich,  and  the 
time  when,  this  name  is  said  to  have  been  im- 
posed ;   Edom  is  Arabic  for  red,   Eruthra  is 
Greek,  and  Phoenicia  is  asserted  to  be  Phoe- 
nician for  red  also,  and  when  the  children  of 
Edom  fled  from  David,  about  1050  years  be- 
fore Christ,  to  this  part  of  the  land  of  Canaan, 
the  country,  say  they,    was  called  Phoenicia 
for  the  first  time,  synonimous  with  Edom,  in 
compliment  to  these  fugitives.  Had  this  part 
of  the  land  of  Canaan  been  in  a  state  rude 
ind  uncivilized,  over  the  people  of  which  the 
superior  knowledge  or  address  of  these  ex- 
pelled Edomites  would  be  calculated  to  give 
them  the  ascendant ;  then  indeed  there  would 
be  nothing  extraordinary  in  their  imposing  a 
name  on  the  country  whither  they  had  emi- 
grated, but  on  these  considerations  it  is  to  be 
observed  that  the  very  reverse  was  the  fact,  for 
the  Plioenicians  were  at  that  period  much  farther 
advanced  than  the  Edomites,  or  any  other  peo- 


pie  wc  know  of,  in  the  social  course,  and  were 
it  mainly  relevant  to  our  present  enquiry,  I 
could  (leinonstrale  that  these  Edomites  did  not 
proceed  f'ai  ther  north  on  the  coast  of  the  land 
of  Canaan  than  Azoth  in  Filistlath,  that  no- 
thing fartlier  west  than  Syria  of  Damascus, 
'.vas  called  Syria,  till  in  times  comparatively 
modern  to  those  of  which  I  am  speaking,  a 
name  imposed  on  that  district  by  the  Phoeni- 
cians, from  its  eastern  position  with  respect 
to  Phoenicia,  precisely  as  the  land  of  Canaan, 
together  with  the  neighbour  countries,  had 
the  general  name  of  Suria  and  Syria  in  after 
times,  from  their  situation  relatively  to  their 
western  conquerors;  these  truths  I  could  de- 
monstrate, as  also  that  Neic'toii  hath  delivered 
himself  in  a  style  too  sweeping,  which  history 
cannot  endure,  in  ascribing  so  much  import- 
ance to  these  fugitive  Edomites,  in  which  he 
is  in  error  as  well  as  Herodotus  and  Strabo,  if 
the  chronicles  of  the  Hebrews,  the  writing  of 
Isaiah,  and  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag,  are  of 
avail,  the  writers  of  which  had  much  better 
opportunities  of  being  acquainted  with  this 
country  than  Newton  and  his  Grecian  authori- 
ties, but  this  is  not  my  object  at  present,  but 
to  expose  the  absurdity  of  the  fancied  etymo- 
logy of  the  name  of  this  country.  Let  me 
ask,  if  the  Edomites  had  imposed  the  name, 
would  it  not  have  been  in  their  own,  not  the 
Phoenician  language,  would  not  they  have 
called  the  land  Edom  P  If  to  this  be  replied, 
they  did  not  name  the  country,  it  was  named  by 
the  natives,  Phoenicia,  a  word  of  their  tongue 
synonimous  with  Edom,  in  consequence  of 
the  event  of  some  E.domites  flying  thither. 
Well,  and  for  what  reason,  did  the  Greeks 


call  the  country  Phoini-ke  ?  because  Phoinix 
in  the  Greek  language  signifies  red  also,  syno- 
niraous  with  Edom  and  Phoenicia.  Hold  my 
friend,  learned  in  Lexicons  and  traditionary 
etymology,  whilst  I  assert  that  there  is  no 
such  word,  (nor  any  thing  bearing  the  slightest 
resemblance  thereto,)  as  Phoenicia  to  signify 
the  colour  red,  in  the  Phoenician  language, 
the  only  words  therein  for  the  colour  red  being 
Ruath  and  Dearg,  which  last  is  in  a  meta- 
phorical sense,  derived  from  Drag,  ardent 
fire ; .  and  again,  that  the  only  words  in  the 
Greek  language  for  red,  are  Eruthros,  and 
Pur-ros,  the  last  in  a  metaphorical  sense  also, 
and  derived  from  their  Pur,  fire ;  and  here 
you  have  another  proof  of  the  identity  of  the 
Phoenician  and  Greek  language,  the  E-ruth- 
ros  of  the  latter  being  formed  on  the  more 
primitive  Ruath  of  the  former,  as  their  Pur 
IS  framed  on  the  original  Ur,  traced  from  Ur 
of  the  Chaldees  even  unto  Eri,  accordingly  by 
what  name  synonimous  with  Edom,  which  sig- 
nifies Red  in  the  Arab  tongue,  did  the  Greeks 
call  the  land  of  Edom;  was  it  not  Eruth-eia, 
the  red  country  ?  and  by  what  name  did  they 
call  Yam  Suph  ?  because  also  called  Yam 
Edon,  did  they  not  call  it  Eruth-ra  Thalassa, 
the  red  sea  ?  But  by  what  name  did  the 
Phoenicans  themselves  call  the  land  of  Edom  ? 
did  they  not  call  it  I-Ruat,  the  red  land  ?  yet 
strange  to  tell,  you  have  been  instructed  to 
believe  that  the  Phoenicians  called  this  coun- 
try, not  I-Ruat,  which  is  synonimous  with 
Edom,  the  supposed  cause  of  the  name,  but 
Phoenicia,  fancied  to  be  synonimous  with  red  ; 
and  again  that  the  Greeks  did  not  call  this 
country  Eruth-eia,  the  name  by  which  they 


called  Edom,  but  Phoinike,  Phoinix  being 
their  term  for  red,  though  ihey  did  call  every 
other  country  of  a  like  description,  in  all  parts 
of  the  earth  Eruthria  or  Erutheia  ;  but  what 
marks  still  more,  if  possible,  the  ignorance  of 
Newton  on  this  subject,  is  the  expression, 
*'  and  by  calling  themselves  Phoenicians  in  the 
language  of  Syria,  instead  of  Erythreans, 
gave  the  name  of  Phoenicia  to  all  that  sea- 
coast,  and  to  that  only  ;"  from  which  passage, 
on  the  authority  of  Strabo,  we  are  given  to 
understand,  that  it  was  by  the  Edomites  this 
country  was  called  by  the  Phcenician  name  of 
Phoenicia,  mark,  "  instead  of  Erutheia."  In 
the  name  of  wonder,  or  in  the  name  of  the 
ordinary  reason  of  man,  why  should  the 
Edomites  have  called  themselves  Eruthreans  ? 
was  it  because  the  Greeks  called  the  children 
of  Edom  by  that  name  ?  what  did  the  Edo- 
mites know  of  Erutheia  ?  what  did  the  Greeks 
themselves,  at  the  era  of  which  I  now  speak, 
know  of  the  land  of  Edom  ?  Strabo  did  not 
live  for  1100  years  after  this  time ;  he  spoke 
and  wrote  Greek,  therefore  he  fancied  all  the 
world  was  acquainted  with  his  language,  and 
stupid  moderns  think  that  the  very  act  of  a 
Grecian  writing  Greek,  and  a  Roman  writing 
Latin,  constitutes  wisdom,  and  gives  a  right 
to  authority. 
Methinks  I  hear  a  man  of  dictionary  know, 
ledge  of  the  Greek  tongue  exclaim,  Pardon  me 
sir,  Phoenix  doth  signify  Red  in  the  Greek 
language,  pray  look  on  the  Lexicon,  to  which 
I  beg  leave  to  reply,  it  doth  not ;  It  signi- 
fies purple,  expressive  of  a  colour  with  which 
cloth  was  dyed  at  Tyre,  obtained  by  the 
Greeks  from  that  celebrated  city  of  Phaenicia, 


their  Phoinike,  wherefrom  they  called  purple. 
Phoenix,  precisely  as  they  called  Tin,  Kassi- 
teros,  from  the  place  where  the  Phoenicians 
told  them  they  found  that  metal,  and  for  the 
same  reason  that  they  called  the  purple  colour 
Phoenix,  because  it  came  from  the  country 
they  called  Phoini-ke,  did  they  also  call  a 
palm  tree  Phoinix,  because  that  country  a- 
bounded  with  that  useful  tree  ? 

The  true  name  of  this  famous  land  I  recognize 
only  in  Feine-ce,  the  land  of  husbandmen, 
from  which  the  Greeks  shaped  their  Phoini- 
ke, the  Romans  their  Phcenic-ia,  according  to 
their  respective  tastes,  without  regard  to  the 
original  signification  of  the  vernacular  ^word, 
which  is  obvious  on  a  superficial  review,  all 
the  names  being  nearly  the  same  ;  the  Greeks 
having,  after  their  invention  of  their  Ph,  made 
a  practice  of  substituting  that  letter  for  the 
primitive  F,  whilst  their  Ge  or  Ke,  is  identic 
with  the  Phoenician  Ce,  a  land  or  region,  and 
synonimous  with  the  Romania,  their  propensity 
to  introduce  the  letter  O  before  the  I,  for 
Euphronia,  being  observable  even  to  those 
who  are  unacquainted  with  the  language,  Tor 
the  Roman  word,  it  is  to  be  noted,  the  Romans 
also  used  Ph  for  F,  and  lais,  an  usual  termina- 
tion, meaning  a  country  ;  and  now  with  your 
leave  I  will  place  the  three  names  before  you, 
Feine-ce,  Phoini-ke,  Phoenic-ia,  with  these 
observations,  that  the  two  letters  P  H  or  ip, 
are  corruptions  of  the  original  F,  there  being 
no  such  letters  in  the  Phoenician  language  as 
P  H  or  o,  and  that  you  must  pronounce  the 
C  as  Ke. 

But  besides  these  derivations  of  the  name,  there 
is  another  classical  one,  from  Phoinix  the  son 


of  Agenor,  the  never  failing  resource  and 
the  invariable  practice  of  ignorance,  that  pre- 
ferreth  a  manifestation  of  itself  at  all  hazards  ; 
yet  I  can  account  for  this  idea  also,  and  am 
of  opinion  the  chief  of  the  land  had  the  title  of 
Feine,  by  way  of  distinftive  supremacy,  as 
much  as  to  say,  the  husbandman.  As  the  chief 
ofEgvpt  was  called  Pharaoh,  the  chief  of  the 
five  lords  of  Filestia,  was  called  Ab-i-mullac, 
and  so  forth  ;  my  reason  for  holding  which 
opinion  is,  tliat  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag  in- 
variably call  the  chief  of  this  land,  Feine,  of 
■which  the  Greek  Phoinix,  the  son  of  Agenor, 
IS  still  the  corruption. 

Here  you  have,  according  to  common  place  deri- 
vation, three  modes  of  accounting  for  the 
name  of  this  country,  as  various  as   need  be» 

•  Etymology  doth  not  admit  of  conjecture,  and 
wherever  you  find  those  who  venture  upon 
the  science  have  recourse  to  it  may  he,  perhaps 
or  else,  and  such  like,  you  may  depend  on  my 
word,  they  have  no  knowledge  of  what  they 
say,  and  are  merely  amusing  the  credulity  of 
their  readers  with  what  they  conceive  to  he  the 
most  plausible  chimera.  But  I  must  repeat, 
for  what  reason  are  we  to  enquire  of  the 
Greeks  for  the  Etymology  of  the  name  of  this 
country,  in  preference  to  the  more  primitive 
dialect  of  the  land  itself,  wherein  1  have  shewn 
it  to  you,  as  well  as  pointed  out  the  tasteful 
mutations  of  Greece  and  Rome  } 

Sydon  is  one  of  the  oldest  cities  west  of  Eu- 
phrates. Had  the  country  wherein  it  stood 
no  name  till  the  time  of  David .''  0  yes, 
Hamath.  So  then  the  queen  of  the  seas,  the 
men  of  a  land  whose  merchants  were  princes 


permitted  the  ancient  name,  to  be  changed__by 
fugitives  from  Edom,  who  called  it  Phoenicia, 
as  you  have  heard,   surprizing  hospitality  in 
the  natives,  to  these  miserable  fugitives ;  the 
latter  give  a  name  in  the  language  of  the  for- 
mer,  who  accept  of  it  in  compliment  to  their 
misfortunes,  I  suppose,  complaisance  too  sur- 
prizing to  receive  credit  when  rationally  con- 
sidered ;    and  then  that  woeful   expression, 
"  itvjiead  of  Erythreans"  it  denotes   igno- 
rance   profound.      Alas!    Newton    was   no 
more ;    his  unfinished  work  could  be  com- 
pleted only  by  himself.     When  you  consider 
the  very  early   departure  of  this   maritime 
people   from   the   original  institution  of  the 
Scythian  race  of  dwelling  in  tents,  the  very 
remote  antiquity  of  their  chief  city,   and  the 
fact  of  their  making  long  voyages  500  years 
before  the  age  of  David,  you  must  be  con- 
vinced they  had,  at  a  very  early  period,  cer- 
tainly  antecedently    to  their   abandoning   a 
roving  life,  and  becoming  stationary,  acquired 
the  science  of  husbandry,   which  being  a  no- 
velty, therefore  extraordinary  in  the  eyes  of 
the  surrounding  tribes,  this  people  had  the 
name  of  Feineis,  and  their  land  of  Feinece 
and  Feineis-iath.     And   here  I  beg  leave  to 
state  the  authority  of  Pliny,  in  corroboration 
of  my  knowledge  of  the  language,  that  Phoe- 
nicia M'as  a  term  for  both  oats  and  barley, 
which  denotes  husbandry.     As  it  is  not  pcrs- 
sible  to  adopt  any  of  the  conjectures  of  the 
palm-tree,   the  colour  red,  or  the  man  Phoi- 
nix,  and  as  I  find  the  people  invariably  called 
Feine,  in  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag,  and  Feine 
fcignifies  an  husbandman,  I  consider  the  name 


was  applied  from  that  circumstance.      It  had 
also  another  name, 

Philistia  Felestiath,  "  the  land  of  deceit  and  treachery," 

and  by  this  name  was  it  called  by  the  Arabs, 
by  the  Hebrews,  and  in  the  Chronicles  of 
But  this  district  had  another  name  by  which 
also  it  was  called  by  the  children  of  Israel, 
and  in  the  Chronicles  of  Gaelag 

Hamath  Aoi-mag,   pronounced   Hamah,    "  the  land   of 

plains/'  of  the  same  signification  as  Emathia, 
in  the  land  of  the  Og-eag-eis,  as  before  men- 
Of  this  nation  the  chief  city  was  called,  accord- 
ing to  the  Hebrews,  from  a  man  Sidon,  the 
first  born  of  Canaan,  that  is,  in  plain  lan- 
guage, the  most  ancient  city  of  the  land  of 

Zidon,  Sidon,    Sgadan,  a  "  fish  of  the  herring,  sprat,  or  pil- 
Sidonia  chard  kind,'"  the  city  being  so  called  from  the 

great  quantity  of  fish  that  frequented  that 
place,  as  Trogus  Pompeius  and  Justin  tell 
us.  In  the  language  of  Eii,  Sgadan  sig- 
nifies the  parti-cular  genus  of  the  fish  spe- 
cies above  mentioned,  and  no  other  fish  but 
these  visit  shallows  in  multitudes  ;  to  which  is 
to  be  added,  that  this  place  is  invariably 
called,  in  the  Chronicles  of  Gaelag,  Sgadan 
Aoimag,  Zidon  of  Hamath, 
Nor  was  this  unusual ;  the  city  of  Karpalouk 
was  so  called  by  the  Ellenes,  from  the  quan- 
tity not  of  fish,  but  of  the  particular  genus 
called  BuUog,  or  Police,  caught  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood ;  and  here  let  me  correct  the  igno- 
rance of  'I  zetzes. 

To  Karpalouk  d'ElIenes  then  polls  ichthuon  legei 
To  Karm  gar  polis  Skuthikoa,  to  de  Paluk  ichthues. 


To  which  I  say,  Karm  Is  not  Scythian  for  a 
city,  but  Catliair,  contracted  to  Car,  Cer, 
Kir,  &c.  &c.  &c.,  and  Paluk  is  not  Scythian 
for  fishes,  but  iasg  ;  and  that  Bullog  signifies 
a  particular  kind  of  fish  known  by  the  name 
of  Polluck,  as  Trogus  Pompeius  erred  in 
supposing  Sydon  was  Phoenician  for  a  fish, 
whereas  it  means  only  the  particular  kind 
called  herring,  sprat,  and  pilchard. 
When  it  is  considered  that  the  Phoenician  lan- 
guage is  lost,  save  in  the  Samaritan  and  the 
Iberian  dialects,  between  which  last  and  it, 
there  was  an  idiomatic  variance,  as  well  as 
that  difference  which  must  have  arisen,  and 
did  arise,  in  consequence  of  the  improvement 
of  the  Phoenician,  by  reason  of  its  mixture 
with  other  languages,  and  the  divers  cur- 
rents of  communication  in  which  the  Phoeni- 
cians moved,  whilst  the  children  of  Iber 
were  always  sequestered  in  the  angle  of  Gael- 
ag,  or  isolated  in  Eri,  it  is  not  to  be  expect- 
ed to  find  many  terms  actually  Phoenician, 
save  in  fragments.  So  many  of  these  as  the 
signification  is  perfectly  ascertained,  I  will 
lay  before  you,  together  with  their  explana- 
tion in  the  language  of  Eri. 

Baal  Baal,  "  the  sun  ;"  this  visible  object,  this  ma- 

jectic  orb,  was  the  God  of  Eii,  from  the 
earliest  time,  till  the  introduction  of  the  new 
light,  of  rays  so  transverse,  and  splendour 
so  marvellously  dazzling,  that  mankind  are 
now  miraculously  groping  their  way,  as 
though  in  darkness,  notwithstanding  the 
blaze  thereof.  Baal  was  afeo  the  god  of  the 
veneration  of  the  Phoenicians 

Moloch  Mole,  "  A  constant  strong  fire."     This  is  the 







type  on  earth  of  Baal  in  the  heavens,  thi'ough 
which,  according  to  the  Hebrews,  the  Phoeni- 
cians made  their  children  to  pass,  a  calumny 
no  douht ;  for  it  cannot  be  conceived  that  a 
commercial  people,  who  were  in  the  habit  of 
colonizing  distant  countries,  which  would  take 
off  all  the  superabundant  population  of  their 
circumscribed  native  district,  would  devote 
their  children  the  riches  of  a  mercantile,  co- 
Ionizing  community,  it  could  not  be,  tho' 
Mole  may,  and  doth  denote  a  "  Constant 
strong  fire." 
Ess-torradh.  "  The  guardian  of  the  ship," 
Ashtaroth,  according  to  the  Hebrews,  was  a 
goddess  of  the  Sidonlans.  The  Phoenicians 
had  not  any  God  but  Baal,  though  they  ve- 
nerated Re  the  moon,  and  the  stars.  Ash- 
taroth was  rather  an  act  of  ceremony,  in 
beseeching  the  divinit}^  to  protect  the  ship 

Bathas-csse,  pron.  Basese,  "  The  head  of  the 
ship."  These  were  small  figures  fixed  at  the 
prow  of  the  ship,  to  which  superstition  at- 
tached respect  ;  doth  not  the  same  practice 
prevail  even  amongst  the  philosophic  Chris- 
tians, of  all  nations  at  this  day,  of  fancied 
civilization  and  refinement,  and  are  not  all 
sailors  proverbially  superstitious  } 

It  is  an  historical  fact  that  the  person  call  Vul- 
can, was  of  Phoenician  extraction*,  in  that 
language  is  his  name  to  be  defined. 

Bael-cean,  pronounced  Valcaun,  "  The  chief  of 
fire,"  he  had  also  another  Plioenician  name 

Ceann-iris,  *'  The  chief  of  Brass."  He  had  a  son 

Gein-gris,  "  Of  the  race  of  fire."  Gris  means 


that  particular  kind  of  fire,  that  flies  in  sparks 
ft-oni  heated  metal  struck  with  a  hammer 

Veu-us  Fen,    "  Woman."     This   was   the    Phoenician 

name  of  the  female,  called  Venus,  who  was 
a  Phoenician,  the  sister  and  wife  of  Vulcan  ; 
**  us"  is  termination. 
When  the  bible  translators  admitted  that  Vulcan 
and  Venus  were  the  Tubal-cain,  and  Xaamah, 
the  son  and  daughter  of  Lamech  and  Zillah, 
spoken  of  in  the  4th  chapter  of  Genesis,  they 
were  not  aware  of  the  necessary  consequence 
of  the  admission  ;  for  as  Vulcan  did  not  exist 
till  about'lOOO  years  before  Christ,  how  was 
it  possible  that  Moses  could  be  the  writer  of 
Genesis,  who  died  450  years  before;  and 
again,  how  could  Tubal-cain  be  the  instructor 
of  every  artificer  in  ii'on,  no  such  metal  being 
known  for  2000  years  after  the  time  in  whicli 
he  is  made  to  live,  nor  for  many  centuries 
after  the  age  of  Moses  ;  but  though  none  of 
these  circumstances  could  be  known  to  Moses, 
they  might  be  known  to  Ezra,  a  conclusive 
reason  for  attributing  the  writing  of  the 
Pentateuch  to  him,  and  against  Moses  being 
the  author  of  that  work 
Another  word  of  Phcenician  origin  is 

Jupiter  latathair,    "  The   father  of  the   country,"  on 

which  original  word  Jupiter  was  formed,  the 
common  title  for  the  chief,  as  it  was  usual  in 
the  Eastern  countries  to  call  the  people,  the 
children  of  the  land  ;  the  epithet  of  father  of 
the  people  applied  to  a  king,  hath  taken  such 
fast  hold,  that  the  title  is  continued  to  be 
given  to  the  most  pernicious  tyrants  at  this 
There  were  celebrated  casts  of  men  of  Phoeni- 
cian origin,  known  by  the  name  of  Curetes, 



Corybantes,   Telchines,   and  Idcei-dactyli,  of 
whom  in  their  order,  with  the  literal  significa- 
tion thereof. 
Curetei  Coraid-aos,    "  A    brotherhood   of  champions." 

Knights  of  this  order  were  companions  of 
Cath-im-eis,  the  Kadmos  of  the  Greeks,  in 
his  emigration  to  Ogygeia,  from  whom  the 
country  westward  thereof  had  the  name  of 
"  The  land  of  the  Curetes  ;"  they  are  recog- 
nized in  Italy  in  the  champions  who  fought 
the  Horatii,  and  in  Eri  you  will  find  them  in 
the  Coraid  na  Crob  ruath,  the  "  Knights  of 
the  red  hand,"  instituted  in  Ullad,  above  a 
century  before  the  Christian  era 
Cory-bantes  Cor-bein-aos,  "A  brotherhood  famous  for  music" 
'J'elchines         Toll-cenas,  "  A  miner"" 

Idoei-dactyli     I-daoi-doct-eile,  "  Men  most  learned  in  arts  and 
Having  explained  these  terms,  natives  of  Phoenicia,  let  us 
now  move  to  the   land  where  a  colony  from  Tyre,  Sydonians 
of  course,  erected  the  famous  city  of 

Karkedon  of    Cathair-taide,  pronounced  Carthade,  "  A  city  in 

the  Greeks         commencement.'"    This  is  the  signification  of 

Carthago  of         this  word  in  the  language  of  Eri,  and  that 

the     Ro-         Carthada  was  the  Phoenician  name,  we  are 

mans  distinctly  informed  by  the  following  passage 

from  Solinus  : 

"  Urbem  istam,  Elissa  mulier  extruxit,  Dome 

Phoinix,  et  Carthadam  dixit,  quod  Phoenicum 

ore  exprimit  civitatem  novam.'" 

"  This  city  was  founded  by  Ehssa,  of  the  house 

of  Phoinix.  and  called  Carthada,  which   in 

the  language  of  Phoenicia  is  expressive  of  the 

new  city."    It  is  still  more  expressive   than 

Solinus  was  aware  of,  it  signifies  a  city  in  the 

act  of  building,  which  denotes  that  the  name 



was  imposed  before  it  was  dedicated,  by  which 
it  continued  to  be  called  during  all  the  time 
of  its  existence ;   you  are  to  observe,  Solinus 
hath  put  the  word  in  the  Roman  accusative. 
I  now  come  to  present  you  with  a  specimen  that  affords 
proof  incontrovertible  of  the  identity  of  the  Phcjenician  and 
Iberian  language,  as  written  at  this  day  in  Ireland,  with  the  cir- 
cumstances connected  with  which  proof,  it  will  be  necessary  to 
give  you  some  previous  information. 

A  comic  writer  of  Rome  named  Plautus,  among?t  others 
of  his  works,  wrote  a  piece,  called  Pcenulus,  ang-Uce  the  Car- 
thaginian, in  which  he  introduces  a  scene,  representing  Hanno 
going  in  quest  of  his  two  daughters,  who,  with  their  nurse, 
had  been  stolen  by  pirates,  and  sold  to  one,  who  had  con- 
veyed them  to  Kaludon  in  CEtolia^  where  having  arrived  upon 
intelligence  of  the  fact,  he  addressed  himself  to  the  deity  of 
that  land,  of  the  title  of  whom,  though  he  a  stranger,  was  ig- 
norant, he  knew  the  people  of  the  country  had  many  gods  ; 
therefore  makes  his  supplication  to  the  chief,  w^hich  Plautus 
has  preserved  in  the  Phoenician  language,  as  Shakspeare  has 
done  in  those  pieces  where  he  introduces  natives  of  France, 
whom  he  represents  speaking  in  their  own  tongue. 

You  are  to  note,  that  the  first  line  is  Carthaginian,  the  second 
line  is  Iberian  of  Eri,  and  the  third  is  the  servile  translation 
thereof  into  English. 


Nith  al  o  nim,  ua  lonuth  sicorathissi  ma  com  syth 
An  iath  al  a  nim,  uaillonnac  socruidd  se  me  com  sit. 
O  mighty  splendor  of  the  land,  renowned,  powerful  ;  let  him 
quiet  me  with  repose. 


Chin  lach  chunyth  mumys  tyal  raycthii  barii  imi  schi 
Cim  laig  cungan,  muin  is  toil,  mo  iced  bearad  iar  mo  sgit. 
Help  of  the  weary  captive,  instruct  me  according  to  thy  will, 
to  recover  my  children  after  my  fatigue. 




Liph  o  can  etyth  by  mithii  ad  aedin  binuthi', 
Libh  a  cain  atac  be  mitis,  ad  eaden  beannuigte. 
With  thee  O  let  a  pure  hope  be  in  due  season,  in  thy  blessed 


Byr  nar  ob  sillo  homal  O  nim  ubym  I  syrthoho, 
Bir  nar  ob  sillad  uimal  a  nim,  ibim  a  srota. 
Deny  not  a  drop  of  the  fountain  to  the  humble,  O  splendor, 
I  drink  at  the  streams, 

BythJym,  mo  thime  nocto,  thii  ne  lech  anti  dias  ma  chon, 
Bi  tu  le  me,  mo  time  nocta,  ni  leg  tu  onta  dis  mo  coine. 
Be  propitious,  my  fear  being  respectfully  revealed,  suffer  not 
my  miserable  daughters  to  be  stained  with  pollution. 
This  address  to  the  unknown  deity  of  the  country  being 
concluded,  Hanno  having  had  information  that  his  daughters 
were  in  the  temple  of  Venus,  hastes  thither,  and  utters  the 
following  sentiment  on  the  recollection  of  the  attributes  of  this 

Handone  silli  hanum  bene,  silli  in  mus-tine 
Andon  sillei  anam  feni,  sillei  san  baois  tetgne.  (a) 
Although  Venus  instils  vigor,  she  also  instils  the  fire  of  con- 

And  now  having  met  with  Giddenenie   the  nurse  of  his 
daughters,  and  reproached  her,  she  replies, 
INIeipsi  en  este  dum,  alam  na  cestin  um 
^leisi  ain  ;  eist  do  me ;  A  lam  ni  ceisd  tu  me. 
Respected  judge,   listen  to  me,  do  not  hastily  question  me, 
(that  is)  call  my  fidelity  in  question. 

There  is  no  necessity  to  offer  any  remark  on  the  above,  such 
as  that ;  Plautus  was  a  Roman,  and  must  be  supposed  to  have 
introduced  some  letters  of  the  characters  of  his  own  nation, 
not  known  in  Carthage,  as  the  h  and  3*,  (and  these  are  the 
only  Roman  letters  in  these  lines)  nor  whether  he  copied  in 
Phoenician  or  Roman  figures,  nor  yet  whether  many,  few,  or 





Celto  Iberi 

mlts,  and  head  lands,  were  called 
by  the  general  name  of 

Breo-ccean,  "  the  fire  heads,"  as  shall 
be  amply  illustraied  in  treating  of 

There  is  a  river  which  runs  into  the 
Cantabrian  sea,  and  as  far  as  its 
course  at  this  moment  divides  the 
modern  provnices  of  Gallicia  and 
Asturias,  and  is  called 

Miraun-da,  "  the  river  that  divides 
in  two  parts?"  a  woi-d  critically  de- 
scriptive of  what  it  is  meant  to  re- 

South-east  of  the  lands  of  Gaelag, 
and  south-west  of  Buasce,  the  abo- 
rignes  seem  to  have  collected  and 
gathered  themselves  together  into  a 
distinct  nation,  the  Iberians  on  their 
borders  being  called 

Ceilt  Ibeir,  the  Iberians  on  the  con- 
fines ot  the  Celtas,  precisely  as  the 
Scythian  tribes  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Aboriginal  Indi  were 
called  Indo  Scythae,  and  as  those 
tribes  of  Scythians  on  the  borders 
of  the  aboriginal  Europeans,  call- 
ed Celtse,  on  the  western  bank  of 
the  Tanais  were  Celto  Scytha2  ;  yet 
in  this  instance  respecting  the  Iberi, 
all  distinctions  have  been  confound- 
ed, insomuch  that  the  term  Celtae 
has  been  appUed  to  the  Iberi,  in 
consequence  of  which  egregious  er- 
ror, the  Asiatic  Iberians  are  made 
to  speak  in  the  European  Celtic 


By  reason  of  this  accumulation  of  the 
aborigines  of  Eisfeine  into  one  dis- 
trict, their  lands  obtained  the  spe- 
cific name  of 

Celto  Ib-er-ia  Ceilt  Ib-eir-iath,  "  the  country  of  the 

Celtae  bordering  on  the  Iberians." 
Mountainous  countries  are  always 
found  to  preserve  for  a  long  time 
original  manners  and  customs,  as 
well  as  to  be  the  refuge  from  mva- 
ders ;  so  here  we  see  the  aboriginal 
Celtae  fled  for  shelter  to  the  hills 

Al  ban  Ailb-binn,  "  the  summits  of  a  confused 

heap  of  mountains." 
In  order  to  connect  all  the  Scytliians 
on  the  continent  of  Europe,  I  beg 
leave  to  inform  you,  from  the 
Chronicles  of  Gaelag,  that  in  the 
year  1240  before  Christ,  Ceannard, 
the  son  of  Lugad,  being  chosen 
chief  of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Ib-cr, 
to  the  exclusion  of  his  elder  brother 
Eocaid,  Eocaid  conspired  with 
many  of  the  Gaal  against  Ceannard, 
whom  he  attempted  to  surprize  at 
Asti-er-eis,  in  which  having  failed, 
he  and  his  followers  quitted  Gael- 
ag, and  passing  over  Bearna, 
abided  on  that  side  of  the  moun- 
tains, where  they  established  them- 
selves between  the  Pyrenees,  the 
ocean,  the  Garorme,  and  the  Rhone, 
the  district  called  by  the  Romans 
Aquitania  Eocaid-tan,    "  the  land   of  Eocaid." 

As  this  name  is  of  more  than  com- 
mon importance,  I  shall  be  critical 


christian  era,  the  nations  south  of  tlie  Duoro,  were  tributary 
to  the  Phoenicians,  and  that"  the  country  beyond  tliat  river, 
and  an  irregular  Hne  to  the  pouring  forth  of  the  Avaters  of 
Iber,  was  occupied  by  a  tribe  of  Iberians  immediately  from 
Afric,  a  part  of  whom  tarried  in  the  extreme  south-west, 
between  the  Mediterranean,  the  ocean,  the  rivers  Anas  and 
Taio,  wliilst  the  other  division  entered  the  Iber,  and  established 
thcr '.elves  in  the  district  between  that  river  and  the  Pyrenees, 
from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  ocean,  calling  the  land  Buas-ce, 
all  the  land  between  the  Ebro,  the  Duoro,  and  the  two  sides  of 
the  ocean,  being  occupied  by  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er  ;  and 
called  Gaelag,  as  on  the  chart. 

How  long  previously   to    1490,    the   country  south  of  the 
Duoro  had  been  discovered,  and  colonized  by  the  Phoenicians, 
though  I  know  not  of  any  means  of  ascertaining,   yet  may   a 
judgment  be  formed  from  the  fact  of  their  influence  not  having 
extended  farther  north  than  tlie  Duoro,  nor  beyond  the  1-ber, 
in  an  eastern  direction.     x\t  the  same  time  you  are  not  to  fancy 
that  all  the  other  parts  of  this   vast   Peninsula   were  in    the 
possession  of  the  Phoenicians  ;  by  no  means  ;  they  actually  oc- 
cupied but   the   maritime  parts,   from  whence  they  extended 
their  influence   over  the   natives  in  the  interior,  the  population 
of  Phoenicia,  a  small  territory,   not  admitting  of  her  making 
conquests  by  violence,  the  policy  and  practice  being  to  establish 
themselves  on  the  coasts,  engross  the   product  of  the  land  at  a 
trifling  cost,  and  dispose  thereof  at  a  profit  in  the  east ;    the 
chief  advantage   from  this   country,   being  gold    and    silver, 
wherewith  it  is  known  to  have  abounded  in  very  remote  times. 
The    chronicles   of  Gaelag    moreover    instruct    me,     tiiat 
Sesostris  invaded  this  country  in  the  summer  of  1008  years 
before  Christ,  of  which  and  many  other  particulars,  that  shed 
light  on  the  obscurity  of  ancient  times,  they  will  inform  you. 
The  many  revolutions  this  country  hath  undergone,  have 
caused,  as  you  must  be   aware,  considerable  alterations  in  the 
most  ancient  names  of  mountains,  rivers,  and  remarkable  places. 
I  shall,  therefore,  first  set   down  the  names  according  to   their 
corruptions,  of  all  the  places  on  the  lands  of  the  Gael  of  Ib-er, 



and  of  others  with  which  the  Iberians  had  no  communication, 
wherefrom  you  will  have  farther  proof,  (a  work  of  supereroga- 
tion certainly)  of  the  identity  of  the  dialects  of  Phoenicia 
and  Eri. 

It  is  said  by  Tragus  Pompeius  and  others';  that  this  country 
liad  its  name  from  one  Hispanus,  of  whom  no  one  ever  heard 
farther,  and  was  called, 

His-pan-ia  Eis-feine-iath,  the  very  literal  signifi- 

cation of  which  is  "  The  land  of  the 
tribe  of  husbandmen  ;"  but  when  it 
is  considered  that  it  was  colonized 
by  people  called  Feine-eis,  the  name 
must  have,  and  hath  reference  to 
them,  in  whom  is  found  the  original ; 
thereof,  as  before  shewn,  to  deduce 
it  from  one  Hispanus,  is  ridiculous; 
the  Romans  called  the  people  of 
Phoenicia,  Poeni,  and  if  you  look 
upon  the  two  words,  and  drop  the 
aspirate  h,  which  is  not  a  letter,  you 
will  perceive  there  is  no  difference 
n  the  names,  but  what  has  arisen 
from  the  injury  done  to  the  more 
soft  original  by  the  harsh  tongue  of 
the  barbarous  Romans;  though  the 
entire  Peninsula  was  called  in  latter 
days  Hispania,  the  ancient  Eis- 
feine-iath  did  not  extend  farther 
north  than  the  Duoro,  nor  east  than 
the  Iber,  and  though  the  govern- 
ment of  Sydon  strove  to  establish 
their  name  throughout,  the  attempt 
was  always  resisted  by  the  Iberians, 
who  persisted  in  distinguishing  their 
lands  by  their  own  names  of  Gaelag 
and  Buasce. 



We  are  informed  that  when  Sesostris  overran  Spain,  the  chief 
of  a  nation  of  the  land  was  called, 

Geryon  Caoireaon,  a  shepherd.     The  Scythi- 

ans boasted  of  being  shepherds,  so 
the  children  of  Israel  said  to  the 
*  king  of  Egypt,  "  Thy  servants  are 

shepherds,  we  and  also  our  fathers.*"' 
We  are  informed  that  a  chief  of  Tyre 
was  called 
Melcartus  Mullac  Catardig,  pron.  Mulla  Carti, 

"  The  head  of  the  citizens."     This 
was    the    Tyrian    Hercules,   who 
Carteia  Cathair  daigead,  pronounced  Cardea, 

"  The   fortunate  city,"  more  pro- 
perly the    city  built    under  lucky 
To  the  southward  of  Carteia  is 
Gades,  now  Cadiz  Gaoideis.     It   is   not  easy  to  render 

this  word  directly  into  a  foreign 
language,  the  meaning  is  "  deceit- 
ful shoals,  of  which  the  currents  are 
visible  when  the  sea  has  ebbed." 
Still  more  south  is  the  famous  rock  of 
Gibraltar  Giobur-ailt-ard,   "  The  ragged,  high 

fire  cliff" 
Calpe  Cailbe,  "  An  orifice  or  opening." 

These  are  the  accurate  significations  of  these  words,  accord- 
ing to  the  dialect  of  Eri.  I  will  now  set  down  the  most 
ancient  names  of  places  in  the  lands  occupied  by  the  tribes  of 
Scythian  Iberians,  Avithin  the  Peninsula. 

It  is  mentioned  in  the  chronicles,  that  Iberians  came  hither 
from  Afric,  and  landed  in  the  south  country,  where  a  portion 
of  them  seated  themselves  between  the  Mediterranean,  the 
ocean,  the  rivers  Taio  and  Anas,  wherein  are  Algarve  and 
Ebor,  or  Evor,  of  which,  Algarve  appears  to  be  the  name  of 
the  nation. 



Algar-ve  Alg-er-be,  pron.  Algerve,  "  It  is  Er, 

the  noble,"  of  which  district  the 
chief  seat  was 
Eb-or  or  Evor  Iber,  the  place  of  Er. 

Situated  nigh  unto  the  river 
An-as  Aun-eis,  "  the  river  of  rr.any  streams." 

The  country  bounded  on  the  north  by 
the  river 
Tagus,  Taio  Taoi,  pronounced  Tai,  winding 

The  southern  extremity  of  this  district 
was  called  by  the  Romans 
Cuneus  Cuinne,  "  an  angle  or  corner,"   which 

it  is. 
Let  us  now  steer  north  east  along  the  coast  of  the  Mediter- 
ranean, to  the  spot  where  the  tribe  of  Iberians  that  separated 
from  their  brethren  called  the  Gaal  of  Buasce,  came  to  land, 
from  that  part  of  the  Mediterranean  into  which  the  Ebro 
rushes,  called 

Balearicum  Bealeiri-ce,  "  The  mouth  of  the  land 

of  Er,"   that  is  the  entrance.  Sic. 
Wherein  is  poured  the  waters  of 
Iber-us,  Ib-er-uisg,  the  water  of  the  place  of 

Er,  a  grand  distinction  of  that 
nation  of  the  Scythian  race,  that 
dwelled  in  Ib-er.  beneath  Cauca- 
sus, the  land  of  Tubal  of  the  He- 
brews, Ibei'ia  of  Rome.  Here  in 
the  neighboui'hood  of  this  river, 
this  tribe  seated  themselves,  their 
nation  extending  from  the  waters 
of  Iber  to  the  Pyrenees,  and  from 
the  sea  to  the  ocean,  having  the 
general  name  of 
Biscaia  Buas-ce,  "  the  land  of  cattle,"  the  prin- 

cipal districts  wherein  are 
Cat-al-on-ia,  Cat-all-aon-iath,  "  the  land  of  the  all- 

powerful  in  battle" 





Osca,  vel  Huesca, 


Dert-osa  vel  Tort-osa, 



Ar-ag-aon-iath,   "  the  land  of  conflict 

and  desolation'* 
Nam-arran,    pronounced    Nav-arran, 

"  the  mountains  of  the  enemy." 
All  which  names  denote  that  the 
Aborigines  did  not  tamely  suffer 
these  invaders  to  usurp  their  lands, 
and  that  the  Highlandmen  of  the 
northern  Pyrenees  continued  long 
hostile  to  them. 
In  Aragon  is  a  city  mentioned  by  Caesar 

Uisge,  "water,  the  town  on  the  water" 
At   the   northern   extremity   of  this 

nation  is  a  place  called 
Bar-dal-e,  "it  is  the  extreme  portion," 

or  tribe 
At  the  extreme  south  is  a  place  called 
Dort-uisge,  "  the  violent  pouring  out 
of  the  waters,"  descriptive  of  the 
rapidity  with  which  the  waters  of 
Ib-er  rush  into  the  sea. 
In  this  quarter  on  the  river,  Caesar 
makes  mention  of  a  tribe  which  he 
Eil-earr-ce-bun-aun-seis,  "  the  tribe  at 
the  other  extremity  of  the  land,  at 
the  bottom  of  the  river,"  in  contra- 
distinction to  the  Bardal-e,  at  the 
northern  extremity  thereof ;  a  name 
that  points  out  to  me  as  distinctly, 
as  an  essay  on  the  subject,  the  seat 
of  this  tribe,  and  must  convince  the 
most  incredulous  man  that  ever 
lived,  that  the  language  whereby 
such  an  assemblage  of  monosylla 
bles  can   be  at  this  day  accurately 


and  literally  explained,  must  be 
identic  with  the  language  of  the 
people  by  whom  the  name  had  been 
originally  imposed  ;  so  had  Illurike 
its  name  from  being  the  other  ex- 
tremity of  the  tribe  of  the  Ogyges. 
On  the  east,  this  nation  of  Iberians 
was  bounded  by  the  Pyrenaei, 

Pyrenees,  Bearna,  "  the  gaps,  or  clefts,"  critically 

true  as  to  these  mountains,  through 
which  the  passages  are  numerous, 
and  a  proof  that  Bearna  is  the  ori- 
gmal  word,  the  department  is  called 
at  this  day  Beam. 
These  original  names  of  places  being 
explained,  there  remains  in  this 
quarter  but  to  set  before  you,  and 
illustrate  the  most  ancient  names  on 
the  lands  of  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of 
Iber,  the  more  immediate  object  of 
this  disquisition,  the  tribe,  whose 
chronicles  I  herewith  present  to  you, 
bounded  west  and  north  by  the 
ocean,  east  by  the  Iber,  and  the 
nation  of  feuas-ce,  and  on  the  south 
by  the  waters  whereby  the  tribe 
entered  the  land,  called 

Duero,  Duor,  "  the  water,"  par  excellence ; 

this  was  the  limit  between  Eisfeine, 
and  the  nation  of 

Gallicia,  Gaelag,  "  the  possession  of  the  Gael,' 

that  is  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Iber, 
who  stiled  themselves  the  Gaal,  tribe, 
or  kindred  by  way  of  pre-eminence. 
You  will  learn  from  the  chronicles  of 
this  Gaal,  that  the  chief  of  the  Gaal 
of  Iber,  within  Buasce,  was  not  of 




Asturia,  Asturies 

Asturic,  Astorga, 

the  race,  by  which  is  meant  the 
family  of  Ardfear,  or  Noah,  the 
last  supreme  chief  of  the  ancient 
Scythian  empire,  of  which  race  were 
Calma  and  Ro'n'ard,  who  con- 
ducted hither  the  Gaal  of  Sciot, 
therefore  a  deference  seems  to  have 
been  paid  to  them  by  their  brethren 
of  Buasce,  who  nevertheless  main- 
tained their  national  sovereignty,  to 
destroy,  or  in  any  wise  to  impair 
which,  though  no  attempt  ever  had 
been  made  by  the  chief  of  Gaelag, 
yet  the  tribe  arrogating  a  supremacy 
of  pride,  called  their  country 

Ceann  Ib-eir,  "  the  head  of  Ib-er" 

By  which  name  the  sea  that  washed 
the  shores  of  their  land  was  also 
called,  as  well  as  a  chain  of  lofty 
mountains,  running  through  the 
country  east  to  west,  north  of  which 
stood  the  tents  of  the  chief,  and 
the  mount  where  about  had  used  to 
^  assemble  the  great  congregation  of 
the  children  of  the  land,  called 

Asti-eer-eis,  the  chief  dwelling  of  the 
multitudes  of  Er,  here  was  their 
chief  Asti,  and  their  principal 
fire  mount,  the  great  congregation 
of  the  land 

South  of  which  was, 

Asti-erce,  "  the  land  of  an  Asti  of  Er." 

Eastw^ard  towards  the  confines  of 
Buas-ce,  was 

Er-eis,  "  multitudes  of  Er." 

In  the  south  was  a  place  spoken  of  in 
the  chronicles 





Min-ius,  Minho 

Ner-ium,  vel 
Art  Abruni 



Cape  Ortegal 


Sam-ur,  "  the  sun  and  fire."  Here 
Avas  a  consecrated  fire  to  Baal,  the 
cause  of  the  name. 

Another  place  is  mentioned,  situated 
in  the  western  extremity  of  Ceann 
Ib-er,  beneath  that  range  called 

Sa-breid,  "  beneath  the  ridge" 

The  Chronicles  speak  of  a  place  with- 
in half  a  day's  journey  of  Asti-eir- 
eis,  where  Eocaid,  and  three  of  his 
sons,  who  fell  in  the  battle  of  Sa- 
mur  fought  with  Sesostris,  were 

Argiocd,  "  the  illustrious  liero  and 
his  children.'' 

Returning  to  the  ocean,  and  the  mouth 
of  the  Duor,  there  stands  thereat  a 
city  called  at  this  day,  a  name  de- 
noting its  antiquity 

I3ort-i-gael,  the  haven  of  the  Gaal, 

North  of  which  is  the  river 

Min,  "gentle,  smooth,  placid." 

In  the  north-west  of  Gaelag  is   the 
I  Eir-im,  "  the  summit  of  Er' 
i  Ard-Ib-eir,  "  the  height  of  Iber.'' 

Farther  north  is 

Ce-rinn-e,  "  it  is  the  cape  of  the  land" 

Still  north  is 

Fir-ol,  "  famous  men,"  or  as  described 
in  the  Chronicles,  "  where  dwelt  of 
old  men  of  renown." 

In  the  extreme  north  is 

Ceab  Ard-i-gael,  "  the  head  of  the 
height  of  the  Tand  of  the  Gaal." 

All  which  promontories,  capes,  sum- 


any  errors  have  been  occasioned  in  intervening  transcripts, 
there  are  the  passages  speaking  as  distinctly,  nay  more  accu- 
rately than  the  tongue,  delivering  their  testimony  which  nothing 
can  shake,  that  the  people  with  whom  the  language  in  which 
the  lines  are  written  was  in  use,  were  of  the  same  original  race, 
let  after  circumstances  have  seperated  them,  as  far  asunder  as 
from  pole  to  pole. 

It  is  sufficient  to  say,  that  the  people  of  Carthage  were  a 
colony  from  Tyre;  "The  daughter  of  Zidon  the  inhabitants 
of  the  isle,  whom  the  merchants  of  Zidon  had  replenished,"  ac- 
cording to  Isaiah,  and  that  the  Tyrians  were  called,  in  the  days 
of  Solomon,  Zidonians,  and  consequently  used  the  language  of 

That  this  city  was  founded  883  years  before  Christ : 

That  the  colony  of  Iberians  had  emigrated  from  Gallicia  to 
Eri,  12S  years  befoi-e  the  building  of  Carthage 

That  neither  the  people  of  Sidon  nor  of  Carthage  ever  had 
the  slightest  communication  with  us  of  Eri,  from  1006,  before 
Christ : 

And  that  Plautus  wrote  about  200  years  before  the  Christian 
era.  Now  look  back  upon  the  foregoing  lines  ;  doth  not  wonder  fill 
your  whole  mind,  at  the  surprizing  preservation  of  the  Irish 
language  ?  for  which  I  will  account  ^hen  we  arrive  at  Eri, 
whither  I  am  hastening  as  expeditiously  as  I  ought  to  sDeed. 


(a)    Tetgne   is  pronounced  tinni. 


vromAfricI  shall  now  move  to  Spain,  the  very  ancient 
history  of  which  country  being  involved  in  great  obscurity,  I 
feel  myself  under  a  necessity  of  first  stating  the  conjectures 
thereupon,  and  then  I  purpose  to  lay  before  you  realities, 
which,  though  few,  may  have  a  tendency  to  remove  errors  yet 
prevalent,  the  correction  of  which  will  be  found  in  the  follow- 
ing very  brief  recital  of  some  remarkable  events. 

It  is    most   commonly   supposed   that   the   Phoenicians    of 


Tyre,  discovered  and  colonized  this  country,  conjectured  to  be 
about  the  time  of  the  destruction  of  Troy,  when  it  is  con- 
jectured, Carteia  was  founded  by  the  Tyrian  Hercules,  called 
by  the  Greeks,  Medicritos,  the  first  that  took  tin  from  Bri- 
tain to  the  east,  as  is  asserted  ;  which  conjectures,  are  coupled 
with  the  facts  of  Sesostris  having  invaded  and  over-run  the 
country,  erected  pillars  on  the  African  and  European  head 
lands,  on  either  side  of  the  streights  of  Gibraltar,  established 
idolatry,  and  having  captivated  the  chief  Geryon,  and  made  a 
prey  of  a  multitude  of  cattle,  crossed  the  Pyrenees,  conjectured 
at  about  1480  years  before  C^mf .'/.'  and  it  is  also  fancied 
that  the  country  had  its  name  from  one  Hispanus. 

As  there  can  be  no  more  apt  opportunity  than  the  present, 
to  expose  the  absurdity  of  these  incongruities,  I  beg  leave  to 
say,  it  was  not  by  the  Tyrians  but  by  the  Sidonians,  that  this 
country  was  discovered  many  centuries  before  Tyre  was 
founded,  which,  according  to  Tragus  Pompeius,  was  *'  ante  an- 
ntcm  Trojanoe  cladis,""  how  long  he  doth  not  say  ;  that  it  must 
have  been  many  years  is  clear,  from  the  fact  of  a  colony  having 
emigrated  about  the  era  of  the  demolition  of  Troy,  from  Tyre 
to  Afric,  where  they  built  Carthage,  the  proof  of  which,  you 
will  find  in  the  table  of  chronology  annexed;  and  if  the  over- 
throw of  Troy  was  in  1183,  the  common  date  of  that  event, 
according  to  copyists  of  chronology,  how  is  that  account  to  be 
reconciled  with  the  fancy  that  Tyre  was  founded  in  the  time 
of  David,  about  1030  ?  again,  how  are  the  facts  of  this  country 
being  discovered  and  colonized  by  the  Phoenicians  at  any  of 
these  periods,  a  fact  not  to  be  disputed,  to  be  brought  to  agree 
with  the  supposed  age  of  Sesostris,  of  1480,  before  Christ,  and 
his  discovery  and  conquest  of  this  land  ?  for  though  this  con- 
jecture of  his  time,  would  so  far  corroborate  my  assertion, 
that  this  country  was  full  of  people  of  the  Scythian  race,  of 
Phoenicia  and  I-ber,  when  he  invaded  it,  I  will  not  receive 
the  alliance  of  falsehood,  I  rely  with  confidence  -on  the  ac- 
curacy and  truth  of  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag,  which  instruct 
me,  that,  when  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Iber,  emigrated  to  this 
country  by  the  way  of  Sidon  of  Hamath,  in  1490,  before  the 


in  my  observations  on  its  applica- 
tion, even  though  I  should  fall  into 
repetition.  The  Iberian  name  of 
Eocaid  is  the  same  as  the  Grecian 
Akaios,  and  means  the  warlike ; 
Tan  is  the  Iberian,  or  rather  one 
f  of  the  many  Iberian  terms  tor  a 
country,  district,  region,  &c.  by 
no  means  with  reference  to  its  situa- 
tion on  sea  shores,  as  appears  from 
the  unquestionable  fact  that  every 
chiefry  in  Eri  was  called  Tanais- 
teas,  from  whence  the  famous  law 
of  Eri,  which  respected  right  to 
rank  and  possessions,  was  called 
Tanaisacte.  But,  say  Lexicogra- 
phers, Tania  means  a  country 
situated  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
waters.  If  that  be  the  case,  mark 
the  consequence ;  you  would  have 
the  name  of  the  country  composed 
of  words,  each  expressive  of  one 
and  the  same  idea ;  Aqua,  water, 
and  Tania,  "  a  country  of  the  wa- 
ers."  Trust  me  the  ancients, 
whom  the  superficiality  of  this  arti- 
ficial age  induces  to  consider  savage, 
thoughtless,  and  indiscriminating, 
never  committed  errors  so  gross  and 
palpable;  the  absurdities  are  not 
chargeable  to  them,  but  to  those 
moderns,  who  have  indulged  in 
false  conjectures  on  expressions  ori- 
ginally uttered  in  precise  and  accu- 
rate language.  The  Roman  Aqua 
means  water ;  the  Grecian  and  Ro- 
man Tania,  formed  on  the  primi- 


tive  Tan,  means  a  region,  without 
reference  to  water,  and  though  it 
would  suit  my  view  most  aptly,  to 
suffer  the  vulgar  error  of  Tania 
being  descriptive  of  a  country  of 
water,  I  must  not  condescend  to 
accept  of  an  absurdity,  to  serve  a 
purpose.  I  say,  Aqui  is  here  a 
Roman  corruption  of  Eocaid,  pro- 
nounced Achi,  which  hath  suffered 
the  trifling  change  to  Aqui,  to 
which  is  added  tan-ia,  not  the 
watery  land  of  waters,  but  the 
land  of  Eocaid,  the  leader  oi  the 
Iberian  colony  from  Galicia,  as  we 
are  distinctly  informed  by  the 
Chronicles  of  Gaelag,  wherein  it  is 
said,  "  and  Eocaid,  and  those  who 
adhered  unto  him,  abided  in  that 
land,  calling  it  Eocaid-tan." 
And  the  people  of  this  land  are  of  the 
Gael  of  Sciot  of  Iber,  who  spoke 
in  a  language  distinct  from  the  abo- 
riginal European  Celtae  between  the 
Garonne  and  the  Seine,  and  from 
the  aboriginal  European  Cimmerii, 
called  Belgas,  between  the  Seine  and 
the  Rhine,  and  who  differed  from 
both  these  distinct  nations,  "  not 
in  language  only,  but  in  institutions, 
laws,"  and,  let  me  add,  religion 
also.  And  in  proof  of  their  lan- 
guage being  identic  with  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Iber 
in  Gaelag,  1  will  set  down  the 
names  of  waters,  mountains,  tribes, 
a  remarkable  covenant,  and  a  cele- 



Gai'-umna,  now 


RtK^nus,  now  Rhone 



brated  individual,  of  which  I  will 
give  you  the  mere  literal  significa- 
I  have  already  explained  the  meaning 
of  the  Pyrenees,  the  northern  limit 
of  this  tribe,  which  divided  them 
from  their  brethren  of  Buasce;  on 
the  south  they  %vere  separated  from 
the  aboriginal  Celts,  by  the  river 
called  by  the  Romans 
Oarb-aun-e ;    "  It   is   a   rough    and 

boisterous  river.'" 
On  the  east  they  were  bounded  by  the 

river  called  by  the  Romans 
Ro-d-aun.  It  is  not  easy  to  render 
some  words,  this  is  one;  I  cannot 
-explain  it  better  than  to  say,  "  a 
river  whose  bed  is  not  sufficient  for 
its  waters,"  the  word  Ro  denoting 
"  too  much ;"  as  one  would  say, 
"  too  much  of  a  river." 
There  are  in  this  nation  a  range  of 

very  high  mountains,  called 
Ce-binne-e  ;  •'  it  is  the  summit  of  the 

There   are   two    passages    from   the 
north,  into   Eocaid-tan,   the   more 
eastern  one   between  these  moun- 
tains and  the   Khone,  the  other  be- 
tween the  mountains  and  the  head 
of  the   Garonne,  at  each  of  which 
were  tribes  called 
Bealce,     pronounced     Violce,  »"  the 
mouth    of  the   land,"   that  is,  the 
entrance  thereinto. 
We  learn  from  the  9th  chapter  of  the 





Lac-US  Leman-us 


3rd  book  of  the  Commentaries  of 
Julius  Caesar,  wherein  he  treats  of 
his  wars  in  this  country,  that  Ad- 
cantuanus,  who  commanded  the 
town,  endeavoured  to  make  his  es- 
cape with  six  hundred  sworn  friends, 
whom  the  natives  call  Sol-durii, 
whose  custom  is,  to  enjoy  all  things 
in  common  with  those  to  whom  they 
have  vowed  a  friendship,  to  share 
the  same  fortune,  and  kill  them- 
selves, rather  than  survive  the  death 
of  their  comrades. 

Adh-ceann-tuatacn-eis,  pronounced 
A-caun-tua-an-eis,  "  the  appointed 
head  chief  of  the  host*" 

Siol-deirig,  pronounced  Soldheri,  "  a 
clan  of  the  same  issue,  Unked  by  a 
secret  bond." 

From  this  nation  a  small  colony  sepa- 
rated, and  moving  eastward,  esta- 
blished themselves  on 

Loc  Lo-aman,  which  word  I  cannot 
better  translate,  than  by  describing 
the  lake  "  to  be  formed  by  the 
waters  of  a  river  that  overspread 
the  land,"  an  expansion  of  fresh 
running  water. 

The  tribe  themselves  having  obtained 
from  their  Cimmerian  neighbours, 
who  gained  the  ascendant  over  the 
CeltJE  and  them,  in  that  quarter 
the  name  of 

Gaal-dun-seis,  *'  the  tribe,  or  the  Gaal 
of  the  hills." 

Having  now  completed  my  object  in 
this  part  of  the  earth,  by  having 


clearly  demonstrated  the  identity  of 
the  several  dialects  of  the  language 
of  the  Scythian  race,  through  the 
extent  of  their  migrations  westward 
from  the  Indus,  I  purpose,  pre- 
viously to  our  passing  from  the  con- 
tinent, to  the  isle  of  Britain,  to 
treat  very  briefly  of  the  languages 
of  the  aborigines  of  the  countries 
}n  Europe  colonized  by  these  Scy- 
thian invaders,  as  far  as  can  be  as- 
certained, in  a  manner  that  enables 
me  to  speak  with  confidence  on  the 
subject,  of  which  I  will  now  pro- 
ceed to  lay  the  proofs  before  you. 


Pf  the  Language  of  the  Cimmerii,   Ci'mbri,   or  Germanni. 

From  the  foregoing  analysis,  you  have  means  of  judging 
of  the  dialects  of  Greez:e,  Rome,  and  Eri,  and  whether  the  re- 
semblance between  the  first  and  last,  is  not  much  greater  than 
that  of  Rome,  allowedly  a  branch  from  stock  of  Greece, 
is  to  either  ;  and  also  of  satisfying  your  mind,  that  the  language 
(a  dialect  of  the  Cimmerian)  in  which  I  am  now  writing,  hath 
no  affinity  with  any  of  them,  otherwise  than  by  the  adoption  of 
various  words  of  the  Romans,  as  shall  be  explained  when  we 
arrive  in  Britain ;  but  previously  to  our  passing  over  to  that 
surprizing  island,  as  I  have  heretofore  pointed  out  the  difference 
between  the  Scythian,  Arab,  Assyrian,  and  Egyptian  tongue.s,  I 
I  purpose  now  to  speak  of  the  speech  of  the  Cimmerii,  Cim-bri 
or  Germanni,  and  to  shew  that  it  hath  no  kindred  with  the 
language  of  the  Scythians,  the  concluding  and  conducive  evi- 
dence of  diversity  of  origin. 

In  the  territories  wherein  the  Germanni  maintained  their  in- 
dependent sovereignty,  and  therewith  their  ancient  language, 
as  noted  on  the  chart,  there  were  two  grand  dialects,.the  Litwa, 


and  tlie  Tudesque ;  and  as  on  the  authority  of  Tacitus,  it  hath 
heretofore  been  shewn,  that  the  Basternean  Peucini  were  not 
Asiatics,  by  their  Germannic  tongue,  so  now  by  his  testimony 
will  I  also  prove  the  total  diversity  between  the  languages  of 
the  Scythians,  and  the  Germans,  and  not  only  between  their 
tongues,  but  also  between  those  of  the  Germanni  and  Celtae, 
though  both  were  aborigines  of  Europe,  the  former  north,  the 
latter  south  of  the  Rhine  and  Ister. 

Tacitus,  in  his  treatise  on  Germany,  thus  delivers  himself, 
"  whether  the  Araviscians  are  derived  from  the  Osians,  a  na- 
tion of  Germany  passing  into  Panonia,  or  the  Osians  from  the 
Araviscians,  removing  from  Panonia  into  Germany,  is  a  matter 
undecided,  since  both  still  use  the  same  language,  the  same 
customs,  and  the  same  laws,"  still  you  may  say  the  point  of 
origin  remains  undecided  ;  but  Tacitus  hath  not  left  us  in  dark- 
ness, having  added,  "  from  the  language  of  the  Panonians 
spoken  by  the  Osians,  it  is  manifest  they  are  not  Germans," 
from  whence  it  follows,  of  course,  that  the  language  of  Panonia 
which  was  Scythian,  was  difFeren  tfrom  that  of  the  Germanni, 
which  was  Litwa  or  Tudesque,  and  therefore  proves  as  dis- 
t'mctly  as  language  the  most  unerring  of  criterions  can 
demonstrate,  a  diversity  of  origin  of  the  Scythians,  and  Cim- 
merii  or  Germanni ;  so  far  we  have  evidence  of  this  fact,  on 
the  native  land  of  the  Germanni,  to  which  I  will  add  the  testi- 
mony of  St.  Jerome  in  Galatia,  and  Asia  minor,  (a  country 
whither  a  tribe  of  of  Germanni  had  emigrated,  where  they  were 
surrounded  by  Scythians  and  Assyrians)  who  says,  that  they 
preserved  their  language  to  his  time,  which  he  recognized  as 
identic  with  that  of  the  Treviri  in  Germany,  (which  was  Tu- 
desque) amongst  whom  he  had  been  brought  up. 

Here  it  becomes  necessary  to  observe,  that  we  are  informed 
by  men  of  ancient  days,  that  some  straggling  tribes  of  the 
Celta^  had  passed  to  the  north  of  the  Rhine,  amongst  the 
Germanni,  one  of  whom,  (the  (a)  Gothinians)  were  known  by 
"  their  Gallic  (b)  speech,"  according  to  Tacitus,  not  to  be 

And  now  let  me  ask,   if  a  score  or  two  of   Scvthian  words 


arc  found  in  use  aniongsit  the  Germanni,  doth  not  the  fact  of 
neighbourhood  for  centuries,  rationally  account  for  that  circum- 
stance, without  referring  therefrom,  identity  of  origin,  of  the 
two  people. 

Having  now  seen  proofs  of  diversity  on  the  lands  of  the  Ger- 
manni in  the  vicinage  of  Scythians,  and  on  the  lands  of  the 
Scythians,  surrounded  by  Scythians  and  Assyrians,  let  us 
cross  the  Rhine  to  the  lands  of  the  Celtas,  and  examine  in  that 
quarter  the  evidence  of  antiquity  touching  their  language. 


(a)  You  are  not  to  fancy  that  the  Roman  word  Gothini  hath  any  affini- 
ty with  the  Scythian  Gotlis  ;  the  Romans  never  scrupled  to  make  a  term 
bend  to  their  tongue  ;  for  the  etymology  of  this  word,  the  vocabulary  of 
Armorici  and  Wales  must  he  consulted,  wherein  I  dare  to  say  some  of  its 
features,  though  in  a  mutilated  state,  may  be  recognized. 

(Z>)  By  Gallic  is  meant  Celtic.  ' 

Of  the  Language  of  the  Celtcv. 

As  there  is  no  term  less  understood  dovm  to  the  moment  of 
my  writing,  than  Ceiltig,  Keltkoi,  Celtze,  Celts,  I  shall  first 
give  you  a  precise  idea  of  the  people  so  called.  By  this  name 
the  Scythian  Goths  called  the  aboriginal  Europeans,  west-ward 
of  Tanais,  from  the  circumstance  of  their  being  concealed  in 
woods,  the  only  meaning  of  the  name,  but  though  in  process 
of  time,  as  before  mentioned,  the  epithet  was  discontinued  in 
that  quarter  of  the  earth,  save  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Palus 
Meotis,  it  came  to  be  applied  to  all  the  nations  from  the  land 
of  lapydes,  south  of  the  Ister  and  Rhine,  to  the  extreme  west ; 
but  as  the  Scythians  advanced,  and  discovered  that  the  people 
they  invaded  had  tribal  distinctions,  they  either  called  them 
according  thereto,  or  more  commonly  after  their  own  fashion, 
leaving  all  those  of  whom  they  were  totally  ignorant,  whom 
their  arms  had  not  yet  reached,  CeltBe  to  the  fancied  end  of 
the  world. 

Of  all  their  lands  we  find  the  aboriginal  Celtae  in  possession 



only  of  a  small  district  of  Spain,  in  the  mountains  of  Ailb-bin,- 
and  of  the  country  from  Helvetia  to  the  ocean,  between  the 
Seine  and  Garronne ;  the  Germannic  Belgae  having  transgressed 
the  Rhine,  and  seated  themselves  between  that  boundary  and 
the  Seine ;  and  the  Scythian  Iberi  of  Gallicia,  having,  under  the 
conduct  of  Eocaid,  the  son  of  Lugad,  surmounted  the  Pyrenees^ 
and  established  themselves  between  those  mountains,  the 
Garronne,  the  Rhone,  and  the  ocean,  as  before  mentioned,  this 
remnant  having  acquired  a  positive  locality  by  the  name  of 
Celtica,  at  about  half  a  century  before  the  birth  of  Christ,  at 
which  time  the  Scythians  of  Italy,  having  become  masters  of 
an  huge  proportion  of  the  world,  known  to  them.  Julius 
CfEsar,  envious  of  an  inoffensive  people  in  "the  enjoyment  of 
their  rude  but  buxom  independence,  moved  westward  to 
frighten  liberty  from  this  portion  of  the  earth,  save  the  liberty 
of  being  admitted  to  the  high  distinction  of  being  provincials, 
and  slaves  to  the  godlike  Romans,  and  their  glorious  constitu- 
tion, lauded  to  the  very  skies  by  the  mercenary  scribes  of  Italy» 
(ever  ready,  as  are  their  successors  in  the  art,  to  prostitute  the 
pen  and  truth,  to  the  seducing  favor  of  power,)  extolled  by 
those  who  fatten  on  its  garbage,  calling  it  the  pnde  of  Romans, 
the  masterpiece  of  the  science  of  Government,  an  accumulation 
of  the  wisdom  of  ages,  the  envy  and  admiration  of  the  whole 
world,  devotion  to  which  was  perfect  freedom,  this  so  often, 
so  loudly,  and  so  confidently  repeated,  that  the  very  sufferers 
under  its  sanguined  lash  believed  the  tale,  and  were  willing  at  the 
pious  suggestion  of  the  priesthood,  the  hand  sinister  of  despot- 
ism, to  attribute  their  misfortunes  and  misery  to  the  wrath  of 
the  Gods,  offended  at  their  manifold  transgressions^  rather 
than  to  the  true  cause,  excessive  accumulation  and  inordinate 
privileges  of  wealth,  consequent  encrease,  and  exclusion  of 
poverty,  and  the  total  annihilation  of  the  beauty,  florid  com- 
plexion, and  fine  proportion  of  primitive  institutions,  (by  ad- 
herence whereto  Rome  rose  to  a  degree  of  powder  unequalled) 
leaving  but  the  emaciated,  sickly,  pining  form  of  ancient  daysj 
her  wholesome  exhilarating  spirit  converted  into  a  venomous 


Bting,  ready  to  be  darted  at  all  and  every  one,  who  even  ex- 
pressed a  desire  to  have  the  commonwealth  restored  to  its 
pristine  health  again. 

This  tyrant  I  say,  having  come  to  the  resolution  of  extin- 
guishing the  expiring  laws  and  liberties  of  his  native  country, 
now  advanced  to  reduce  the  nations  westward  of  Italy,  and 
hath  as  some  small  atonement  for  his  treasons,  bequeathed  to 
posterity  an  account  of  his  progress,  of  which  the  very  first 
passage  is : 

Gallia  est  omnis  divisa  in  tres  partes,  quarum  unam  incolunt 
Belgae,  aliam  Aquitani,  tertiam  ipsorum  lingua  Celtee,  nostri 
Galli  appellantur,  hi  omnes  lingua,  institutis,  legibus  inter  se 

From  which  words  of  this  man  (illustrious  in  vice,  pre-emi- 
nent in  seeming  virtue,  this  man  of  blood  who  could  assume  the 
divine  virtue  of  clemency,  if  cruelty  served  not  his  purpose  more 
aptly.)  A  scholar  famous,  the  elegant  writer,  it  appears  as 
plainly  as  words  can  shew,  that  half  a  century  before  Christ,  all 
the  lands  remaining  to  the  Aborigines  of  continental  Europe, 
east  of  the  Pyrenees,  known  by  the  name  of  Celtae,  was  the 
middle  third  of  Gallia,  between  the  Seine  and  Marne,  and  the 
Garroime,  nemmed  in  on  the  north  by  the  Germannic  Belgae) 
on  the  south  by  the  Iberian  Scythians,  and  that  the  country 
called  by  the  general  name  of  Gallia,  was  occupied  by  tribes 
of  these,  three  nations,  differing  each  from  the  others,  in  and 
all  those  strong  and  leading  features,  which  are  the  surest,  the 
imerring  criterions  of  variety  in  the  genera  of  the  human 

This  notable  passage  proves  that  the  Belgae,  though  indi- 
ginal  north  of  the  Rhine,  were  not  of  the  same  origin  as  the 
Celtip,  the  aborigines  south  thereof;  whilst  it  establishes  the 
point  beyond  far  this  question,  that  the  Germanni,  of  whom 
the  Belgae  were  a  tribe,  were  not  Scythae,  differing  as  they  did 
from  the  Iberi,  a  tribe  of  Scytha;,  in  language,  institutions  and 
laws ;  this  testimony  of  Julius  Caesar  sets  sophistical  argu- 
mentation at  defiance,  it  laughs  not  in  scorn,  but  in  pity,  at 
all  the  schemes  and  theories  of  pseudo  antiquarians,  ascer- 


tains  for  ever  the  origins  of  these  nations,  whilst  it  proves 
that  Xenophon  is  fully  justified  in  saying  that  "  The  Scy- 
thians held  the  chief  sway  in  Europe,"  which  by  looking  on 
the  chart,  and  taking  to  account  the  consummate  ignorance  of 
the  ancients  of  the  northern  parts  of  Europe,  and  their  habit 
of  speaking  in  general  terms,  you  perceive  was  not  an  exag- 

Those  things  explained,  it  remains  to  give  you  a  correct 
idea  of  the  term  Gallia  and  Galli,  the  former  of  which  was 
held  one  and  the  same  as  Celtica,  the  country  of  the  Celta;  or 

If  you  do  not  know,  it  is  fit  you  should,  that  there  is  a, 
word  in  the  language  of  the  Greeks  called  Galos,  changed  by 
the  Romans  to  Glos,  which  by  lexicographers,  is  now  supposed 
to  signify  a  husband's  sister,  or  a  brother's  wife  ;  that  in  latter 
times  it  did  not  come  to  be  applied  to  this  particular  degree  of 
kindred  amongst  Greeks  and  Romans,  I  will  not  affirm,  nor 
may  I  deny,  but  that  such  was  not  the  primitive  meaning  I 
must  aver,  because  from  the  writings  of  the  Iberi,  I  am  war- 
ranted to  say,  the  word  expressed  a  tribe  allied  by  bonds  of 
blood  or  friendship,  and  that  the  Galos  (a)  of  the  Greeks,  the 
Glos  of  the  Romans,  is  a  corruption  of  the  more  primitive 
word  Gaal,  preserved  by  the  Iberi,  from  whom  of  Aquitania, 
it  passed  to  the  other  side  of  the  Garonne,  and  came  in  pro- 
cess of  time  to  give  name  to  the  country  and  people  from 
thence  to  the  Rhine,  -confirmed  by  the  passage  cited  from 
Julius  Ccesar : 

"  Ipsorum  lingua  Celtae  nostra  Galli  appellantur ;" 
Which  words  are  clearly  illustrative  of  the  identity  of  the  lan- 
guage of  Rome,  and  the  Iberians;  though  Ccesar h^tXh  commit- 
ted a  great  error  in  supposing  Celtse  to  be  an  European  word,  as 
heretofore  shewn.  Rut  Ccesar  saith,  these  people  who  called 
themselves  Celtae,  were  by  the  Romans  called  Galli ;  now  in 
the  primitive  Iberian  dialect,  Gaal  hath  no  meaning  till  it  be 
added  to  some  other  word  ;  therefore  a  tribe  which  the  Iberi- 
ans would  call  Gaal  Seanaun,  Gaal  Ed,  the  Romans  called 
Gall-i  Senones,  Galli  ?]d-ui,  and  what  the  Iberians  would  call 


Gael-iath,  tl:e  Romans  called  Gallia,  differing  in  noihing  but 
the  terminations,  from  which  you  are  to  understand,  that  Gallia 
means  the  country  ol'  certain  tribes,  and  that  Gaa!  means  a 
tribe  or  kindred,  what  tribe  or  kindred  is  always  expressed  by 
the  addition  of  its  denomination,  a  word,  pussed  as  before  said, 
from  the  Iberi  of  Aquitania,  to  the  aboritrines  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Garonne  :  and  now  to  elucidate  this  part  of  our 
subject  even  more  clearly,  the  misconception  of  which  hath 
caused  much  confusion,  I  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  the  au- 
thority of  Sr.  Bernard,  who  says,  "  That  all  foreigners  were  in 
very  ancient  limes  called  Gaal,  by  the  people  of  Eri,"  which 
having  caused  some  to  call  the  Irish  Galli,  as  though  they 
were  of  Gaul,  they  indignantly  rejilied, 

'•  Scoti  sumus,  non  (jalli;"" 
Or,  (as  Bernard  wrote  in  Latin,)  lo  be  more  explicit,  "We 
are  the  Gaal  of  Sciot,  not  the  Gaal  of  Armorica."  Gaal 
they  were,  for  so  the  Iberi  called  all  tribes  ;  it  Is  our  word  for 
a  tribe,  but  they  would  not  suffer  themselves  to  be  called  by 
another  name  than  the  Gaal  of  Sciot ;  which  I  shall  ha\e  occa- 
sion to  notice  again  in  Britain,  whither  I  am  now  about  to 
shape  my  course,  where  we  will  meet  with  all  the  tribes  of 
whom  we  have  been  treating,  save  the  Sarmatae. 

NOTl.S    TO    SECTION    XI. 

(a)  You  will  tiiiil  in  Galatia,  i.\  Asia  Minor,  a  name  given  by  the  Gietks 
to  a  tribe  of  Cimmerii,  who  emi^^rat;?  1  thither,  that  the  terra  of  Gaal  was 
then  in  use  amongst  the  Greeks,  atid-  signified  a  tribe,  as  shall  be  remarked 

A^ote.  It  is  worthy  of  observation,  that  the  ancients  called  the  aborigines 
of  the  islands  in  the  Archipelago,  by  the  name  of  Caun-ians ;  those  of 
Sicily,  Si-Caun-i  ;  those  of  the  southern  extremity  of  Greece,  Cyn-urians, 
Gigantes  and  Hellotes,  and  those  of  Spain,  Cyn-usians. 

You  cannot  suppose  these  words  were  without  meaning,  applied  by  Srv- 
thians,  to  aborigines  in  every  quarter,  invaded  by  Scythians ;  now  pray 
mark  the  value  of  the  language  of  Eri,  held  hitherto  so  cheap,  yea,  utterly 
despised.  Cean  in  our  language,  signifies  the  head,  the  original  with  all 
its  synonimous  terms,  the  word  Khan,  as  spelled  by  the  English,  the  title 
of  a  supreme  chief  in  tht-  east,  is  Cean,  the  head  ;  the  Kon-ing  of  Ger- 
many, borrowed  from  the  Goths,  is  the  Scythian  Cean  ;  Og-eis-cean,  cor- 
rupted to  Ogus  Khan,  means  "  Og,  the  head  of  the  liost,''  and  when  men 


of  ancient  days  tell  me,  that  these  European  nation?  had  originally  the 
above  names,  they  inform  me  as  distinctly  as  if  they  had  written  largely 
on  the  subject,  that  these  were  aboriginal  people  on  all  the  lands  invaded 
by  the  Scythians,  of  whose  origin  they  had  no  knowledge  whatever,  to 
whom  they  applied  these  general  names  in  ignorance,  which  could  not  hare 
been  the  case  if  they  had  been  preceding  emigrators  of  their  own  race. 


Arrived  in  Britain,  I  now  come  to  speak  of  the  various 
nations  thereof,  from  the  earUest  time,  to  the  era  of  the  Norman 
invasion,  and  to  demonstrate  the  origin  of  each  by  the  test  of 
language  ;  adhering  to  the  method  I  adopted  at  the  outset,  I 
shall  first  lay  before  you  the  ideas  most  prevalent  on  the  sub- 
ject, and  then  submit  my  own  opinion,  together  with  the 
sources  from  whence  both  are  derived. 

To  describe  as  briefly  as  possible  the  divers  and  diverse 
schemes  of  projectors  on  this  head,  their  theories,  and  hypo-' 
theses,  would  require  volumes,  detailed  answers  to  which  would 
fill  a  moderate  library.  I  must  therefore  content  myself  with 
drawing  the  general  outline  of  their  systems,  and  as  Camden 
is  yet  considered  by  his  countrymen  an  ancient  in  a  manner, 
an  antiquary,  a  faithful  compiler  of  all  the  relations  accredited 
down  to  his  days,  and  cited  on  all  occasions  as  authority,  I 
shall  state  his  conceptions,  in  my  reply  to  which  will  be  found 
the  answer,  not  to  him  only,  but  to  the  whole  lierd  of  book 
manufacturers,  down  to  this  present  hour. 

He  commences  with  an  account  of  the  name  of  the  Island, 
and  gives  us  the  opinion  of  Geoffry  ap  Arthur  of  Monmouth, 
"  That  the  name  of  Britain  was  derived  from  one  Brutus,  the 
great  grandson  of  ^neas,  who  fled  from  Troy  to  Italy." 

Of  Sir  Thomas  Eliot,  that  it  was  derived  from  a  Greek 
Word  Prutaneia,  which  term  amongst  the  Athenians,  signified 
their  public  reuenues. 

Of  Humphrey  Lloyd,  who  hath  the  reputation  of  being 
one  of  the  best  antiquarians  in  the  kingdom,  who  with  much 
assurance  refers  its  original  to  the  British  word  Pridcain,  that 
is  to  say,  "  A  white  form." 


Of  f^oinponiiis  Laetus,  wlio  tells  us,  that  the  Brilons  of  Ar-= 
inorica  in  France,  gave  it  that  name. 

Of  Goropius  Becanus,  who  will  have  it,  that  the  Danes 
settled  themselves  here,  and  so  called  it  Bridania,  that  is,  free 

Of  others  who  deduce  it  from  Prutenia,  (Prussia,)  a  part  ot 

Of  Bodin,  who  supposeth  it  took  its  name  from  Bretta,  a. 
Spanish  word,  which  signifies  earth. 

Of  Forcutulus,  who  derives  it  from  Brithin,  which,  as  it 
appears  in  Alhenseus,  was  the  name  of  a  sort  of  drink  among 
the  Grecians. 

Of  others  who  deduce  it  from  the  Brutii  in  Italy,  whom  the 
Greeks  called  Bretious. 

But  those  pedants  are  by  no  means  to  be  endured^  who 
would  have  it  to  be  called  Britain,  "From  the  brutish  manners 
of  the  inhabitants." 

For  the  rejection  of  all  which  opinions,  save  that  of  GeofFry, 
he  offers  his  reasons,  on  his  inclination  towards  which,  he  deli- 
vers himself  in  these  terms  : 

"  But  now  could  we  be  but  once  well  satisfied  that  this 
history  of  Brutus  were  true  and  certain,  there  would  be  no 
farther  occasion  for  any  laborious  search  after  the  original  of 
the  British  nation,  that  business  were  all  at  an  end,  and  lovers 
of  antiquity  v/ould  be  excused  from  a  troublesome  and  tedious 
enquiry  ;  for  my  own  part,  I  am  so  far  from  labouring  to  dis- 
credit that  history,  that  I  assut-e  you,  1  have  often  strained 
my  invention  to  the  uttermost  to  support  it.  Absolutely  to 
reject  it,  would  be  to  make  war  against  time,  and  to  fight 
against  a  received  opinion  ;  for  shall  one  of  my  mean  capacity 
presume  to  give  sentence  in  a  point  of  so  much  consequence  ? 
I  refer  the  controversy  entirely  to  the  whole  body  of  learned 
antiquaries,  and  leaving  every  man  freely  to  the  liberty  of  his 
own  judgment,  shall  not  be  much  concerned  at  any  one's 

He  then  states  the  evidence  of  many  writers,  who  altogether 
discredit  the  story  of  Brutus,  and  says,  "  if  I  have  any  ways 


impaired  file  creuit  of  that  history,  concerning  Brutiu^,  na 
man  can  reasonably  quarrel  with  me;  for  my  part,  it  shall 
nev«r  trouble  me,  if  Brutus  pass  current  for  the  father  and 
founder  of  the  British  nation,  let  the  Britons  descent  stand 
good,  as  they  deduce  it  from  the  Trojans,  I  shall  never  con- 
tradict it ;  nay,  I  shall  show  you  hereafter  l.'ow,  with  truth,  it 
may  be  maintained." 

Following  this  learned  antiquary  through  his  solution  of  the 
name  of  the  island,  he  says,  "  Whence  conies  Albion  ?  whence 
Britain  ?  give  me  leave,  as  to  this  point,  to  deliver  my  real 
thoughts,  which  I  am  satisfied  are  the  real  truth  ;"  then  pro- 
ceeds thus,  "  all  nations  have  been  by  strangers,  called  by 
names  quite  different  from  what  they  called  themselves  ;"  many 
instances  of  which  he  adduces,  from  wliich  lie  draws  the  conr 
elusion,  that  "  the  Greeks  called  the  island  Britannia,  from  the 
British  word  Brit,  or  Brith,  whicli  signifjcs  painted,  to  which 
they  added  Tania,  which  in  the  Greek  language  means  I'egio, 
a  country;  from  which  native  and  foreign  terras,  without  all 
doubt,  the  name  of  Britain  is  derived."  In  this  manner  he 
at  length  positively  determines  the  controversy,  abandoning 
Brutus,  leaving  the  Trojan  to  his  fate,  notwithstanding  the 
assurance  he  gave  of  maintaining  his  pretens^ions ;  having  pre- 
viously disposed  of  the  other  name  of  Albion,  which  in  a  dis- 
sertation as  luminous  as  that  of  Britain,  he  is  inclined  to  de- 
rive from  Alphon,  because  Festus  told  him  Alphon  signified 

This  point  adjusted  thus  satisfactorily,  the  laborious  anti- 
quarian sets  about  his  enquiry  mto  the  original  inhabitants  of 
Britannia,  or  Albion,  and  after  findingfault  with  Julius  Ccesar, 
and  Diodorus,  for  saying  they  were  Aborigines,  "  as  if  man- 
kind sprung  out  of  the  earth  like  mushrooms,"  he  proceeds 
with  the  old  story  of  the  flood,  '^  Noah  and  the  Ark,  Japheth 
and  his  son  Gomcr"  who  in  these,  our  most  remote  parts  of 
Europe,  gave  both  original  and  name  to  the  Gomer-ians,  who 
were  afterwards  called  Cimbri  and  Cimmerii,  for  that  name  of 
the  Cimbri  or  Cimmerii  did  in  process  of  time,  almost  fill 
those  parts  of  the  world,  and  spread  itself  very  far,  not  only  in 


Germany,  but  in  Gaal  also,  and  from  these  Gomeri,  or  Gomari, 
(mark  the  cautious  precision  of  the  accurate  etymologist,)  I 
have  always  been  of  opinion  that  our  Britons  had  both  original 
and  name,  in  which  1  am  confirmed  by  the  proper  and  genuine 
name  of  Britons,  for  the  Welch  to  this  day  call  themselves 
Kumoro,  Cymro,  and  Kimeri,  a  Welsh  woman  Kimcraes,  and 
their  language  Kimraeg,  neither  do  they  own  any  other  name, 
although  some  pretenders  to  learning  have  from  thence,  of  late, 
coined  the  new  names  of  Cambri  and  Cambria,  and  from  whence 
now  can  we  imagine  these  names  should  be  derived,  but  from 
the  ancient  Gonier,  and  from  those  Gomeri,  who  were  so  near 
to  us  in  Gaul,  the  seat  doubtless  of  the  old  Gomerians.  This 
is  my  judgment  concerning  the  original  of  the  Britons,  or 
rather  my  conjecture^  for  in  a  matter  of  so  great  antiquity,  it 
is  easier  to  proceed  by  conjecture,  than  to  offer  at  any  positive 
determination,  and  this  account  of  our  descent  from  Gomer 
and  Gaul  seems  much  more  substantial,  more  ancient,  and 
better  grounded,  than  from  Brutus  and  Troy  ;  nay,  I  do  not 
despair  to  prove  that  our  Britons  are  really  the  offspring  of  the 
Gauls,  by  arguments  taken  from  the  name,  situation,  religion, 
customs,  and  language  of  both  nations." 

He  then  proceed^  to  give  his  proofs,  and  informs  us  on  the 
authority  of  Josephus  and  Zonaras,  that  those  who  are  now 
called  Gauls,  were  from  Gomer,  formerly  named  Gomari, 
Gemerjei,  and  Gomeritae,  and  on  the  evidence  of  Wolphgangus, 
a  divine,  saith  he,  "  of  very  considerable  repute,"  that  the  na- 
tions and  families  which  descended  from  Japheth,  were  the  first 
possessors  of  the  European  islands,  such  as  England  and 
Sicily,  and  wraps  up  all  his  shreds  and  patches  in  the  old  He- 
brew mantle,  in  which  is  interwoven. 

"  By  these  were  the  isles  of  the  Gentiles  divided  in  their 
lands,  every  one  after  his  tongue,  after  their  families,  in  their 

He  then  informs  us  of  the  conjectures  of  Tacitus  and  others, 
that  Britain  was  first  peopled  from  Gaul,  on  account  of  its 
proximity  thereto ;  next  he  assays  to  prove  origin  from  the 
Hrudic  religion,  which  was  found  to  prevail  both  in  Armorica 


and  Britain.  Then  instances  similarity  of  some  few  customs, 
which  he  saith  were  pecuUar  to  the  two  people,  but  relin- 
quishes that  evidence,  "  because  perhaps  that  argument  may 
not  appear  very  cogent  to  some  sort  of  men,"  and  concludes  in 
these  words,  "  but  we  now  come  to  language,  a  particular  upon 
which  lieth  the  main  stress  of  this  controversy,  as  being  the 
surest  evidence  of  the  original  of  a  nation,  for  there  is  no  man 
I  suppose,  but  will  readily  allow,  that  those  people  who  speak 
the  same  language,  must  necessarily  he  derived  from  one  com- 
mon original,"  and  in  confirmation  of  the  identity  of  the  lanr 
guage  of  the  Gauls  and  Britons,  he  has  selected  three  score 
words  peculiar,  as  he  asserts,  to  both  nations. 

Having  after  this  manner  accounted  for  the  earliest  inhar 
bitants  of  Britain,  he  speaks  of  the  Picts,  "  who  dwelled  in 
the  northern  parts  of  the  island,  whom  he  thinks  he  can  shew 
from  manners,  name,  and  language,  were  indeed  very  Britons 
themselves,"  for  which  purpose  he  informs  us,  that  Hector 
Boetius  derives  these  people  from  the  Agathyrsi,  Pomponius 
Laetus,  Aventinus,  and  others,  from  the  Germans ;  some  will 
have  them  from  the  Pictones  in  France,  and  Bede  from  the 
Scythians,  and  then  adds,  "  In  such  a  variety  of  opinions  I 
do  not  know  which  to  adhere  to,  however,  to  shew  as  well  as  I 
can,  how  the  truth  of  this  matter  stands,  I  will  venture  to  de-r 
liver  my  own  thoughts  of  it,  and  unless  the  authority  of 
venerable  Bede  was  a  sufficient  counterpoise  to  my  conjecture, 
I  should  be  apt  to  think  that  the  Picts  were  not  transplanted 
from  other  countries,  but  originally  Britons,  and  the  offspring 
of  them,  I  mean  those  very  Britons,  who  before  the  Roman? 
came  here,  inhabited  the  north  part  of  the  island." 

He  then  instances,  (to  prove  their  origin  the  same  as  the 
other  inhabitants  of  Britain,)  according  to  Bede  and  Tacitus, 
&,  similarity  of  customs,  in  submitting  to  be  governed  by 
women,  and  in  painting  themselves;  he  states  that  the 
people  called  Picts  were  always  called  Britons  by  the 
Jlomans.  I  cannot  say  much  (quoth  he,)  from  language,  as 
the  Pictish  tongue  is  lost ;  therefore  he  gives  but  half  a  dozen 
samples,  and  dwells  upon   the  appellation  of  Picti,  which  he 


will  have  '♦  painted,''  and  though  he  will  not  wrest  It  to  an 
argument,  he  must  notice  that  some  of  the  petty  kings  of  the 
Picts  were  called  Bridi',  that  is  to  say,  in  British,  painted. 

He  next  notices  a  tribe  of  Gomeri,  or  Galli,  called  Belgae, 
who  established  themselves  in  the  present  districts  of  Hants, 
Wilts,  and  Somerset,  and  of  Attrebatii,  seated  in  Berks. 

Such  the  inhabitants,  such  their  origin,  which  to  sum  up  the 
whole  in  as  few  words  as  may  be,  you  perceive  is  deduced  from 
Gomer,  the  son  of  Japheth,  the  father  of  the  Gomeri,  or  Go- 
mari,  whowere  afterwards  called  Cimmerii,  or  Cimbrl,  and  Galli, 

Our  antiquary  having  laid  down  these  for  facts,  and  taken 
this  view  of  the  state  of  the  island,  at  the  era  of  the  first  Roman 
invasion  by  Julius  Caesar,  concludes  in  these  words,  *'  here 
then  our  historian,  whoever  he  may  be,  should  begin  his  his- 
tory, and  not  higher,  if  he  seriously  consider  what  the  most 
learned  V'arro  hath  said,  namely,  that  there  are  three  distinct 
periods  of  time : 

1st.  "  From  man's  creation  to  the  deluge,"  which  by  reason, 
we  know  nothing  of  it,  is  called  Adelon,  unknown  : 

2d.  "  From  the  Deluge  to  the  first  Olympiad,"  (which  he 
dates  at  841  years  before  Christ,)  and  because  we  know  nothing 
of  it  but  false  and  fabulous,  is  called  Muthikon,  fabulous  : 

3d.  "  From  the  first  Olympiad  to  our  own  times,"  which  is 
called  Istorikon,  the  historical,  because  the  transactions  of  that 
space  are  related  by  good  historians. 

From  whence  you  see,  this  profound  Saxon  antiquary  con- 
signs eight  hundred  years  of  the  history  of  Britain  within  his 
historical  era,  to  the  unknown  and  fabulous  ages,  without  the 
least  scruple ;  making  a  demonstration  tl.ereby  of  modesty, 
candour,  and  sincere  respect  for  historic  fidelity,  but  in  reality 
actuated  by  a  far  different  motive,  as  shall  presently  be  re- 
marked upon. 

Though  few  words  would  be  requisite  to  expose  the  ignorance 
of  this  man  of  reading  and  writing,  still  more  if  possible  than 
he  hath  himself  manifested  it;  yet  when  I  consider  that  I 
am  using  the  language  of  the  majority  of  the  people  of  whom 
I  treat,  that  to  one  of  that  nation,  the  care  of  giving  publica- 


tion  to  my  sentiments  is  to  be  confided ;  moreover,  that  the 
writers  of  this  very  country,  hired  by  its  rulers,  have  lor  poli- 
tical purposes  been  the  authors  of  all  the  falsehoods  and  mis- 
represer:tations  that  have  disfigured  and  obscured  the  ancient 
history  of  Britain,  and  of  all  the  times  of  my  adored  Eri,  I 
have  come  to  the  resolution  of  leaving  nothing  unsaid  that  may 
tend  to  diffuse  light  so  clearly  upon  this  subject,  that  it  will 
not  be  in  the  power  of  knavery  to  practise  its  frauds  with  suc- 
cess for  the  times  to  come. 

Whoever  you  are,  that  have  been  companion  of  my  way 
through  so  many  regions,  prithee  let  not  the  thought  take  up 
its  dwelling  in  your  mind,  that  I  speak  thus  arrogantly  in  the 
conceit,  that  I  am  possessed  of  a  greater  portion  of  intellect 
than  other  men.  No,  it  is  not  from  natural  endowment,  but 
from  superior  information,  not  lying  in  the  course  of  some,  not 
sought  after  by  others,  that  I  am  enabled  to  present  to  the 
world  a  more  correct  view  of  the  ancient  state  of  this  celebrated 
island,  and  to  explain  effects,  by  shewing  their  real  causes, 
hidden  from  others,  from  deficiency  of  means  of  penetrating 
to  the  depths  wherein  they  lie  concealed  ;  others  have  had  pre- 
conceived systems,  to  support  which  they  have  had  recourse  to 
conjectures  and  assertions,  boldly  hazarded,  wherefrom  they 
have  drawn  conclusions,  however  satisfactory  to  themselves, 
and  to  those  who  know  no  better  than  themselves,  are  always 
absurd,  because  at  variance  with  truth  and  wisdom,  yet  pre- 
serve currency,  because  never  thoroughly  investigated,  and 
that  they  have  acquired  a  confidence  from  time,  and  prejudice, 
that  usually  taketh  strong  hold  of  the  minds  of  men,  even  of 
good  understanding.  But  I  had  formed  no  previous  judg- 
ment, I  have  never  indulged  my  fancy,  nor  presumed  to 
sport  with  the  imagination  of  others  in  possibilities  and  proba- 
bilities, I  have  never  applied  the  term  perhaps,  nor  given  a 
false  colouring  to  representations.  I  promulgate  facts  capable 
of  demonstration,  and  demonstrated,  perfectly  indifferent 
whether  they  be  relished  or  not,  disdaining  to  flatter  or  humour 
error,  though  ever  so  long  or  firmly  established  ;  pitying  igno- 
rance, which  it  hath  been  the  object   and   study  of  my  whole 


life  to  enlighten,  to  which  I  am  always  indulgent,  holding  in 
sovereign  contempt  all,  and  they  are  not  few,  who  think  one 
thing  and  say  another,  and  never  hesitate  to  barter  a  public 
avowal  of  opinions,  they  do  not  entertain,  for  base  and  filthy 

That  some  parts  of  this  system  of  Camden,  and  such  like, 
have  been  shaken,  and  some  displaced,  of  late  years,  is  true ; 
but  that  the  schemes  substituted,  tend  not  to  the  improvement 
of  the  whole,  is  equally  certain  ;  be  it  my  task  first  to  shew 
that  the  world  have  been  travelling  a  wrong  track,  though  long 
frequented,  and  much  beaten,  and  then  to  point  out  the  right 
and  ready  way,  whereby  to  arrive  at  the  object  of  our  research. 
In  the  former  I  shall  deal  in  negatives,  in  the  latter  I  stand 
on  affirmatives,  on  warranty  of  the  certainty  of  the  facts  I  shall 
deliver,  vouched  by  the  self  same  evidence  to  which  Camden 
hath  with  confidence  appealed,  and  to  which  every  man  must 
at  last  be  constrained  to  refer  every  controversy  concerning 
the  origin  of  emigrant  nations,  that  is  language. 

1  assert  the  Kinmierioi,  or  Kimbroi,  of  the  Greeks,  the 
CimmeriijCimbri,  Germanni,  of  the  Romans,  never  were  known 
by  the  name  of  Go-mer-i,  or  Go-niar-i. 

That  the  Cimmerii  Avere  a  distinct  people  from  those  called 
Celtae,  latterly  exclusively  called  Galli. 

And  that  the  name  of  Gomer-i  never  did  extend  very  far, 
nor  at  all  into  Germany,  nor  into  Gaul. 

I  affirm  that  the  Druidic  religion  had  been  introduced  into 
Britain  long  before  it  was  known  in  Gaul. 

I  declare,  that  of  the  sixty  words  set  down  by  Camden, 
which  he  hath  adduced  as  proof  of  identity  of  origin  of  the 
nations  of  Gaul  and  Britain,  two-thirds  are  neither  of  Gallic 
nor  British  extraction,  whilst  the  manner  in  which  they  are 
collated,  manifests  the  most  consummate  ignorance,  mingled 
with  no  inconsiderable  portion  of  puerile  cunning,  adult  dis- 
ingenuousness,  and  pedantic  trifling,  merely  to  serve  apurj)ose. 

I  avouch  that  the  people  of  Caledonia  are  not  of  the  same 
origin  as  any  other  of  the  nations  dwelling  in  Britain,  at  the 
time  of  the  invasion  of  Julius  Caesar,  save  the  Belgae. 

I  affirm  that  the  name  of  Britain  is  not  derived  from  any 


one  of  the  terms  stated   by  Cambden,  nor   any  thing  like 

And  having  affirmed  these  particulars  in  flat  contradiction 
to  the  learned  Camden,  and  all  his  authorities,  and  denied 
every  sentiment  he  hath  uttered,  save  the  proximity  of  Gaul 
and  Britain,  in  which  he  could  not  err,  I  shall  proceed  first 
to  submit  to  you  proofs  from  language  in  confirmation  of  my 
confident  assertions,  and  then  so  much  of  the  ancient  state  of 
Britain,  as  will  suffice  to  dispel  the  mists  in  which  this  subject 
hath  been  up  to  this  hour  obscured. 

You  have  observed  the  sophistical  logic  so  prevalent  in  the 
days  of  Camden,  by  which  he  attempts  to  deduce  the  origin 
of  the  first  inhabitants  of  Britain,  from  Gomer,  the  son  of 
Japheth,  in  order  to  sustain  the  famous  5th  verse  of  the  10th 
chapter  of  Genesis. 

"  The  Cimmerii,  or  Cimbri,"  (quoth  he)  "  were  first  called 
"  The  ancient  Britons  call  themselves  Kumero  and  Cymri." 
Ergo,  the  ancient  Britons  are  Gomeri. 
To  which  I  reply,  negatur  major,  negatur  conclusio. 
I  beg  to  know  from  what  source  the  information  is  derived, 
that  the  Cimmerii  or  Cimbri  were  first,  or  ever  called  Gomeri, 
or  Goman.     I  call  on  any  one  to  produce  an  authority  of  the 
weight  or  strength  of  one  thread  of  the  spider's  toil,  to  main- 
tain the  assertion  ;  it  is  a  coinage  from  the  mint  of  impious 
frauds,  a  counterfeit  of  latter  times,  bearing  no  impression  of 
a  Hebrew  or  any  other  antique  stamp. 

That  a  tribe  of  the  Scythian  race  invaded  the  land  of  the 
Gentiles  is  an  historical  fact,  but  the  people  called  Gentiles, 
known  to  the  Hebrews,  were  the  aborigines  of  Thrace,  Mace- 
don  and  Greece ;  doth  any  man  at  this  day,  fancy  that  the 
Hebrews  knew  any  thing  of  the  country  north  of  Caucasus ; 
it  were  well  he  reconsidered  the  evidence  wherefrom  his  fancy 
hath  been  formed ;  of  a  certainty  he  will  not  find  any  founda- 
tion for  it,  in  the  writings  of  the  Hebrews,  whilst  abundance 
of  proof  can  be  produced  from  Ezekiel,  that  they  were  alto- 
gether ignorant  of  the  emigration  of  the  Goths,  who,  as  they 


thought,  came  with  Og,  or  Og-eis-cean,  from  Meshcch  and 
Tubal,  when  they  invaded  Asia  ;  that  they  knew  nothing  of 
the  country,  north  of  Caucasus,  and  that  they  placed  the  tribe 
wliom  they  called  children  of  Gomc-r,  somewhere  to  the  north 
of  Judea,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Magh-og,  south  of  Cauca- 
sus, whereabouts  is  so  imperfectly  conjectured,  that  they  are 
supposed  by  some  to  be  the  people  of  Albania,  by  others  of 
Phrygia,  Pontus,  Paphhgonia  and  Pamphylia ;  but  let  what 
difference  may  exist  as  to  their  actual  place,  all  agree  that  the 
tribe  called  Gomeri,  dwelled  on  a  sea  coast. 

I  liave  had  occasion  heretofore  to  notice,  that  the  Hebrews 
were  much  addicted  to  the  deriving  names  of  countries  from 
individuals,  proof  of  the  long  time  that  intervened  between 
the  assumption  of  the  specific  denomination,  and  the  record 
thereof.  In  consequence  of  which,  the  tradition  became  ob- 
scure, and  as  the  easier  method  was  to  deduce  the  name  from 
a  person,  they  adopted  it  almost  invariably,  though  nothing 
can  be  more  erroneous ;  and  though  those  moderns  v^ho  have 
been  in  the  habit  of  not  only  taking  the  words  of  the  Hebrews 
upon  trust  without  any  investigation  ;  but  of  considering  a 
dissent  therefrom  near  a  kin  to  blasphemy,  may  be  astounded 
at  the  information,  I  shall  take  leave  to  say  such  an  individual 
as  Gomer,  never  had  existence,  that  the  term  is  a  compound 
of  the  two  original  Scythian  words,  Go-moir,  pronounced 
Gomer,  the  literal  signification  of  which  is  "  To  the  sea,"  a 
name  given  to  a  tribe  of  the  Scythian  nation  of  Asia  Minor, 
whose  lands  bordered  on  the  sea,  whether  the  Caspian,  Euxine, 
or  Mediterranean,  is  not  with  sufficient  precision  ascertained. 

But  saith  a  man  of  hypothesis,  may  not  a  colony  of  this 
tribe  have  surmounted  Caucasus,  penetrated  mto  Europe,  and 
assumed  the  name  of  Kimmerioi,  antecedently  to  the  invasion 
of  that  quarter  by  the  Scythian  Goths  ?  undoubtedly  any 
thing  may  be  conjectured,  but  there  is  not  a  tittle  of  evidence, 
sacred  or  prophane,  to  use  the  vulgar  phrase,  to  warrant  the 
supposition,  and  as  the  system  hath  been  formed  from  simi- 
larity of  the  words  Gomeri  and  Chimmer-ioi,  I  must  inform 
you  that  the  Chimmer-ioi  or  Chimbroi,  as  they  were  afterwards 


called,  were  not  of  Asiatic  extraction,  either  Scythian  or  Sar- 
matic,  that  the  name  was  given  by  the  Scythian  Goths,  to  the 
original  inhabitants  of  the  northern  parts  of  Europe,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  natural  state  of  the  climate,  comparatively  with 
that  of  the  country  south  of  Caucasus,  and  signifies  "  Dark 
and  gloomy,  the  people  of  a  land  of  perpetual  winter,"  the 
term  Chimmerian  being  proverbially  applied  to  any  thing  dark 
or  obscure ;  there  is  no  person  acquainted  with  antiquity,  who 
doth  not  know  that  writers  of  ancient  days,  let  them  have 
made  what  mistakes  they  may  in  other  respects,  never  con- 
founded Asiatics  with  Europeans,  nor  Africans  with  either, 
they  never  mistook  a  nation  of  Chimmerioi  or  Cimbroi,  for  a 
tribe  of  Scythians  or  Sarmatae,  and  vice  versa. 

And  now  to  give  you  an  idea  of  the  learned  Sasson  anti- 
quary Camden's  application  of  the  authority  of  Josephus, 
for  his  opinion  that  the  Cimmerii  are  descended  from  Gomer, 
and  to  set  at  rest,  for  all  times  to  come  this  priestly  fable,  I 
will  place  before  you  the  words  of  Josephus  himself,  as  they 
stand  on  the  1st  section  in  the  6th  chapter  of  the  1st  book  of 
his  Antiquities. 

"  Gomer  founded  those  whom  the  Greeks  now  call  Galatians, 
but  were  the7i  called  Gomerites ;"  and  again,  "  of  the  three 
sons  of  Gomer,  Aschanax  founded  the  Aschanaxians,  now 
called  by  the  Greeks  Rheginians,  so  did  Riphath  found  the 
Ripheans,  now  called  Paphligonians,  and  Thrugramma  the 
Thrugrummeans,  who,  as  the  Greeks  have  determined,  were 
named  Phrygians."  Now  it  is  an  historical  fact,  that  a  tribe 
of  Cimmerii,  or  Germanni,  did  burst  forth  of  their  forests, 
more  than  300  years  before  Christ,  and  having  penetrated  to 
Asia  Minor,  expelled  the  Scythian  Gomerians  from  a  portion 
of  their  lands,  which  from  these  invaders  was  afterwards  called 
Galatia  by  the  Greeks,  from  which  it  appears,  that  it  was  the 
Cimmerii  intruded  on  the  Scythian  Gomerians  in  the  east,  in- 
stead of  the  Gomerians  intruding  on  the  Cimmerii  in  the 
west ;  but  what  farther  appears  from  this  testimony  of  Jo- 
sephus, whereon  the  learned  Camden  built  his  theory,  that 
the  Cimmerii  were  the  descendants  of  Gomer  ?     It  appears 


that  the  sons  of  Gomer  did  not  stray  farther  west  than  Pon- 
tus,  Paphligonia,  and  Phrygia,  which  points  out  the  true 
etymology  of  the  name  as  I  have  heretofore  explained ;  whilst 
from  the  circumstance  of  the  Greeks  calling  this  tribe  of  Cim- 
merians, Gal,  it  is  evident  the  Greeks,  Romans,  and  Iberian 
Scythians  all  applied  the  term  Gal  to  a  tribe  of  people, 
which  term  was  not  confined  to  the  nations  south  of  the  Rhine, 
but  extended  north  to  the  Baltic,  passed  from  the  Iberi  of 
Aquitania.  This  very  evidence  of  Josephus,  as  far  as  his  au- 
thority is  of  avail,  completely  confounds  the  devices  of  those 
who  have  had,  or  will  have,  the  Cimmerii  the  children  of 

Seeing  then  that  Gomerl  were  a  tribe  of  Scythians  of  Asia 
Minor,  bordering  on  the  sea  ;  that  there  is  neither  record,  nor 
yet  tradition  of  their  having  colonized  any  part  of  Europe ; 
and  that  the  name  hath  no  affinity  whatever  with  Chimmer-ioi. 
That  attempt  at  a  connexion  being  annihilated,  I  affirm  that 
the  Chimmer-ioi  were  not  of  the  same  origin  as  the  Celtas. 

What,  though  [  should  subject  myself  to  the  imputation  of 
proHxity  and  reiteration,  I  must  repeat  something  of  what  I 
have  heretofore  said  I'especting  the  Cimmerii  and  Celtae. 

Men  have  been  long  in  the  habit  of  dealing  too  much  in  ge- 
neralties,  which  hath  been  productive  of  much  embarrassment 
in  explaining  origins  of  nations,  and  first  principles  of  every 
sort  and  kind  ;  accordingly  we  find  them  lumping  all  the  peo- 
ple of  Europe  together,  as  having  one  same  origin,  the  fal- 
lacy of  which  is  evident  by  an  attention  to  grand  historic  facts, 
and  above  all,  to  language.  No  man  can  hesitate  to  assert 
that  the  Tatars,  the  Indi,  the  Assyrians,  and  the  Sc^'thians, 
are  distinct  genera  of  the  human  species  of  Asia ;  and  there 
is  as  little  reason  to  doubt  that  there  were  many  different  ge- 
nera of  mankind  in  Europe  also. 

The  knowledge  of  the  Greeks  of  the  northern  parts  of 
Europe,  was  very  imperfect;  and  of  the  Romans  still  more  so, 
till  a  late  period.  It  was  customary  with  the  first  invaders,  to 
give  a  name  to  the  people  and  country  nearest  to  them,  which 
name  they  applied  to  all  the  nations  far  and  wide,  as  hereto- 


fore  shewn  ;  and  as  tlie  Goths  found  the  country,  dark,  gloomy, 
and  cold,  they  called  it  Geimhra,  the  original  word  for  winter, 
and  the  inhabitants  Geimarig,  corrupted  by  the  Greeks  to  Kinie- 
rioi,  by  the  Romans  to  Cinimerii ;  but  when  from  better  acquaint- 
ance by  long  residence  on  their  borders,  they  discovered  that  the 
aborigines  had  specific  tribal  denominations,  they  distinguished 
them  thereby.  Accordingly  we  find  the  Cimmerii,  corrupted 
to  Cimbri,  called,  in  process  of  time,  Germanni,  their  country 
German-ia,  evidently  from  their  tradition  of  their  being 
sprung  from  Mannus  and  Earthum,  divided  into  many  na- 
tions, each  bearing  its  own  peculiar  appellation.  In  like 
manner  of  the  portion  of  Europe  south  of  the  Ister,  we  hear 
the  general  name  of  Gentiles  applied  to  all  the  native  tribes, 
as  far  as  Illurike,  which  is  also  recognized  in  Cynurians, 
Gigantes,  and  in  Allod-eis,  corrupted  to  Helot-es,  whom  the 
Scythian  invaders  captivated,  and  converted  to  vile  uses,  whilst 
the  universal  name  of  Ceiltig,  corrupted  to  Keltikoi  and  Cel- 
t£e,  was  given  indiscriminately  by  the  Scythians  to  all  the  ori- 
ginal people  south  of  the  Ister  and  the  Rhine,  from  the  west- 
ern extremity  of  Illurike,  to  the  fancied  end  of  the  world  ; 
but  as  the  invaders  advanced,  and  became  acquainted  with 
the  natives,  they  adopted  the  vernacular  name  of  some  with 
more  or  less  variation,  suited  to  their  own  tongue,  or  applied 
names  of  their  own  to  others,  conformable  to  circumstances, 
whilst  the  original  name  of  Celtae  was  continued  to  all  people 
westward,  of  whom  they  were  ignorant.  Thus  we  learn  that 
the  aborigines  of  the  part  of  Italy  invaded  by  CEnotrus, 
though  called  Celtae  aforetime,  were  afterward  called  by  the 
Scythians,  Umbri ;  so  of  the  other  little  communities,  to  the 
Alps,  whilst  all  the  country  westward  continued  to  be  called, 
even  to  the  days  of  Julius  Caesar,  Celti-ca,  or  Gallia. 

From  all  which  it  is  apparent,  if  the  evidence  of  antiquity, 
delivered  not  for  the  pui'pose  of  supporting  hypothetical  sys- 
tems, but  of  stating  facts,  be  of  avail,  that  the  Cimmerii, 
Cimbri,  or  Germanni,  were  no  more  of  the  same  genus,  of 
the  Umbri,  Celtaj,  Galli,  though  both  were  aboriginal  Euro- 
peans on  their  respective  lands,  than  the  Scythians  and  Assy- 


rians  were  of  the  same  race,  though  both  aboriginal  Asiatics, 
in  their  particular  countries.  These  facts  language  attests, 
and  instructs  me  to  know  (which  knowledge  I  have  infinite 
pleasure  in  imparting  to  mankind)  that  Go-mer-i  signifies  peo- 
ple whose  lands  border  on  the  sea ;  that  the  Greek  Chimmer- 
ioi,  from  Cheima,  winter,  formed  on  the  original  Scythian 
■word  Geimhra,  winter,  denotes  the  inhabitants  of  a  cold  and 
gloomy  country  ;  that  Kelti-koi  of  Greece,  Celtse  of  Rome, 
formed  on  the  primitive  word  Ceiltig,  concealed,  hidden,  was 
the  name  applied  by  the  Scythians  to  the  aboriginal  people  of 
Europe  westward,  of  whom  the  Greeks  and  Romans  knew 
nothing,  though  they  conjectured  much ;  and  that  Gal-oi  of 
the  Grecians,  Gall-i  of  the  Romans,  formed  upon  the  ancient 
word  Gaal,  denotes  kindred.  From  this  my  knowledge, 
whereby  I  am  enabled  to  speak  positively,  and  from  the  evi- 
dence of  men  of  ancient  days,  who  were  not  occupied  in  esta- 
blishing pious,  or  rather  impious,  frauds,  I  repeat  with  confi- 

That  the  Cimmerii  neither  were,  nor  were  ever  called,  Go- 
meri ; 

That  the  Cimmerii,  and  Galli,  are  not  of  the  same  race. 

And  I  will  presently  demonstrate,  that  Cumarig,  by  which 
name  those  aboriginal  Britons  who  inhabit  the  part  of  Britain 
now  called  Wales,  distinguish  themselves,  hath  not  the  slight- 
est affinity  with  Cimmer-ii,  or  Cimbri,  the  two  words  being  as 
different  as  light  and  darkness,  but  that  they  are  the  genuine 
aborigines  of  the  isle  of  Britain,  as  old  as  the  hills  and  dales 
thereof;  and  that  all  the  other  parts  of  the  conjectural  scheme 
of  Camden,  and  such  like,  are  as  ill  founded  as  his  deduction 
of  origins,  will  clearly  appear  from  a  very  brief  statement  of 
facts,  relating  to  times  antecedent  by  one  thousand  years  to 
the  epoch,  whereat  the  profound  Saxon  antiquary  would  have 
a  British  writer  commence  his  history  of  Britain. 

You  are  already  in  possession  of  my  judgment,  that  this 
globe  always  existed,  though  not  a  member  of  this  solar  sys- 
tem, very  many  ages  longer  than  the  received  European  opi- 
mon — how  long  no  man  can  tell,  nor  ever  can  discover,  (i) 


That  the  human  race,  and  every  species  of  inhabitants  ot 
land,  air,  and  waters,  of  vegetable,  and  fossil,  were  originally 
produced,  each  in  their  peculiar  element  and  climate  ; 

That  mankind  did  not  proceed  from  one  pair  of  creatures ; 

That  the  beings  of  this  earth  were  not  destroyed  by  a  de- 
luge ; 

Consequently  that  there  existed  no  necessity  of  replenishing 
the  world  with  inhabitants  either  from  the  plains  of  Shinar,  or 
the  mountains  of  Ardmenia. 

To  apply  these  opinions  to  our  more  immediate  subject,  I 
say  that  the  island  now  treated  of  had  its  original  people  as 
early  as  all  other  parts  of  this  globe,  with  the  attribute  at- 
tendant on  their  formation  of  organic  power  of  modulating 
their  breath  to  the  distinct  articulation  of  words  expressive  of 
their  ideas,  whereby  they  were  enabled  to  communicate  with 
such  of  their  species  as  they  were  in  the  habit  of  associating 
with.  What  intercourse  the  nations  of  which,  the  whole  is- 
land was  composed,  might  have  had  with  eacli  other,  what 
were  their  manners,  customs,  institutions,  laws  of  earth  and 
air,  there  is  no  memorial,  nor  can  I  set  forth,  for  all  time  and 
times,  till  the  precise  epoch  corresponding  with  1036  years 
betbre  Christ,   when    having  warranty  for  my  speech  I  affirm, 

That  people  from  Sydon,  passed  Ard  Ib-er,  and  the  Breo- 
cean  of  Gaelag,  and  landed  on  the  southern  coast  of  this  island, 
where  and  when  they  commenced  the  operation  of  exploring 
the  bowels  of  the  earth,  wherein  they  discovered  the  metals  of 
lead  and  tin,  in  which  articles  they  carried  on  a  lucrative  trade 
with  the  natives  of  the  east. 

That  having  established  themselves  in  this  quarter  of  the 
island,  they  continued  to  increase  their  numbers,  not  from  Sy- 
don and  their  colonies  in  Spain  only,  but  also  by  multitudes  of 
the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Ibcr  within  Gaelag,  and  of  the  Gaal  of 
Iber  within  Buascc,  independent  Scythian  nations,  with  whom 
they  made  covenants,  prescribing  the  terms  of  their  mutual  en- 
gagements, whilst  employed  in  working  the  mines,  the  first  of 
which  covenants  vvas  entered  into  1035  years  before  Christ,  in 
four  years  from  which  lime  the  sea  opened  a  passage  nigh  unto 


the  extremity  of  the  land,  leaving  rocks  in  the  ocean  separated 
from  the  main,  of  which  facts,  and  many  more  particulars  you 
will  be  distinctly  informed  by  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag,  till  the 
precise  date  of  1006  years  before  Christ,  when  the  Gaal  of 
Sciot  of  Iber,  or  to  speak  more  distinctively,  the  chief,  nobles, 
olam,  all  the  Clanda  Breoccean,  with  many  of  the  Gaal  took 
their  departure  from  Gaelag  and  emigrated  to  Eri. 

What  though  their  sojourn  in  Gaelag  was  no  more  than  for 
one  and  thirty  years  after  the  Sydonians  had  planted  their 
first  colony  in  the  land  of  metals,  and  there  never  was  the 
slightest  intercourse  between  the  Ib-er-ians  of  Eri,  and  the  Sy- 
donians from  that  day  to  this,  yet  in  the  occurrences  of  these 
few  years,  we  have  a  sure  foundation  for  the  very  ancient  notice 
of  this  country,  and  the  origin  of  Scythian  tribes  who  colonized 
and  occupied  a  considerable  portion  thereof,  at  a  time  as  remote 
nearly  as  the  arrival  of  the  Pelasgoi  in  the  southern  part  of 
Greece  ;  synchronizing  with  the  reign  of  Ammon  Pharaoh 
of  Egypt,  father  of  Sesostris,  and  with  David  chief  of  the 
children  of  Israel,  father  of  Solomon,  five  hundred  years 
before  Home  was  founded,  and  one  thousand  years  antecedent 
to  the  era  recommended  by  the  learned  Saxon  antiquary  Cam- 
den, for  the  commencement  of  the  ancient  histoi-y  of  the 

That  the  Sydonians  were  the  first  stranger  people  known  to 
have  entered  this  island  is  beyond  question,  that  they  wrought 
the  mines  in  the  southern  quarter  thereof  is  equally  certain, 
and  that  they  were  jealous  of  their  acquisition,  and  guarded  i^ 
with  the  most  scrupulous  secrecy,  are  facts  of  notoriety,  which 
last,  together  with  the  destruction  of  the  Phoenician  records, 
though  they  have  occasioned  a  lack  of  detail  of  the  ancient 
history  of  the  island,  from  the  epoch  of  their  first  acquaintance 
therewith,  one  memorial  even  yet  hath  not  perished,  on  which 
their  mercantile  jealousy  hath  made  no  ravage,  which  the 
flames  of  Alexandria  could  not  destroy,  yea  which  even  to  this 
hour  hath  defied  all  the  efforts  of  Saxon  ignorance,  brutaUty, 
and  despotism,  innumerable  proofs  of  which  it  will  still  endure 

cclxxxii  demonstHation. 

to  record  in  its  own  native  style,  if  I  shall  not  shortly 

Pliny  hath  conjectured,  that  an  individual  whom  he  calls 
Medicritus,  was  the  first  that  brought  lead  ex  insula  Cassiteride, 
and  to  Avhom  is  ascribed  the  founding  of  Carteia  in  Spain,  about 
the  same  time  that  Carthage  was  founded  by  Dido,  which  Slrabo 
says  was  presently  after  the  war  of  Troy  ;  what  a  melange  of 
nonsense  ! !  It  is  enough  for  our  present  purpose  to  shew  that 
the  date  of  the  building  of  Carthage  is  ascertained  to  the  year 
88.3  before  Christ,;  therefore  following  these  authorities,  it 
might  be  said  that  this  island  was  not  known  to  the  Phoenicians 
for  an  hundred  and  sixty  years  later  than  the  chronicles  of 
Gaelag  declare,  if  such  even  was  the  case,  the  proofs  about  to 
be  adduced  would  not  be  injured  in  the  shghtest  degree,  the 
Sydonians  and  Carthaginians  having  used  the  same  language  ; 
but  nothing  is  farther  from  my  thoughts  than  to  admit  that  this 
island  was  not  discovered,  and  entered  at  the  date  afore- 
mentioned by  the  Phoenicians  from  Sydon,  I  rely  with  confi- 
dence on  the  accuracy  of  the  chronicles  of  Gaelag,  on  which 
there  neither  is,  nor  with  truth  could  be  any  mention  of  Cartha- 
ginians,"*  the  Ib-erians  having  emigrated  to  Eri,  one  hundred 
and  twenty-three  years  before  Carthage  was  in  existence. 

The  facts  of  the  discovery  of  the  southern  coast  of  this  island 
by  the  Phoenicians,  their  settlement  therein,  trade  therewith 
being  established,  permit  me  to  present  you  with  a  reg\ilar  and 
orderly  detail  of  the  origin  of  the  various  tribes  that  have  from 
10f57  before  Christ,  till  the  arrival  of  the  Normans  in  1066  since 
Christ,  emigrated  to  this  famous  island,  whereupon  I  shall 
make  such  observations,  as  shall  be  conducive  to  your  perfect 
acquaintaace  with  the  subject. 

Antecedently  to  1037  before  Christ,  let  men  of  scheme  and 
hypothesis  conjecture  as  they  will,  and  have,  I  neither  know 
nor  pretend  to  know  any  thing  of  this  island. 

Then  appeared  on  the  shores  of  the  south  Sydonians,  who 
entered  the  land,  and  if  they  did  not  displace  the  natives,  they 
mingled  with  them,  became  influential  in  that  quarter,  and 
certainly  insinuated  their  language  to  so  great  a  degree,  that  it 


must  be  inferred  a  great  proportion  of  the  population  of  Britain, 
that  is  Dun-mianac,  that  is  the  present  Devon  and  Cornwall, 
was  Scythian. 

The  increase  of  these  strangers  witliin  the  country,  and  fresh 
supplies  continually  pouring  in  fi-om  Sydon  and  Spain,  pro- 
ducing the  necessity  of  extending  their  limits,  tribes  moved 
ilorthward,  crossed  the  Severne,  and  seated  themselves  in  the 
prest;nt  districts  of  Glamorgan,  Monmouth,  Hereford,  Brecon, 
and  Radnor,  assuming  the  specific  denomination  of  Sul-ureis, 
changed  by  the  Romans  to  Silures,  of  these  the  chronicles  of 
Gaelag  could  not  have  spoken,  and  the  chronicles  of  Eri,  are 
altogether  silent. 

But  from  the  chronicles  of  Eri  we  learn  distinctly,  that  mul- 
titudes of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Iber,  within  Gaelag,  and  of  the 
Gaal  of  Iber  within  Buasce,  employed  in  the  mines  of  Dun- 
mionac,  with  whom  the  Sydonians  were  dealing  treacherously, 
did  burst  forth  of  the  caverns  of  the  earth,  and  steering  north- 
ward, established  themselves  on  the  coast  opposite  Im-aon-ar,  this 
day  the  Isle  of  Man,  whence  they  spread  farther  north,  and  east- 
ward, and  in  process  of  time  extended  their  jurisdiction  over 
the  present  districts  of  Lancaster,  Westmoreland,  Cumberland, 
York,  and  Durham,  where  they  are  recognized  by  their  ancient 
Iber-ian  name  of  Breocceant-eis,  changed  by  the  Romans  to 

These  tribes  who  came  to  establish  themselves  in  the  countries 
aforementioned,  and  to  exercise  su  preme  power  therein,  the 
first  aliens  known  to  have  intruded  on  the  aborigines,  were  of 
Scythian  extraction. 

The  next  invaders  were  Cimmerii,  in  the  most  enlarged  sense 
of  the  term,  from  the  western  shore  of  the  Euxine,  a  tribe  of 
the  nation  of  Basternae,  which  had  assumed  the  distinct  name 
of  Pence,  latinized  by  the  Romans  on  their  original  land  to 
Peucini,  on  Britain  to  Picti.  They  first  appeared  on  the  water 
of  Feobal,  in  the  northern  extremity  of  Eri,  in  299  before 
Christ;  from 'whence,  finding  the  land  full,  they  shaped  their 
course  eastward,  and  seated  themselvtJs  in  the  northern  parts 
of  the  island  of  which  we  are  speaking.     Of  this  tribe  the 


chronicles  of  Eri,  are  full  and  explicit,  the  history  of  whom  is 
intimately  connected  with  our  annals,  as  you  will  see. 

The  next  adventurers  were  Cimmerii  of  the  south  west  of 
Germany,  known  by  the  name  of  Belgae,  who  having  passed 
the  Rhine,  possessed  themselves  of  the  country  called  Gallia 
between  that  river  and  the  Sean,  from  whence  they  crossed 
over  to  this  island,  where  they  acquired  the  present  districts  of 
Hants,  Wilts,  and  Somerset,  at  what  time  is  left  to  conjecture, 
and  supposed  to  be  about  200  or  300  years  antecedently  to 
the  birth  of  Christ. 

Next  came  a  tribe  of  Attrebates  from  Gaul,  who  occupied 
the  present  Berks. 

Such  was  the  origin  of  these  nations  in  their  respective  posi- 
tions, 50  years  before  Christ,  when  Julius  Caesar,  with  some 
few  Roman  Scythians,  and  a  motley  group,  a  disciplined  ban- 
ditti of  auxilaries,  composed  of  Germanni  and  Galli,  subjected 
by  the  arms  to  the  will  of  Rome,  invaded  this  island,  from  whence 
the  aborigines  twice  drove  him  with  disgrace,  notwithstanding 
the  false  colouring  given  by  his  own  pencil  to  the  representa- 
tions of  his  unprovoked  assaults.  May  annihilation  be  the  fate 
of  all  invaders  of  the  laws,  and  liberties  of  independent  nations, 
and  so  it  will,  if  the  people  be  but  firm  and  true  to  themselves. 
Such  continued  to  be  the  state  of  the  country  at  50  years 
after  Christ,  when  the  Romans  recommenced  their  aggression, 
from  which  they  desisted  not,  till  they  had  garrisoned,  bridled, 
and  reduced  to  subjection,  more  by  reason  of  the  dis-union  and 
want  of  co-operation  of  the  several  nations,  than  of  their  own 
prowess,  the  entire  island,  save  Caledonia,  wherein  their  juris- 
diction never  was  ascendant. 

Whilst  the  Romans  were  in  progress  towards  the  perfection 
of  the  work  of  subjugation,  a  colony  of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of 
Ib-er  in  Eri,  entered  the  land  of  the  Peuci,  about  the  year  of 
Christ  258,  under  the  conduct  of  Eocaid  Cairbre,  the  son  of 
Conaire,  who  had  gotten  the  name  of  Righ-fada.  This  Gaal 
of  Scythians  were  invited  by  the  Peuci  to  Caledonia,  and  re- 
ceived from  them  a  grant  of  territory  in  the  western,  quarter  of 
their  land,  which  they  called  Ard-gael,  and  Dal  Righ-fada, 


neither  acquired,  nor  retained  partly  by  enlreaty,  partly  by 
force^  as  Bcde  relates,  but  granted  freely,  and  held  by  a  species 
of  military  tenure  from  the  people,  and  chief  of  Caladun,  on 
condition  of  the  Sciot  being  aiding  to  them,  in  defence  of  their 
laws  and  liberties  (on  which  depend  life  and  land)  against  the 
Roman  spoiler,  which  service  they  performed  bravely  and 
faithfully,  as  the  hatred  and  calumny  of  the  Romans,  (expressed 
by  the  poets  laureat  of  Rome,  in  their  fulsome,  lying  panegy- 
rics on  the  heads  of  the  ruling  faction,  for  which  no  doubt  the 
flatterers  received  ample  reward,)  and  the  result  (found  in  the 
successful  efforts  of  these  friends  and  allies)  sufficiently 

The  foreigners  who  next  arrived  in  this  island,  were  tribes  of 
Cimmerians,  called  Jutes,  Sassons,  and  Angles,  from  the  year 
of  Christ  450  to  550. 

For  the  purpose  of  connecting  these  three  Germannic  nations, 
I  deferred  the  mention  of  another  colony  of  Scythians  from  Eri, 
in  the  year  503,  led  by  Feargus,  son  of  Eocaid  Muineamhar, 
who  were  seated  south  of  their  brethren  of  Dal-righ-fada,  on 
the  other  side  of  the  waters  of  Cluid,  along  the  coast  of  the 
ocean,  from  thence  to  MuUac  Gaal-adh-biadh,  invited  also  by 
the  Peuci,  to  strengthen  them  against  the  Sassons,  who  instead 
of  friends  and  allies  to  the  Britons  whom  they  came  to  assist, 
had  become  treacherous  foes  and  barbarous  tyrants,  ever  con- 
sistent at  all  events,  insomuch  that  even  language  isnot  necessary 
to  prove  origin  in  their  particular :  Pirates,  and  inhuman  in 
the  time  of  Tacitus,  pirates  and  inhuman  in  the  days  of 
CConnor,  allies  and  auxilaries  under  the  garb  of  friendship, 
presently  principals,  instantly  tyrants,  applying  the  terms  rebels 
and  traitors  to  the  very  people,  who,  in  an  evil  hour,  suffered 
them  to  interfere  in  their  concerns.  Semper  idem  ! 

After  these  herds  of  pirates,  came  Scandinavian  pirates  also, 
from  Norway  and  Denmark,  towards  the  end  of  the  9th  century, 
when  the  former  made  themselves  masters  of  the  isles  north  of 
Caladun,  and  west  of  Dal-righ-fada,  and  the  latter  seized  on 
the  country  of  the  East  Angles,  Mercia,  and  a  considerable 


part  of  North  Humber-land,  and  reduced  the  whole  of  Anglo- 
land,  which  was  not  recovered  by  the  Sassons,  till  1042. 

The  next  invaders  in  order  of  succession,  and  the  last,  were 
Germanni,  who  first  acquired  possession  of  a  part  of  the  lands 
of  the  Gaal  of  Armorice,  from  them  called  Normandie,  from 
whence  a  colony  landed  in  the  south  of  this  island,  and  by  the 
success  of  one  battle,  obtained  the  undisturbed  dominion  of 
the  country  from  the  German  ocean  east,  to  the  Severn  west, 
and  from  the  southern  extremity  of  the  land,  to  the  border  of 
Caladun  ;  which  event  took  place  in  the  year  1066. 

At  which  date  you  perceive  the  entire  of  the  island  was  in- 
habited by  the  Aborigines,  by  Scythians  from  Phoenicia,  Galli- 
cla,  and  Biscay,  by  Cimmerii  of  the  different  tribes  of  Peucini, 
Belgae,  Jutes,  Sassons  and  Angles,  by  Scythian  Romans,  Scythi- 
ans of  Eri,  and  by  Scandinavian  Norwegians  and  Danes,  and  by 
Normanni ;  of  whom  all  had  arrived  here  antecedently  to  550 
of  the  christian  era,  save  the  Scandinavians  and  Normanni,  of 
the  former  of  whom  there  is  no  necessity  to  speak,  their  lan- 
guage having  made  little  -perceptible  impression,  the  people 
being  rather  roving,  praedatory  banditti,  than  systematic  con- 
querors, and  of  the  last  I  shall  for  a  while  postpone  the  consi- 
deration, not  being  immediately  connected  with  one  present 
enquiry,  which  is  language,  whereby  I  mean  to  demonstrate 
the  origin  of  each,  which  will  shew  various  objects  in  the  true 
light,  coiTect  multitudinous  errors,  and  tend  to  the  utter  ex- 
tinction of  the  absurd  schemes,  theories  and  hypotheses,  that 
have  drawn  the  minds  of  Europeans  far  from  the  path  of 
truth  ;  for  this  purpose,  we  must  look  for  information  to  be 
confidently  relied  on,  respecting  the  languages  in  common  use 
amongst  the  people  who  dwelled  on  this  island,  at  the  date  of 
550,  when  the  last  of  the  tribes  above  mentioned  were  on  the 
land  ;  and  as- 1  know  of  no  writer  at  or  about  that  time  com- 
parable to  Bede  in  terrestrial  matters,  1  shall  state  from  him 
that  "  There  were  five  languages  when  he  wrote  about  730, 
namely  that  of  the  Angli,  the  Britons,  the  Scots,  the  Picts, 
and  the  Romans,"  on  which  fact,  and  his  classification,  a  few 
observations  must  be  made. 


That  he  gave  precedence  to  the  Angli,  though  the  last  of 
these  five  nations,  is  easily  accounted  for  by  the  circumstance 
of  his  being  one  of  that  people ;  but  if  he  meant  by  the  Scoti, 
only  those  tribes  from  Eri,  led  by  Eocaid  Cairbre  and  Feargus, 
to  Caladun,  why  range  them  before  the  Picts,  who  had  been 
seated  in  Ailb-bin  for  500  years,  and  before  the  Romans  who 
had  subjected  the  greater  part  of  the  island  200  years  antece- 
dently to  the  coming  of  the  first  of  these  Scots  to  Ardgael ;  on 
this  arises  a  question,  did  Bede  contemplate  the  Scythian 
tribes  of  Dun-mionac,  Silures  and  Brigantes,  and  identify  them 
with  their  brethren  from  Eri  ?  if  so,  the  order  is  correct,  with 
the  exception  of  the  Angli,  the  violation  in  which  respect  is 
accounted  for  from  his  being  an  Anglus ;  if  he  had  not  the 
ancient  Scythian  or  Scottish  tribes  in  his  mind,  all  is  confusion, 
and  he  stands  Hable  to  the  charge  of  an  anachronism  without 
an  object,  and  of  being  an  ignorant  or  careless  writer,  but  as 
his  works,  save  those  on  miracles  and  mysteries,  prove  him  to 
have  been  a  remarkably  accurate  and  precise  writer,  I  am 
incHned  to  think  that  he  is  not  chargeable  with  an  error,  and 
that  he  meant  by  the  Scoti  as  well  the  very  ancient  tribes  of 
that  race  on  Dunmianac,  and  those  distinguished  by  the  names 
of  Silures  and  Brigantes,  as  well  as  those  from  Eri ;  and  I  am 
more  particularly  induced  to  this  judgment,  from  my  opinion 
of  the  wisdom  of  Bede,  and  from  my  knowledge  that  he  would 
have  been,  and  was  perfectly  correct  in  so  doing,  as  shall  be 
distinctly  proved  ;  at  all  events,  be  it  as  it  may,  we  have  on 
his  authority  the  fact  ascertained,  that  there  were  in  his  time, 
five  languages  spoken  by  the  various  nations  throughout 
Britain  and  Ailb-bin  ;  which  fact  I  beg  to  impress  deeply  on 
your  memory,  it  being  demonstrative  of  the  truth  of  what  I 
undertook  to  prove  at  the  commencement  of  this  Demonstration, 
for  as  Cambden  has  repeated  from  others  v/ho  repeated  from 
their  precursors,  "  Every  argument  of  the  origin  of  emigrant 
nations  must,  after  all,  be  referred  to  language,"  you  will  have 
the  goodness  to  bear  in  mind,  that  the  languages  of  the  various 
tribes  of  the  Cimmerii,  of  the  Britons,  and  of  the  Scots,  are 


declared  by  Bede  who  wrote  1200  years  ago,  to  be  different 
and  distinct. 

But  let  it  be  supposed  that  Bede  had  expressly  confined  the 
Scythian  language  to  the  Scots  of  Ailb-bin  ;  I  would  enquire 
what  bad  become  of  the  language  of  Dunmianac,  the  Silures, 
and  the  Brigantes,  was  it  lost  in  Bede's  time  ?  did  it  merge  in 
the  British  or  Roman  languages  ?  did  no  visible  vestige  thereof 
remain?  to  which  I  reply,  it  was  not  lost,  it  did  not  merge  in 
the  British  nor  the  Roman  ;  it  did  exist  in  the  days  of  Bede, 
and  doth  endure  at  this  hour  in  form,  mien,  structure,  and  a 
considerable  proportion  of  the  very  nomenclature  of  the  British 
language,  not  merged,  nor  buried,  but  alive,  prominent  and 
discernable,  recognized  not  only  by  the  right  owners,  but  by 
the  ancient  Britons  who  have  adopted,  fondly  cherished,  ana 
gratefully  acknowledge  their  obligations  to  it,  as  a  treasure  by 
which  their  language  hath  been  greatly  enriched. 

So  notorious  is  this  fact,  so  obvious  to  every  man  well  versed 
in  the  Scythian  language  of  £ri,  and  in  the  British  tongue, 
that  Edward  Lwhyd,  by  far  the  most  competent  scholar  of  all 
the  Britons,  not  only  in  his  own  vernaclur  tongue,  but  in 
the  language  of  Eri,  in  his  deep  researches  into  the  antiquity 
of  his  country,  finding  that  nearly  all  the  names  of  places, 
lands  and  watei-s,  hills  and  dales,  throughout  this  island  were 
in  a  language  not  British,  that  the  idiom  and  form  of  the 
British  language  was  cast  in  the  mould  of  Eri,  and  that  a  very 
great  part  of  the  British  agreed  with  the  Irish,  was  forced 
upon  the  necessity  of  having  recourse  to  a  scheme  for  the  pur- 
pose of  endeavouring  to  account  for  this  (to  him)  phonorae- 
non ;  which  scheme  together  with  his  arguments,  I  will  lay 
before  you  in  as  many  of  his  own  words  as  will  suffice  to 
enable  you  to  form  your  judgment. 

1st.  Quoth  he,  "  I  am  of  opinion  that  the  old  inhabitants 
of  Ireland  consisted  of  two  nations,  Guydhelians  and  Scots. 

2d.  "  That  the  Guydhelians  descended  from  the  most  ancient 
Britons,  and  the  Scots  from  Spain. 

3d.  "  That  the  Guydhelians  lived  in  the  most  ancient  times, 
not  only  in  north  Britain,  (where  they  still  continue  intermixed 


with  Scots,  Saxons  and  Danes,)  but  also  in  England  and 

4th.  «  That  the  said  Guydhalians  of  England  and  Wales 
were  inhabitants  of  Gaul,  before  they  came  into  this  island. 

"  Having  been  so  bold  as  to  write  such  novelties,  and  yet  at 
the  same  time  to  acknowledge  I  have  no  written  authority  for 
them,  I  am  obliged  to  produce  what  reasons  I  have 

<*  I  have  already  proved  at  large  in  the  1st  and  2d  section  of 
this  book,  that  the  Welch  language  agrees  with  a  very  great 
part  of  the  Irish,  and  in  the  Irish  grammar  you  will  also  find, 
that  the  genius  or  nature  of  their  language  in  their  changing 
the  initial  letters  in  the  same  manner,  &c.  is  also  agreeable  to 
the  Welch,  and  as  by  collating  the  languages,  I  have  found 
one  part  of  the  Irish  reconcileable  to  the  Welch,  so  by  a  dili- 
gent perusal  of  the  New  Testament,  and  manuscript  papers 
written  in  the  language  of  the  Cantabrians,  I  had  had  a 
satisfactory  knowledge  as  to  the  affinity  of  the  other  part  with 
the  old  Spanish,  for  though  a  great  deal  of  that  language  be 
retained  in  the  present  Spanish,  yet  much  better  preserved  do 
we  find  it  amongst  the  Cantabrians. 

"  Now  my  reason  for  calling  the  British-Irish,  Guydhelians, 
and  those  of  Spain,  Scots,  is  because  the  old  British  manu- 
scripts call  the  Picts  Fitchid  Guydhelians,  and  the  Picts  were 
Britons  without  question,  as  appears  not  only  by  the  name  of 
them  in  Latin  and  Irish,  but  by  the  names  of  the  mountains 
and  rivers  in  the  lowlands  of  Scotland,  where  they  inhabited, 
and  there  probably  they  are  yet,  (though  their  language  be 
lost,)  intermixed  with  Scots,  Strat-Clyad  Britons,  old  Saxons, 
Danes  and  Normans.  As  for  the  intitling  the  Spanisli-Irish 
Scots,  there  wants  no  authority,  the  Irish  authors  having  con- 
stantly called  the  Spanish  colony  Kin-Skuit,  or  the  Scottish 
nation  ;  no  more  therefore  need  be  said  to  prove  the  Guydhe- 
lian-Irish,  ancient  Britons  ;  and  as  to  the  Scots  it  is  only  neces- 
sary we  should  produce  examples  of  the  affinity  of  the  old 
Spanish  with  the  present  Irish,  as  follows*"  One  hundred  in- 
stances of  which  having  set  down,  he  proceeds  :  "  Much  more 
might  be  added  to  these,  not  only  out  of  the  Cantabrian,  but 


also  out  of  the  present  Spanish,  notwithstanding  the  great 
alteration  in  that  language  by  the  Latin  and  Arabic, 

"  Seeing  then  it  is  somewhat  manifest  that  the  ancient  inha- 
bitants (of  Ireland)  consisted  of  two  nations,  that  the  Guydhe- 
lians  were  Britons,  and  that  Nennius  and  others  wrote  many 
ages  since  an  unquestionable  truth,  when  they  asserted  the 
Scots  of  Ireland  coming  out  of  Spain,  the  next  thing  I  have 
to  make  out  is,  that  that  part  of  them  called  Guydhelians 
have  once  dwelt  in  England  and  Wales.  There  are  none  of 
the  Irish  themselves  that  I  know  of,  amongst  all  the  writings 
they  have  pubhshed  about  the  history  and  origin 'of  their  na- 
tion, that  maintain  they  were  possessed  of  England  and 
Wales,  and  yet  whoever  takes  notice  of  a  great  many  of  the 
names  of  the  rivers  and  mountains  throughout  the  kingdom, 
will  find  no  reason  to  doubt,  but  the  Irish  must  have  been  the 
inhabitants  when  those  names  were  imposed  upon  them,"  some 
few  of  which  Lhyd  notices,  then  adds,  "  and  several  others 
which  manifest  that  the  Irish  were  anciently  possessed  of  those 

He  then  remarks  that  the  words  he  had  quoted,  though  in 
common  use  amongst  the  Irish,  are  not  to  be  found  in  the 
British,  wherein  he  hath  searched  for  them  in  vain.  "  Therefore," 
he  repeats,  "  I  could  find  no  place  to  doubt  but  the  Guhyd- 
helians  have  formerly  lived  all  over  the  kingdom,  and  that  our 
ancestors  had  forced  the  greatest  part  of  them  to  retire  to  the 
north,  and  to  Ireland,  in  the  same  manner  that  the  Romans 
afterwards  subdued  us,  and  as  the  barbarians  of  Germany  and 
Denmark  upon  the  downfal  of  the  Roman  empire,  have  driven 
us  one  age  after  another  to  our  present  limits;  we  see  then 
how  necessary  the  Irish  language  is  to  those  loho  shall  under- 
take to  write  of  the  antiquity  of  the  isle  of  Britain^  and  by 
reading  the  first  section  of  this  book,  it  will  be  also  evident, 
that  it  is  impossible  to  be  a  complete  master  of  the  ancient 
British,  without  a  competent  knowledge  of  the  Irish,  besides 
the  languages  of  Cornwall  and  Bass  Bretagne ;"  for  which 
opinion  he  instances  a  few  words  of  the  most  ordinary  use, 
"  and  so  for  a  great  many  words  which  we  have  neither  leisure 


nor  room  to  take  notice  of  at  present,  nor  indeed  occasion,  m 
regard  they  are  obvious  to  all  observers  in  the  following  book  : 
the  next  thing  to  be  proved  is,  that  those  ancient  Guydhelians 
were  a  colony  of  those  nations  whom  the  Romans  called  Galli, 
or  Celtae,  and  this  will  appear  from  a  comparison  of  both  their 
languages.  I  have  observed  to  you  how  that  may  be  done  in 
the  English  preface,  and  have  no  room  to  insert  here  but  the 
few  examples  following,  where  the  leading  words  are  Celtic, 
collected  out  of  old  Latin  books."  then  follow  eight  and  twenty 
words,  which  he  collected  out  of  old  Latin  books,  and  fancied 
were  Celtic  or  Gallic. 

Such  are  tlie  words,  such  the  matured  judgment  of  Edward 
Luhyd,  concerning  the  most  ancient  names  of  places  in  divers 
parts  of  the  island  of  Britain,  which  names  I  will  now  set 
down  orthographicall)',  as  in  the  days  of  Camden,  and  collate 
with  names  of  the  like  signification  in  the  language  of  E-ri,  lit- 
erally expounded,  not  one  word  of  a  doubtful  or  ambiguous 
meaning  shall  be  noticed,  nor  shall  the  form  of  a  syllable  be 
distorted,  for  the  unworthy  purpose  of  forcing  to  similitude 
figures  that  have  no  family  resemblance  each  to  the  other, 
which  curious  comparison  and  analysis,  I  shall  commence  with 
the  name  of  this  wonderful  island. 

Bri-tain,  Breo-tan,  "  the  land  of  flaming  fires."  You  have 

read  the  many  conjectures  on  the  derivation 
of  the  name  of  this  celebrated  island,  with 
the  repetition  of  none  of  which  can  I  have 
the  cruelty  to  torment  you,  save  that  of  Cam- 
den, who  deduces  the  word  from  the  native 
Brith,  and  the  Grecian  Tania,  the  former 
painted,  the  latter  a  country,  that  is  "  the 
painted  country."  Here  at  the  outset,  Cam- 
den has  betrayed  his  ignorance  in  fancying 
that  the  country  received  its  name  from  the 
Greeks,  it  being  a  fact  indisputable  that  they 
knew  little,  if  any  thing,  more  than  this'name 
for  the  island,  for  hundreds  of  ages  after  the 
Phoenicians  had  discovered  this  land.     In  the 


language  of  tlie  Phoenicians  therefore,  and 
that  only,  must  we  look  for  the  origm  of  the 
name  of  Bri-tain. 

To  decide  arbitrarily  in  a  case,  become,  from  its  remotest  an- 
tiquity, long  since  questionable,  to  say  positively  that  the 
Phoenicians  did  not  add  their  Tan  to  the  vernacular  Brith, 
would  be  to  arrogate  the  office  of  dictator,  an  imputation  to 
which  I  will  not  render  myself  liable,  yet  as  I  feel  myself 
constrained  to  reject  this  solution,  I  also  feel  it  incumbent  on 
me  to  offer  my  reasons  therefor,  which  are  to  be  found  in  the 
ancient  history  of  that  part  of  the  island  to  which  the  name 
had  been  first  applied,  viz.  Cornwall  and  Devon,  and  to  that 

Now  supposing  that  the  Phoenicians,  on  their  entrance  upon 
the  land,  were  struck  with  the  painted  appearance  of  the  na- 
jves,  from  which  they  gave  a  name  to  them  and  the  country, 
I  ask  whether  you  think  they  would  have  used  a  word  of  their 
own  language,  or  of  the  people  of  the  country,  whereby  to 
denote  them  ?  this  question  you  will  resolve  according  to  your 
judgment,  to  aid  and  direct  which  I  shall  take  the  liberty  to 
inform  you,  "  that  history  doth  not  warrant  the  assumption, 
that  the  natives  did  then  paint  their  bodies ;"  though  we  learn 
from  Julius  Csesar,  one  thousand  years  after  the  time  I  now 
speak  of,  that  the  tribes  he  saw  applied  the  juice  of  the  woad 
to  their  skins.  To  prove  with  the  precision  absolutely  re- 
quisite on  this  occasion,  it  must  be  shewn  that  not  only  the 
nations  he  happened  to  be  acquainted  with,  but  those  of 
Dun-mia-nac,  that  is  Cornwall  and  Devon,  yea  the  people  of 
Eri,  and  of  all  the  isles  adjoxning  to  both,  all  being  called 
British  isles,  also  practised  the  custom,  not  of  painting,  but  of 
daubing  their  skins,  very  different  from  painting,  and  as  it  is 
ascertained  for  very  truth  that  such  was  not  the  case,  methinks 
we  must  have  recourse  to  the  language  of  the  people,  whose 
claim  is  on  all  hands  allowed  to  the  latter  part  of  the  com- 
pound, for  the  entire  of  the  name,  the  propriety  of  which  will 
be  best  manifested  by  the  following  facts. 

If  you  have  hitherto  imagined  that  the  Phoenicians  applied 


the  name  in  the  first  instance  to  the  entire  island,  or  that  the 
many  tribes  thereon,  knew  themselves  even  in  the  time  of 
Julius  Caisai',  by  the  name  of  Britons,  you  have  assuredly 
been  in  error ;  nay,  the  Phoenicians  were  acquainted  only  with 
the  southern  coast  when  they  imposed  the  name  on  the  district 
which  they  occupied,  colonized,  the  bowels  of  which  they  ex- 
plored, from  whence  they  exported  a  vast  quantity  of  lead  and 
tin,  wherewith  they  supplied  the  nations  of  the  east,  from 
which  district  the  name  spread,  till  in  process  of  time  it  ex- 
tended north  to  Ailb-bin,  and  at  length  pervaded  the  whole 
island,  as  heretofore  explained  in  Germania. 

Now  it  is  a  fact  indisputable,  that  on  all  the  head  lands  of 
Gael-ag,  that  is  Ard-Ib-er,  Fir-olj  and  Ard-na-gael,  and  all  the 
proniontoiies  looking  over  that  ocean,  it  was  the  custom  to 
kindle  fires,  and  keep  them  blazing  during  the  darkness  of  the 
night,  to  be  the  means  of  directing  the  seafaring  ones,  and  of 
protecting  them  from  the  perils  of  the  vast  deep,  which  parti- 
cular kind  of  fire  is  called  in  the  language  of  Phoenicia,  Breo, 
for  which  reason  all  the  head  lands  of  Gael-ag  were  called 
Breo-cean,  in  like  manner,  on  the  part  of  this  island,  opposite 
to  Gael-ag,  it  being  necessary  to  observe  the  same  salutary 
custom,  for  the  purpose  of  guiding  the  mariners  of  Phoenicia 
on  their  way  from  Breo-cean  to  the  land  of  their  new  and  pro- 
fitable acquisition,  they  gave  it  the  name  of  Breo-tan,  which  in 
their  tongue  signifies  "  the  land  of  flaming  fires,"  that  is  that 
kind  of  fire  of  which  the  flame  or  blaze  is  seen  at  a  great  dis- 
tance, by  the  light  of  which  they  were  directed  in  their  pas- 
sage between  Breo-ccean  and  Breo-tan. 

That  the  general  name  of  the  promontories  of  Gaelag  was 
Breo-ccean  is  unquestionable,  which  Gaelag  is  the  modern 
Galicia,  and  which  Breo-ccean  is  the  corrupted  Brigantia  of 
the  Romans,  accordingly  wc  learn  from  Orosius,  who  wrote 
1400  years  ago,  speaking  of  times  long  before  his  days,  says 
that,  "  a  high  tower  at  Brigantia  in  Galicia,  of  admirable  struc- 
ture, was  built,  ad  speculam  Britanige,"  and  as  fires  were  of 
a  date  much  more  ancient  than  towers,  it  is  clear  this  light 
house,  of  which  Orosius  speaks,  was  an  improvement  on  the 


more  ancient,  consequently  more  rude  method  of  feeding  fires 
in  the  open  air,  whilst  the  precise  expression,  *'  ad  speculam 
Britaniae,"  distinctly  shews,  that  these  night  fires,  whether  in  a 
tower,  or  on  the  beacons,  had  reference  only  to  Breo-tan  ;  if 
confirmation  were  farther  necessary,  I  would  refer  to  the  illus- 
trious Alfred,  a  name  immortalized,  did  not  the  wearer  drive  a 
foreign  tyrant  from  his  land  ?  he  was  vaUant,  he  was  good,  and 
not  only  good  but  valiant.  Eri,  my  beloved,  thou  instructed  this 
worthy  of  ancient  days,  when  thou  hadst  the  gift  of  instruction 
before  thy  children  became  slaves  ;  thou  taught  this  glorious 
Sasson  the  use  of  letters,  which  he  applied  to  the  attainment 
of  knowledge,  whereby  he  was  enabled  to  translate  into  his 
own  tongue  the  writing  of  Orosius,  of  whom  I  have  just  made 
mention,  as  also  writings  of  Bede,  in  his  version  of  which  he 
hath  translated  the  Latin  Bri-tain-ia  into  Breo-tene.  Alfred 
was  a  scholar,  he  wrote  with  care,  that  his  writings  may  make 
addition  to  his  renown  and  glory. 

I  take  the  liberty  of  re-asserting,  that  the  name  of  the  is- 
land is  Breo-tan,  both  PhcEnician  words,  the  import  already 
explained,  and  that  from  the  Phoenicians,  the  word  passed  to 
the  Greeks,  who  altered  it  somewhat,  to  shape  it  according 
to  their  idea  of  taste,  to  Bret-tania,  Bre-tania,  Bret-tannike, 
Bre-tanike,  and  even  Pret-tannike ;  from  the  Greeks  the 
Romans  heard  of  the  name,  which  they  called  Bri-tannia,  yet 
so  ignorant  were  they  of  the  country,  that  they  knew  not,  till 
the  time  of  Agricola,  that  it  was  an  island,  though  even  the 
Greel-s,  who  had  but  a  very  imperfect  knowledge  thereof 
from  the  Phoenicians,  were  certainly  acquainted  with  that  fact 
in  the  time  of  Onomacritus,  500  years  before  Christ,  in  both 
which  dialects  of  the  ancient  Scythian  tongue  you  perceive  no 
such  great  alteration  hath  been  made,  as  to  obscure  the  more 
primitive  Phcenician  name  of  the  island,  which  hath  been  ad- 
mirably preserved  in  its  present  form  of  Bri-tain,  through  so 
many  ages  and  vicissitudes. 

Should  it  be  asked,  what  proof  is  to  be  had  of  the  value 
of  the  Greek  Bre,  or  the  Roman  Bri  ?  I  reply,  both  are  cor- 
ruptions of  the   Phoenician  Breo ;  that  very  many  ancient 


Scythian  words,  preserved  in  the  Phoenician,  Hebrew,  and 
Ib-er-ian  dialects,  have  become  obsolete  in  the  dialects  of 
Greece  and  Rome,  or  so  cut  up  as  to  be  barely  recognizable ; 
and  that  this  particular  term  for  blazing  fire  may  have  been 
actually  unknown  to  Greeks  and  Romans,  though  in  common 
use  with  maritime  people,  such  as  the  Phoenicians  and  Ibe- 
rians of  Gallicia,  the  word  never  being  applied  to  any  fire 
but  flame,  and  that  appropriated  chiefly  to  the  direction  of 
sea-faring  people.  Amongst  the  Romans,  I  know  riot  of  any 
simple,  or  part  of  any  compound,  that  gives  room  to  suppose 
that  people  had  such  a  word  in  use,  though  the  term  is  disco- 
verable in  the  Grecian  dialect ;  in  the  Eolic  Bro-don,  a  rose, 
from  its  flaming  red  colour,  of  which  in  common  parlance 
we  yet  say  as  red  as  a  rose ;  in  Bro-tos,  Bro-too,  Bro-toeis, 
all  denoting  blood,  the  most  deep  of  all  colours,  as  flariie  is  of 
all  fires ;  Brazo,  to  be  ardent ;  but  away  with  such  critical 
trifling.  The  genuine  etymology  of  the  name  is  to  be  ex- 
plained on  grand  and  general  principles,  which  are  laid  in  the 
necessity  that  gave  birth  to  the  imposition  thereof;  which 
necessity  was  the  night  fires  to  guide  the  Phoenician  mariners 
from  Breo-ccean,  even  unto  Breo-tan,  that  is  from  Spain  to 
Britain  ;  and  that  the  word  is  purely  Phoenician,  will  more 
fully  appear  from  the  fact  about  to  be  demonstrated,  that  all 
the  ancient  names  of  remarkable  places  in  Dun-mia  nac,  that 
is  Cornwall  and  Devon,  are  Phoenician,  a  fact  well  known  to 
Edward  Luhyd,  though  he  hath  erred  egregiously  in  his  man- 
ner of  accounting  for  it,  as  shall  be  fully  and  satisfactorily 

Dun-mia-nac  "  Hills  of  mines."     This  was  the  name 

given  by  the  Phoenicians  to  Cornwall 
and  Devon,  from  the  great  quantity 
of  lead  and  tin  found  in  this  district, 
which,  as  before-mentioned,  was  the 
part  of  the  island  to  which  the  name 
of  Breo-tan  had  originally  been  ap- 
pUed  by  that  people 
Corn-wall  Carna-gael,  "  the  cam  or  altars  of  the 


Gaal  or  tribe ;"  such  are  the  words  in 
the  Phoenician  tongue,  and  such  the 
EngUsh  interpretation  thereof.  In 
the  dialect  of  Greece,  Cama-gael 
would  be  Cherma-gal-oos ;  now  to 
shew  that  some  original  words  in  the 
Scythian  language  are  supposed  not 
to  be  known  by  the  Romans,  and  are 
compounded  in  a  manner  that  the 
primitive  meaning  is  lost  sight  of, 
where  tliink  you  to  seek  for  this  word 
Carn  in  the  Latin  dialect  of  the  Scy- 
thian tongue  ?  You  will  suppose,  till 
you  have  farther  information,  that  it 
is  not  to  be  found  in  Carn-ifex,  the 
common  translation  of  which  is  an 
"  executioner,"  a  "  rogue,"  a  "  male- 
factor," Carn-ificina,  "  a  place  where 
malefactors  are  executed,"  Carn-ificor, 
"  to  be  cruelly  killed,  to  be  executed." 
According  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
schools,  you  have  been  told  that  all 
these  words  have  the  same  root  as 
Car-narius,  a  butcher,  derived  from 
Caro,  flesh  meat,  &c.,  and  under  this 
impression,  if  you  was  called  on  to 
render  the  Iberian  Camagael,  the 
Greek  Cherma-gal-oos  into  the  Roman 
tongue,  you  could  only  do  it  by  the 
use  of  a  periphrasis,  thus,  "  Acervus 
parvorum  lapidum  Glo-tis;"  but  I 
would  say,  Carna  Glolis.  A  Cam  is 
a  heap  of  small  stones,  on  which  an 
inferior  order  of  priesthood,  from 
thence  called  Cameach,  used  to  offi- 
ciate ;  they  are  also  found  on  the 
summits  of  hills  whereon  Breo,  that 


is  fire,  blazed  for  beacons,  as  signals ; 
but  they  were   also  the   only  heaps 
raised  over  those,  who  came  by  a  vio- 
lent or  sudden  death  ;  and  in  Ireland 
the  custom  is  practised  to  this  day  of 
throwing  a  small  stone  on  passing  the 
place,  where  one  had  been  accidentally 
killed,  which  was  considered  so  great 
an  evil,  that  a  more  bitter  malediction 
could  not  be  uttered  than 
"  Bi  em  Cam  do  lead, 
"  May  the  Carn  be  thy  bed," 
This  did  not  take  its  rise  in   Eri,  from  any  turpitude  at- 
tached to  the  mode  of  interment;  but  not  so  amongst  the 
Romans,  as  we  learn  from  the  epitaph  ascribed  to  Virgil  on  a 
noted  robber  called  Balista, 

"  Monte  sub  hoc  lapidum  tegitur  Balista  sepultus 
"  Nocte,  die,  tutum  carpe  viator  iter." — 
Which  mountain  of  stones  was  nothing  else  than  a  Scythian 
Carn,  which  amongst  the  Romans,  as  collected  from  these 
lines,  was  the  place  of  execution,  and  interment  of  malefac- 
tors, for  which  reason  an  executioner,  and  a  robber,  were 
both  called  Carn-ifex,  and  a  place  where  malefactors  were  ex- 
ecuted, was  called  Carn-ificina,  not  from  Car-o,  flesh,  but  be- 
cause the  Carn  was  the  place  of  their  interment,  as  well  as 
execution.  These  Cams  abound  on  all  the  lands  of  Breo-tan 
colonized  by  the  Scythians,  and  in  Eri  they  are  infinite.  That 
this  district  of  Breo-tan  or  Dun-mia-nac,  had  the  first  part  of 
its  name  from  these  altars  and  beacons  is  certain,  not  from 
Cornu,  the  Roman  horn  ;  and  that  the  second  part  of  the 
compound  is  Gaal,  a  tribe  or  kindred,  shall  be  shewn  when  I 
come  to  treat  of  Wales.  What  an  absurdity  to  deduce  its 
name  from  Cornu  Wallite,  a  composition  of  Latin  and  Sasson ; 
it  had  the  name  of  Carna  Gael  500  years  before  the  name  of 
Rome  was,  and  1600  years  before  such  a  word  as  Wales  had 
been  heard  of.     No,  no ;  the  word  is  purely  Phoenician ;  in 


that  language  alone,  can  the  primitive  name  be  found,  there- 
fore can  it  be  explained  by  the  language  of  Eri  only. 
Cassiterides  Casan-tur-eider,    "  a  path  between  the 

lands,"  as  shall  receive  a  full  expla- 
nation in  a  note  on  the  Chronicles  of 
Gaelag,  in  the  proper  place 
Sciily  Scaolead,     pron.     Scilly,     "  separated, 

torn  asunder.'"  These  rocks  and  is- 
lands had  once  been  attached  to  the 
main,  till  the  year  1034  before 
Christ,  when  the  sea  tore  a  passage 
through  and  through,  as  particularly 
related  in  the  Chronicles  of  Gaelag ; 
the  same  name  for  the  same  reason 
was  by  the  Phoenicians  applied  to  the 
islands  of  Ceylon  and  Sicily,  subjected 
to  their  present  corruptions ;  and  by 
us  of  Eri,  the  name  is  given  to  many 
small  islands  near  the  shore,  supposed 
to  have  been  violently  separated  from 
the  main  land 
Tin  Stan.  That  Stan  was  the  original  word 

for  this  metal,  appears  from  the  pre- 
servation of  the   term  in   Stanaries, 
and  in  the  Roman  Stannus. 
Having  explained  the   signification  of  these  most  ancient 
names  by  the  Phoenician  language,  I  shall  follow  Camden,  and 
his  commentator  Gibson,  giving  their  conjectures  of  the  names 
of  places  in  Cornwall  and  Devon,  which  I  shall  collate  with 
my  intimate  knowledge  thereof,  leaving  the  decision  to  your 

Belerium  Balerig,  pron.  Baleri,  "  the  place  of  the 

Brians  or  Iberians."  Diodorus  Sicu- 
lus,  in  the  2d  chapter  of  his  5th 
Book  says,  "  they  who  inhabit  the 
British  promontory  of  Belerium,  by 


"'    •  '  reason   of   their  converse  with  mer- 

chants, are  more  civilized  and  cour- 
teous to  strangers,  than  the  rest  are. 
These  are  the  people  who  make  the 
tin,  which,  with  a  great  deal  of  care 
and  labour,  they  dig  out  of  the 
ground,"  &c.  Now  it  appears  from 
the  Chronicles  of  the  tribe  that  colo- 
nized Eri,  and  also  Breo-tan,  that 
they  were  expert  miners  in  Iberia 
near  Caucasus ;  that  they  assisted  the 
Phoenicians  in  their  mines  in  Spdn, 
and  it  is  also  evident  from  Ezekiel, 
that  they  were  skilled  in  the  art,  to 
which  let  me  add,  Iber  and  miner  are 
synonimous  in  the  Hebrew  dialect  of 
the  Scythian  language. 
Let  us  now  attend  Camden. 

"  The  Britons  call  the  utmost  promontory  Pen-rhin-guaed," 
1.  e.  "  the  promontory  of  blood,"  but  these  are  only  the  bards 
and  poets,  for  the  British  historians  call  it  Pen-with,  that  is, 
"  a  promontory  to  the  left ;"  from  hence  the  whole  hundred  is 
called  "  Pen-with,"  and  by  the  inhabitants  in  their  language 
"  Pen-von-las,""  "  the  end  of  the  earth,"  in  which  sense  the 
English  term  it  the  Land's  End,  as  being  the  farthest  part  of 
the  island  westward.  Now  if  this  promontory  was  ever  called 
Helen-um,  it  would  be  from  Pen-elin,  which  in  British  signi- 
fies an  elbow  ;  it  cannot  therefore  be  any  absurdity  to  imagine, 
that  this  winding  shore  should  be  called  in  the  same  sense  by 
the  Britons,  Pen-elin,  from  whence  came  the  Latin  Helen-um. 
The  neighbours  will  tell  you  too,  from  a  certain  old  tradition, 
that  the  land  there  drowned  by  the  incursions  of  the  sea,  was 
called  Lionesse.''  So  far  Camden.  Here  let  me  make  an  ob- 
servation, which  will  assist  you  in  the  following  analysis,  and 
afford  proof  positive  of  the  total  difference  between  the  Irish 
and  British  languages ;  that  of  many  words  which  form  very 
ancient  names  of  places,  one  part  of  the  composition  is  Irish, 


the  other  British,  and  that  nearly  all  the  words  have  suffered 
some  alterations  from  the  primitive  Phoenician  language,  con- 
formable to  the  British  tongue,  which  primitive  term,  with 
the  mutation  by  the  Britons,  and  the  translation  into  the  Sas- 
son  language,  I  shall  now  set  before  you. 
Pen-rhin-guaed  Binn-rinn,  "  the  summit  of  the  cape  or 

promontory;"  guaed  is  British,  the 
term  therefore  is  compounded  of  two 
Phoenician,  and  one  British  word, 
the  two  former  only  of  which  I  recog- 
nize in  the  language  of  Eri 
Pen-with  Bun-bith,  "  the  end  of  the  world."     In 

no  language  that  Europeans  ever 
heard  of,  is  «  With"  «  the  left."  The 
Phoenicians,  when  they  gave  the  name 
of  Bun-bith  to  this  place,  did  really 
suppose  that  it  was  one  extremity  of 
the  earth 
Pen-von-las  Bun-fonn-las,  "  the  light  at  the  extre- 

mity of  the  land,"  that  is  the  last 
light  of  all  Breo-tan.  What  do  these 
names  shew,  but  that  Pen-with  and 
Pen-von-las,  were  in  fact  one  and  the 
same,  precisely  as  the  ^  Sassons  now 
say,  "  the  last  light  house  at  the 
Land's  End" 
Pen-Elin  Binn-uilean,  "  the  cape  at  the  elbow  ;" 

as  the  Greeks  would  say,  Boun-os- 
Olen-es,  which,  by  the  omission  of 
the  terminations,  and  standing  in 
their  original  shape,  would  be  Bouu- 
Olen,  formed  on  Binn-Uilean  of  Phoe- 
nicia and  Eri 
Lionesse  Il-inis-c,  "  it  is  a  large  island."     From 

Camden  you  must  suppose  that  the 
place  had  its  name  from  its  being 
drowned  in  the  sea ;  but  his  better 






informed  commentator  Gibson,  notes, 
'*  There  is  an  island  lies  before  the 
promontory,  which  gave  occasion  to 
the  name" 
Bort-Inis,  '*  the  entrance  of  the  island" 
Binn-sean-ce,     **  the    old  head   land," 
which  Camden  was  told  meant  "  the 
head  of  the  sand."     I  marvel  he  did 
not  say  sands,  quasi  Seance,  and  argue 
that  it  was  named  by  the  Sassons 
Dun-s-ol,   "  the  great  fastness."      Cam- 
den says  it  was  called  by  the  inhabit- 
ants Careg  Cowse,  which  he  translates 
"  Hoary  rock,'"  a  term  compounded 
of  a  Phoenician  and  a  British  word  ; 
Coraig  being  the  Phoenician  word  for 
a  rock  ;  Cowse,  I  know  not 
Gaoi-dail-cean,    pronounced   "  Gu-dol- 
caun."     It  is  not  easy  to  render  this 
compound  into  English,  the  significa- 
tion of  which  is  "  That  its  head  hath 
a  deceitful  appearance,  varying  accord- 
ing  to    the    position   in   which   it    is 
viewed."     Samnies  asserts  that  Godo- 
lonac  is   Phoenician  for  tin,   Stan  is 
Phoenician  for  tin,  very  different  from" 
Lo-bol,  "  hole  of  water,"  the   term  Lo 
is  frequently  applied  to  lakes,  occa- 
sioned by  the  communication  subter- 
raneously  of   waters  of  the    sea,  or 
rivers  therewith. 
From  Loopole,  Camden  proceeds  thus,  "  At  a  little  distance 
from  thence,  there  is  a  military  camp,  (they  call  it  earth,)  the 
Peninsula  itself  in  which  it  stands  is  called  Meneg ;  this  earth 
is  called   by  mariners,    "  Lizard,"  on  which  Gibson   notes, 
"  Going  along  the  sea  coast,  we  come  to  the  Chersonne,  called 



Menag,  which  is  also  the  earth,"  in  it  (a  monument  mentioned 
by  Camben,)  ^^  late  curious  writer  (the  aforesaid  Sammes,) 
will  have  of  a  Phoenician  original,  the  first  from  Mene-og,  sig- 
nifying "  Kept  in  by  the  sea ;"  the  second  from  Arith,  a 
common  name  for  lakes  ;  now  pray  mark  how  much  more 
satisfactorily  all  these  terms  are  explained  by  their  native  lan- 

Men-og  «A  little  mouth  or  entrance,"   which 

little  mouth  extended  from  the  upper 
stream  of  a  water,  now  called  the 
passage,  to  another  river  that  runs 
into  the  Lowe  ;  from  the  narrowness 
of  that  entrance  doth  the  Peninsula 
derive  its  name. 
Lizard  Lios-ard,  "  the  high  fort ;"  and  such  is  the 

ancient  name  of  this  place,  there  being 
no   more    common    name  for  strong 
places  at  this  day  in  Eri  than  Lios, 
which  is  distinguishable  from  all  other 
kinds  of  fortresses  by  its  being  com- 
posed   of    stones.       Sammes    never 
thought  that  the  Phoenician  language 
would  rise  up  against  his  evidence, 
therefore  he  amused   his  readers  with 
his  absurdities.       Mene-og,  "kept  in 
by  the  sea,"  what  nonsense  !  you  may 
rely  on   it,   the  men  of  ancient  days 
did  not  apply  names  to  places  without 
good  and  solid  reasons,  according  to 
Sammes,  the  world   should  be  called 
Camden  proceeds,  "  The  shore  shooting  in  again  from  this 
Meneg,  makes  a  bay  full  of  winding  Creeks   receiving  the 
little  river  Vale,  upon  which  somewhat  inward  flourished  an 
old  town  called  Vol-uba,  by  Ptolemy  ;   but  it  has  long  since 
either  lost  its  being  or  name,  which  yet  does  still  in  some  mea- 
sure remain  in  Volemouth  or  Falmouth  :  at  the  very  entrance 


there  is  an  high  uneven  rock,  called  by  the  inhabitants  Crage, 
and  each  side  of  it  is  fortified  with  its  castle,  that  on  the  east 
called  St.  Maudits,  on  the  west  Pen-dinas ;  but  the  haven 
itself  is  called  by  Ptolemy,  Cenionis  ostium,  without  all  dis- 
pute from  the  British  Geneu,  signifying  a  mouth  and  an  en- 
trance, which  Tre-genie,  a  town  hard  by  confirms,  as  much  as 
one  should  say,  "  A  little  town  at  the  mouth  ;"  on  which  last 
Gibson  thus  remarks,  in  the  interpretation  by  Camden  of 
Tregony  "  A  little  town  at  the  mouth  ;"  there  is  no  occasion 
for  the  diminutive,  which  is  the  rather  probable,  because  ac- 
cording to  Sammes,  Tira,  and  by  contraction  Tra  in  the  Phoe- 
nician, is  so  far  from  signifying  any  inconsiderable  place,  that 
it  denotes  "  a  fort  or  castle."  Let  me  now  explain  these  words 
in  their  native  tongue. 

Vale  Beal,  pronounced  Viol,   "  the  mouth  ;" 

the  water  takes  its  name  from    the 
Vol-uba  Beil-ub-e,   pronounced  Veil-ube,   "  the 

point  of  the  mouth."  Volemouth  and 
Falmouth  of  the  Sassons,  being  their 
addition  to  the  synonimous  Phoenician 
word  Beal.  Have  not  the  Sassons 
made  the  same  havoc  at  Aber  Moud- 
wy,  which  they  have  changed  to  Bar- 
mouth, and  which  no  doubt  some 
future  Sasson  etymologist  will  derive 
from  Bar,  to  close,  shut  up,  and 
"  Mouth  ;"  and  should  the  case  so 
happen  that  the  mouth  of  the  river  be 
closed  by  an  accumulation  of  sands, 
which  is  more  that  probable,  this  ety- 
mology will  be  confirmed  by  the  evi- 
dence of  the  fact. 
Crage  Coraig,  "  a  large  rock" 

Pen-dinas  Binn-d-inis,  "  The  summit  of  the  land 

nearly  or    entirely  encompassed    by 
water."    The  true  Phoenician  term  for 


an  island  is  Oilean,  i.  e.  one  distinct  oil, 
or  isle ;  and  though  Inis  was  also  the 
name  of  an  island,  it  is  often  taken  in 
a  larger  sense,  and  applied  to  lands  on 
the  margin  of  waters,  in  great  part 
begirt  thereby 
Tre-gonie  Tir-cean-e,    "  it   is   the    head   of    the 

land ;"  how  it  could  be  tortured  to 
mean  "  A  little  town  at  the  mouth," 
would  astonish,  if  every  day's  experi- 
ence did  not  prove  the  ignorance  of 
man  ;  why,  the  place  stands  nearly  at 
the  head  of  the  water  instead  of  the 
mouth,  and  so  far  fiom  Tira  and  its 
contraction  Tra,  meaning  a  fort  or 
castle,  it  hath  the  much  more  compre- 
hensive signification  of  land  ;  and  here 
let  me  notice  once  for  all,  that  every 
place  in  Dun-mia-nac,  the  first  syllable 
of  which  is  Tre,  signifies,  if  on  the  coast 
Traigh,  pronounced  Tra,  and  if  in 
the  interior  Tir,  the  former  being  the 
Phoenician  for  sea  shore,  covered  over 
at  high  water,  visible  on  the  ebb,  as 
Traighleigh,  Tra-mor,  &c.  &c.  the 
latter  "  Land"  as  in  Eri,  Tir  Conal, 
Tir  Eoghan,  &c.  &c. 
Sal-tesse  Salt-esse,  "  the  highest  point  for  ships." 

Camden  having  ran  along  the  southern  coast,  turns  to  the 
northern  shore  of  Cornwall,  and  notices  the  river 
Al-an,  alias  Camb-     Al-aman,  and  Cam  Al-aman,  pronoun- 

alan,    or   Camel,         ced  Alaun,  and  Cam  Al-aun,  "  the 

from  it  winding         great    river,"     "  the     great    crooked 

channel  river." 

Leaving  Camden,  and  following  his   commentator,  let  us 
return  to  the  Land's  End,  where  on  a  httle  island  so  much  dis- 



tant  from  the  land,  that  a  boat  with  oars  may  pass  between, 

Caren  an  Peale,  Caren  signifies  "  a  rock/"'  and  Pele  "  a 
commonly  called  spire."  I  trust  I  shall  be  able  to  give 
"  The  armed  a  much  more  satisfactory  solution  of 
knight,"  the  name. 

Caren  an  Peal-e  Gorad  an  Beilte,  *'  the  gii-ded  knight." 

Now  first  I  take  leave  to  assert  that 
Caren  doth  not  signify  a  rock,   the 
Irish  and  Phoenician  word  for  which 
is  Coraig,  corrupted  a  little  by  the 
Britons  to  Crage,  as    Camden    hath 
before  said,  nor  doth  Pele  signify  a 
spire ;    but  if    these   two  words   did 
mean  rock  and  spire,  I  am  at  a  loss  to 
discover  how  they  could  be  hammered 
into  an  armed  knight.      What  is  the 
simple  fact  ?  there  is  in  a  small  island 
nigh  unto  the  Land's  End  a  great  rock, 
which   bore   the   resemblance   of  an 
armed  knight ;  which  rock  from  this 
similitude  was  called  by  certain  words 
which    are     to    describe   an    armed 
knight,  not  a  spired  rock,   and   the 
very  words   in    the    Phoenician  lan- 
guage,   conveying   the    idea  of   the 
armed  knight,  are  Coraid  an  Beilte,  of 
which  the  British  corruption  is  Caren 
an  Peale. 
Still  to  attend  the  commentator,   he  saith,  "  Mr.  Camden 
mentions  a  tradition  that  the  promontory  stretched  itself  far- 
ther  towards  the  west,  to  which    these   limits  may  perliaps 
contribute  something  of  probability,  that  about  the  middle 
way  between  Land's  End  and  Scilly,  there  are  rocks  called  in 


Lethas,  by  the  Eng-     Litha,  stones 
lish  Seven  Stones 

And  the  Cornish  call  that  place  withiii 
the  stones 
Tregva,  i.  e.  a  dwell-   Traig-ba,  "  it  was  strand." 

Having  noticed  a  sufficient  number  of  promontories,  lands, 
and  waters,  on  the  coast,  let  me  mention  a  few  in  the  interior, 
of  which  I  will  give  the  mere  literal  etymology. 
Les-keard,  Lios-ce-ard,  "  the  fort  on  the  high  land" 

Carac-on,  Coraig-ong,  "  the  fire  rock" 

Hur-les,  Ur-las,  "  the  illumination  of  fire" 

Kil-mair  Coil-mar,  "  the  great  wood.'" 

In  fine,  in  every  part  of  the  district  of  Breo-tain,  occupied 
by  the  Scythians  of  Phoenicia,  Gallicia,  and  Biscay,  in  all 
names  a  component  part  of  which  is  the  British  "  Pen,"  it  is  a 
mutation  of  the  Iberian  or  Phoenician  "  Binn,"  a  summit ;  the 
British  "  Rhin"  is  the  Iberian  or  Phoenician  "  Rinn,"  a  cape 
or  promontory  ;  the  British  Crag  is  the  Iberian  or  Phoenician 
"  Coraig,"  a  rock,  the  words  Tre  and  Tir  being  heretofore 
observed  upon,  now  let  us  pass  to  Devon,  the  other  district  of 
Dunmianac,  by  the  waters  of 
Ta-mar,  Ta-moir,  "  it  is  a  sea" 

Deh-shire,  so  this  dis-  Dun,  a  "hill,"  "  the  land  of  hilh" 
trict  was  called  even 
in  the  days  of  Cam- 
Teave,  Tarn,  pronounced  Tave,  "  still,  quiet," 

a  name  given  to  this  stream  which 
runs  into  the  Ta-mar,  here  it  is  called 
Teave,  according  to  its  correct  I  berian 
pronunciation  ;  another  river  called  by 
the  same  name,  for  the  same  reason, 
is  called  Thame  by  the  Sassons,  ac- 
cording to  the  value  of  its  letters  in 
the  estimation  of  that  people 



Dert,whicli  Mr. Cam-  Doita, 
den  says  falls  very 
steep    and    strong, 
flowing    by     dirty 
places ! ! 

poured  out  with  violence" 


Twy-ford-ton,  now 
Camden  says  had 
its  name  from  two 
fords  through  the 

Cathair-uisge,  pronounced  Caar-uisge, 
"  the  city  of  the  water."  This  city  is 
latinized  into  Ex-onia  by  the  moderns, 
it  was  called  by  the  Romans  Isca 
Dunmoniorum,  and  Sassonized  into 
Ex-eter,  the  Phoenician  and  primitive 
name  of  the  place  is  Cathair-uisge. 
literally  "  the  city  of  the  water," 
Cathair  being  the  Scythian  word  for 
a  city,  altered  into  Cai*,  and  Kir,  Ker, 
and  a  variety  of  similar  contractions  in 
the  nations  of  Asia,  which  originated 
from  the  seat  of  the  chief  being  in  the 
place  ;  and  Uisge  is  the  original  word 
for  running  water,  altered  by  the 
Romans  to  Osca  and  Isca,  by  the 
Greeks  to  Iske,  by  the  Germans  to 
Ax,  Ex,  Ox,  Ux  ;  it  may  be  thought 
extraordinary  that  a  river  should  be 
called  simply  "  water,"  but  such  was 
a  common  practice  with  the  Scythians, 
when  the  water  so  named  was  the 
greatest  river  in  the  country,  it  was 
done  par  excellence,  neither  had  this 
place  any  other  name  but  the  city  on 
the  water. 

Do-foras-dun,  is  in  the  Phoeniciaa 
tongue  what  the  Sassons  call  Two- 



Pol-ti-more,  Bol-ti-mor,    "  the    house  of    the  great 

hole."  This  is  the  name  of  a  placenigh 
whereunto  the  river  Columb  runs  into 
the  Isc,  whereby  was  formed  a  great 
hole  in  the  earth  beneath,  the  spot 
was  called  Bol-mor,  which  gives  its 
name  to  the  adjoining  land,  whereon 
a  house  being  built,  it  had  the  name 
in  the  Phoenician  language  of  Bol- 

Sea-ton,  Moir-i-dun,  "  the  hill  of  defence  on  the 

sea.""  On  this  original  word  "  Dun," 
the  Romans  formed  their  Dun-um, 
the  Germanni  converted  into  their 
"  Town.'"  Standing  alone,  Dun  means 
an  ascent,  but  when  it  is  part  of  a 
compound,  it  signifies  generally  a 
place  of  defence  ;  sea  town  is  a  precise 
translation  from  the  original  Phoeni- 
cian words  into  the  Sasson  or  EngUsh 

Ax-minster,  iJisge,   here  we  have  the  original  Uisge 

Ax-mouth,  converted  into  the  Sasson  Ax,   with 

the  additions  of  their  Minster  and 
Mouth,  the  river  not  named,  though 
if  it  had  a  specification,  it  is  now  lost, 
supplied  by  that  of  Otterwy,  a  com- 
pound of  the  Sasson  Otter,  and  the 
British  Wy,  a  river 
Having  arrived  at  the  utmost  limit  of  Dun-mianac,  eastward 

on  the  ocean,   let  us  attend   Camden  on  the  north,  the  first 

place  1  shall  notice  is 

Taw,  Taoi,  "  winding,"  from  which  course  the 

river  had  its  name 

Ken-uith,  Can-iath,  "  the  head  of  the  land ;"  tlie 

name  of  an  high  land  on  the  Severn, 


where    a  castle   was  built  in  ancient 
days,  called  Cais-lean,  Cean-iath 
Taking  leave  of  Camden,   I  shall  now  turn  to  his  more  in- 
structive annotator. 

Bren-toiT,anamesig-  Certainly  the  place  is  high  and  rocky, 
nifying,  saith  Gib-  and  it  is  a  famous  sea  mark,  but  the 
son, "a high  rocky  name  Breo-an-ter,  from  pron.  Brontor, 
plain;"  and  adds,  signifies,  "  the  illuminated  tower,"  and 
it  is  a  famous  sea  denotes  that  the  Breo,  as  explained, 
mark.  here  confined  in  a  tower. 

Avon  A  man,    "a   river,"    but   the  word   is 

spelled  Aune,  (the  modern  pronuncia- 
tion of  the  word)  in  Mordeus's  chart, 
Aman  is  the  primitive  word  on  which 
the  Romans  formed  their  Amn-is,  and 
though  we  of  Eri  say  Aune,  it  ought 
by  orthography  to  be  pronounced 
Avon-as  by  the  Britons  at  this  day, 
here  too  we  have  a  river  without  a  spe- 
cific name,  which  hath  been  lost,  if 
ever  applied. 
Rin-more  Rinn-mor,    "  the   great  cape    or     pro- 

Clyst,  Cliste,  *'  swift"  the  name  of  a  river  of 

uncommon  rapidity. 
Such  are  the  most  ancient  names  in  Breotan  or  Dun-mianac, 
of  which  I  have  set  before  you  those  used  in  Camden's  time, 
with  his  suppositions,  and  also  the  original  words  in  the 
Phoenician  lap^^uage,  in  the  dialect  of  Eri  at  this  day,  with  the 
Etymology  ti lereof  in  the  English  language,  and  now,  with  your 
leave,  I  will  conduct  you  to  the  north  of  the  Severn,  to  the  land 
of  the  Silures,  whose  Scythian  origin  I  mean  to  demonstrate  by 
language  also. 

The  Phoenicians  and  Iber-ians  having  in  process  of  time 
filled  Dun-mianac,  a  tribe  moved  after  the  manner  of  their 
race,  and  emigrating  to  the  other  side  of  the  Severn  sea,  seated 
themselves  amongst   the   aborigines    of    that  quarter,    and 


established  their  influence  in  the  district,  called  from  them  the 

land  of  the  Silures,  comprehending  the    present  Glamorgan, 

Monmouth,  Brecon,  Hereford,  and  Radnor,  of  which  in  their 

order,  but  first  of  the  tribe 

Silures  Sul-ur-eis,  "  the  tribe  of  the  sun  and  fire." 

Whether  this  tribe  had,  or  had  not 
taken  their  departure  from  their  breth- 
ren of  Dun-mianac,  before  the  intro- 
duction of  what  is  called  Druid-ism,  it 
is  clear  the  Sal-ur-eis  neither  embraced 
the  ancient  religion  of  the  Britons, 
nor  adopted  Druidism,  a  novel  fancy 
of  the  Phoenicians,  and  as  proof  of 
their  rejection  of  the  one  and  the 
other,  they  called  themselves  by  a 
specific  name,  importing  their  ad- 
herence to  tlie  primitive  ideas  of  their 
forefathers,  as  we  learn  from  Tacitus, 
who  says,  "  the  soldiers  of  the  Ordo- 
vices,  and  of  the  Silures,  inflamed 
with  the  speeches  of  Caractacus,  bound 
themselves  by  vows  after  their  res- 
pective religions,  that  neither  wounds 
nor  weapons  should  make  them  yield." 
The  Ordovices  were  aborgines  and 
Druids,  the  Sul-ur-eis  were  Scythian 
emigrants  and  fire  worshippers. 

Gwlad-mor-gan,  of  Glas-moir-cean,  "  the  head  of  the  green 
the  Britons.  sea."  You  will  take  notice  that  the  lands 

Gla-mor-gan,  of  the  of  the  Sul-ur-eis,  extended  on  the  waters 
Sassons.  of  the  Severn  from  the  entrance  therein 

of  the  Wye  eastward,  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Taoi  west,  therefore  was  the  name 
of  Glas— moir-cean  applied  from  the 
point  whereat  their  territory  com- 
menced eastward,  should  it  be  criti- 
cally ol^ected,  that  the  term  Glas  is 


an  unnecessary  expletive,  I  reply  that 
in  this  particular   instance,  the  word 
hath  been  added  with  propriety,  and 
is  a  proof  of  the  extreme  precision  of 
these  ancients   in  the  names  they  at- 
tached to  places,  here  they  meant  to 
distinguish  the  waters  they  considered 
sea,  from  the  waters  of  the  great  river 
Severn,    which  are  uncommonly  yel- 
low, of  which  hue,  even  what  may  be 
called  sea,  doth  in   some  measure  par- 
take ;    I    am   not   to  account  for  the 
humours  of  men,  I  have  but  to  inform 
you    that   the  words    Glas-moir-cean 
are  words  of  the  Phoenician  and  Ib-er- 
ian  language,  the  translation  of  which 
into  the  language  of  the  Sassons,  is, 
**  the  head  of  the  green  sea,"  and  you 
will  see  by  consulting  the  chart,  and 
making  yourself  acquainted  with  the 
nature  of  tlwse  waters  that  the  term 
is  accurately  descriptive  of  the  object. 
Having  explained   the    signification    of   the  name  of  this 
Scythian  Iber-ian  tribe,  and  of  the  great  water  by  which  they 
entered  this  land  from  Dun  mianac,   I  purpose  to  point  out 
the  very  spot  whereat  they  did  debark,  and  their  route,  giving 
all  the   names  in  their  present  mutilated  form,  which  I  will 
restore  to  their  original  shape. 

There  is  a  small  river  south  west  of  the  Wye,  called 
Thrgoye,  at  the  debouche  of  which  into  Severn  is  port 
Skeweth,  close  to  which  is  Caer-went,  the  district  in  which 
these  places  are  situated  being  now  called  Calde  Cott;  moving 
west  you  meet  the  water  of  Uske,  on  which  stands  Caer-leion  ; 
proceeding  in  the  same  direction,  you  come  to  the  river 
Rhymny,  then  to  the  Tafte,  issuing  out  of  Monuch-denny, 
emptying  its  waters  into  Severn  at  Traeth  Tav,  having  on 
its  banks  the  places  Caer-dyv  andXlan-dav;  south  on  Severn 


is  Penwarth,  in  Denis  Powis  ;  following  the  coast  you  come  to 
Dun-rauen,  Ken-foag,  and  My-margan,  beyond  which  are  the 
waters  of  Auon,  Cled-augh,  Dul-iske,  and  Tawye,  south  of 
which  is  the  Peninsula  of  Gowre,  on  the  cast  whereof  is  another 
Pennarth,  west  of  Gowre  is  the  river  Burra,  beyond  which  is 
the  water  of  Gwen-drath-Vaure,  taking  its  rise  in  a  hill  called 
Karreg,  and  running  into  the  sea  at  Calde-cott  point,  westward 
of  which  is  Towye,  issuing  out  of  Llyn  Gonon,  from  whence 
it  winds  its  way  to  Severn,  the  western  limit  of  the  lands  of 
the  Sul-ur-eis  ;  besides  which,  there  are  monuments  of  antiquity 
in  the  quarter  of  which  I  am  now  treating,  that  is  the  present 
Monmouth  and  Glamorgan,  called  Gy  ve-lach,  Karn  Lhechart, 
Krom-lacheu,  of  all  which  in  their  order. 
Port  Skeweth  Bort  Sciot,  "  the  port  or  haven  of  the 

Sciot,"  the  original  name  by  which 
the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er  called  them- 
selves ;  the  Skuthai  of  the  Greeks,  Scy- 
thae  and  Scoti  of  the  Romans,  Scut- 
ten  of  the  Germanni,  Skuit-Skit  of 
Anglo-Sassons,  by  which  last  Maria- 
li\is  calls  this  very  place  from  them. 
Here  it  was  that  Gaal  or  tribe  of  Sciot 
of  Iber,  who  emigrated  from  Gaelag, 
the  present  Cantabria  in  Spain  to 
Dun-mianac  or  Breo-tan,  and  from 
thence  across  the  waters  of  Severne, 
first  touched  the  soil  of  the  territory  cal- 
led from  them  the  land  of  the  Sil-ur-eis. 
Caer-gwent  Cathair,    "  the   chief  seat."    Gwent   is 

British,  the  original  Scythian  word, 
which  literally  signifies,  "  the  seat  or 
chair  of  the  chief,"  came  to  be  applied 
to  a  city  in  the  same  manner  as,  Bri- 
an amongst  the  Thracians,  from  the 
mount,  and  Asti  amongst  the  Greeks 
from  their  dwelling  nigh  unto  the  Bri 
or  mount,  came  to  signify  a  city  also. 





Caer  Lheion 

Tliis  place  was  the  first  capitol,  if  I 
may  so  call  the  scite  of  the  tents  of 
the  chief  of  this  Sciot  tribe,  the  Venta 
Silurum  of  the  Romans,  from  whence 
they  spread  themselves  east  to  Wye, 
beyond  which  were  the  native  Dobuni. 
West  to  the  water  of  Towye,  beyond 
which  were  the  aboriginal  Dimetae, 
and  north  to  the  lands  of  the  native 

Cald-i-sciot,  "  the  inclosure  of  the  Sciot," 
hemmed  in  by  the  Glas-moir-cean,  the 
Wye,  the  uisge,  and  by  exceeding 
high  lands  on  the  north 

Uisge,  "  the  water,"  so  called  empha- 
tically, par  excellence,  in  like  man- 
ner as  in  Dun-mianac,  as  Duor,  the 
water,  and  Amhan,  the  river,  Scythian 
words,  and  as  Gwy,  the  British  word 
for  river. 

Cathair  Leigean,  pron.  Lean,  "the  city 
of  learning."  This  place  was  originally 
called,  "  Cathair  Uisge,"  the  city  on 
the  Uisge  or  water,  the  Isca  Silurum 
of  the  Romans,  and  supposed  to  derive 
the  addition  of  Leigean  from  the  cir- 
cumstance of  the  Legio  Secunda  A  u- 
gusta  being  stationed  here.  That  the 
word  Lheion  of  the  Britons,  Leigean 
of  the  Iberians,  may  have  been  formed 
on  the  Roman  Legio,  I  cannot  deny, 
at  the  same  time,  the  term  in  its  true 
form  denotes  instruction,  learning,  &c. 
accurately  applicable  to  the  place,  as 
appears  from  Gerald  Barry,  latinized 
to  Giraldus  Combrensis,  who  informs 
us,    "that  very    eminent  men   were 


brought  up  and  taught  here,  and  that 
Amphibalus,  the  teacher  of  Alban,  who 
sincerely  instructed  him  in  the  faith, 
was  born  here ;"  be  this  as  it  may,  the 
name  of  this  place  is  Cathair,  and  the 
name  of  the  river  is  Uisge. 
Though  the  name  of  Glas-moir-cean  liad  in  the  first  instance 
been  given    to    the  salt  water  of  Severn  from  the  entrance 
therein  of  ^\ye,  it  came  in  after  time  to  be  applied  to  the  dis- 
trict of  land,  from  the  water  of 

Rhymny  Rannwye,  "  the  water  of  division,"  the 

word  Rhymny  is  a  compound  of  the 
Iberian  Ranu,  "  division,'''  and  the 
British  Wye,  corrupted  as  you  see, 
the  meaning  of  the  name  being  evident 
from  the  fact  it  denotes,  this  never 
being  the  boundary  between  the  two 
districts  of  Monmouth  and  Glamorgan 
Taffe  Dobh,    pron.   Dhove,     "  the   swelling 

It  may  be  imagined  that  Taffe  was  a 
corruption  of  Tamh,  pron.  Thave,  as 
the  Teave  in  Dun-mianac,  or  the 
Thame  on  the  land  of  the  Dobuni,  at 
this  day  Oxfordshire,  where  it  is 
called  as  the  letters  denote,  according 
to  the  manner  of  the  language  of  the 
Sassons  ;  but  this  is  not  the  name  of 
this  river,  for  Tamh,  means  "  quiet 
still,"  nor  can  it  be  from  Taoi,  wind- 
ing, this  stream  not  having  a  winding 
course.  Nor  yet  can  it  be  a  mutation 
from  Dubh,  pron.  Duv,  "  black,"  this 
water  being  bright  and  sparkling,  it 
can  therefore  be  a  corruption  of  Dobh 
only,  an  epithet  particulai-ly  appU- 
cable  to  this  river,  which  swells  and 
overflows  all  its  neighbour  lands,  sud- 





denly  and  exceedingly,  as  1  have  often 
MonucliKtenny,  Mianac  Dun-e,  "  it  is  a  hill  of  metal," 

here  we  have  the  same  name  as  the 
ancestors  of  this  tribe  gave  to  the 
country  of  their  first  occupation  in 
Breo-tan,  for  the  same  reason,  proof 
that  this  hill  had  in  ancient  days  been 
explored  for  metal,  with  which  it  is 
at  this  day  known  to  abound 
Traigh  Dobh,  "  the  strand  of  Dobh'* 
Cathair  Dobh,  "  the  chief  seat  or  city 

of  Dobh" 
Lann-dobh,    "  the  church   on   Dobh," 
this  word    Lann    is    Iberian    for   a 
*'  pcnn,"  "  fold,"  and  such  like,  and 
being   applied    to    the    enclosures  of 
cemetries,  it  came  to  signify  a  temple, 
chapel,  church,  to  which  sense  it  hath 
long  since  by  the  Britons  been  con- 
Binn-ard,  "  the  high  summit" 
Inis  Powis,    "  the  island  Powis,"  a  com- 
pound of  the  Iberian  Inis  and  Powis, 
of  what  language  I  know  not 
Dun-r-amhan,    pronounced  Dunravan, 
"  the  high  defence  on  the  river"  the 
place  is  now  called  Dunraven,  it  looks 
over  the  Severn,  (which  here  is  called 
"  Amhan,"     the   river,)   and  all  the 
plains  in  every  other  direction,  the 
word  from  Camden  is  spelled  as  we  of 
Eri  now  call  a  river,  "  Aun" 
Ken-foag,  Cean-foac,  "  look  out  head" 

My-margan,  Mionn-raoir-cean,  "  the  head  of  the 

mount  of  the  sea."    On  surveying  the 
country,   and    duly  •considering  the 





ancient  language,  in  my  judgment 
Cean  Foac  and  Mionn-moir-cean  mean 
one  and  the  same  thing,  Mion-moir- 
cean  is  the  Cean  Foac,  there  being  no 
land  on  the  water  of  an  altitude  suffi- 
cient to  warrant  the  epithet  Cean  Foac, 
but  which  is  accuratey  descriptive  in 
Mionn  Moir 

Amhan,  pronounced  Aun  and  A  van, 
"  the  river,"  the  particular  name,  if 
ever  it  had.  one,  lost 

Clodach,  "  dirty,  slimy" 

Dubh-uisge,  "  the  black  water" 

Taoi,  "  winding" 

Geamhar-i,  pronounced  Gauri,  "  a  land 
of  corn,"  "  fit  for  tillage" 

Borra,  "  rough,  impetuous" 

Gwen-duor-ath-moir,  "  the  white  water 
of  the  great  ford,"  the  word  is  com- 
pounded of  the  British  Gwen,  white, 
and  the  Iberian  Duor-ath-mor,  which 
signifies  as  above 

Coraig,  "  rocky,"  very  rough  with  stones. 

Before  explained,  the  explanation  proved 
to  be  correct,  the  Iberian  word  Caldi 
Sciot,  or  Cal-i-Sciot,  meaning  the  en- 
closure, the  shutting  in  of  the  Sciot, 
and  here  we  have  the  same  term  ap- 
plied at  each  termination  of  the  limit 
of  this  Gaal,  or  tribe  of  Sciot 
Taoi,  "  winding" 

Linn-cean-amhan,  pronounced  Caunaun, 

"  the    pool   river    head,"    the    lake 

whence  Towye  issues. 

This  river  was  the  western   barrier  of  this  nation,   within 

which  district  in  these  parts  are  Gy  ve-lach,  of  which  Gibson 

or  Camden  saith,  "  within  the  parish  of  Llan-gyve-lach,  I 






observed  a  monument  which  lately  stood  in  the  midst  of  a 
Kern,  or  heap  of  stones,  beneath  are  two  feet,  rude  and  ill 
proportioned,  from  which  monument  this  parish  had  its  name  of 
Gy  ve-lach,  Gabh-leac,  "  the  great,  flat,  forked  stone." 

"  Not  far  from  whence,"'   continued  Gibson,   "  in  the  same 
parish,  is  a  monument  that  gives  denomination  to  the  mountain 
on  which  it  stands,  in  a  circle  of  rude  stones,  called 
Karn  I^hechart,  Cam  Leicard,  "  the  Carn  of  the  great 

flat,  high  stones,"  from  which  you  are 
not  to   presume   that   the  Carn  was 
meant  by  Leicard ;  the  Cam,  or  heap 
of  small  stones  was  a  beacon,  or  fire 
light,  and  Leicard,  high  stones,  nigh 
the  Carn,  being  the  monument." 
Gibson  makes  mention  also  of  a  Krom-lecheu,  ^vhich  he  de- 
rives from  the  British  word  Krom,  crooked,   or  inclining,  and 
Lhech,  a  large  flat  stone. 

Krom-lechen,  Crom-leac-in,  "  a  large  flat  stone  in  an 

inclined  position,"     Crooked  and  in- 
clining are  very  different  terms.  Cam 
is  crooked,   Crom  is   inclining,   these 
Crom-leac  are  numerous  in  Eri. 
The  origin  of  these  words  being  manifested,  let  me  conduct 
you  northward,  by  the  route  these    Scythians   moved  to  the 
lands  now  called  Hereford,  wherein  I  shall  notice  some  memo- 
rable places  of  antiquity,  the  names  of  which  I  will  explain  to 
you,  for  which  purpose  I  will  follow  Camden  and  Gibson,  who 
have  attempted  to  illustrate  appellation  by  a  language,  which 
in  their  total   ignorance,   they  have  ventured  to  pronounce 
British  ;  though  Edward  Lhwyd  could,  and  I  make  no  doubt 
did  inform  the  latter  person  better,  though  he  hath  not  pro 
fited  by  the  light  of  that  ingenuous  ancient  Briton,     Camden 
saith  the  territory  was  called  in  the  most  ancient  days 
Erei-nuc,  Eirinig,  "Erians,  Iberians,  people  of  Er." 

The  word  denotes  a  nation  in  a  per- 
sonal, not  a  local  sense,   whilst  the 


name  demonstrates  their  origin,  of  the 
Gael  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er 
Ari-cou-ium,  Eiri-cean,  "  the  head  of    Er,"   that  is 

"the  chief  seat  of  the  tribe"  of  Eirinig 
Hereford,  Eiri-foras,  "  the  passage  of  the  Erians," 

this  word  Foras  is  Iberian  for  a  pas- 
sage over  and  through  water. 
Camden  saith,  "  how  far  the  httle  tract  Ar-cen-feld  reached 
I  know  not,  but  the  affinity  between  these  names  Ereinuc,  Ar- 
cen-feld,  the  town  Ari-con-ium,  mentioned  by  Antonine  in 
these  parts,  and  Hare-ford,  or  Hereford,  the  present  metro- 
polis of  this  shire,  have  by  little  and  little,  induced  me  to  this 
opinion,  that  they  are  every  one  derived  from  Ari-con-ium, 
and  yet  I  do  not  believe  that  Ari-con-ium  and  Hereford  were 
the  same."  On  which  Gibson  observes,  "  a  little  lower  stands 
Hereford,  on  which  name  our  author  would  find  some  remains 
of  the  old  Ari-con-ium,  Avhereas  it  is  of  pure  Saxon  origin, 
implying  no  more  than  "  a  ford  of  the  army,"  which  inter- 
pretation doth  also  suit  the  situation  of  the  place  exceeding 
well,  the  Severn  being  for  many  hundreds  of  years  the  frontier 
between  the  two  nations  always  at  war." 

To  which  observations  of  Camden  and  Gibson  I  reply,  that 
in  every  one  of  these  names,  the  radix  is  Er,  the  appellation 
of  the  nation,  to  which  this  tribe  belonged  in  Iber  under 
Caucasus,  Cean  Iber  in  Gaelag,  and  in  Eri ,  and  though  Cam- 
den discovered  a  similitude,  he  could  not  account  therefor, 
whilst  Gibson  seems  to  think  that  antiquity  and  the  fights  of 
the  Sassons  and  Welsh  in  the  11th  and  12th  centuries  are 
synonimous ;  he  was  right  in  saying  that  the  place  was  a  pas- 
sage, and  for  an  army  too,  but  not  in  the  sense  he  imagined, 
the  place  had  its  name  of  high  antiquity,  from  being  nigh  unto 
the  spot  where  the  tribe  of  Er  passed  from  the  south,  when 
they  seated  themselves  at  Eri-cean,  the  Roman  Ari-con-ium, 
the  names  of  all  these  places  bearing  much  more  deep,  legible, 
and  expressive  characters  of  the  antique,  than  a  people  so  very 
lately  emerged  from  a  state  of  piracy,  ignorance,  and  bar- 
barism, as  the  Sassons  are  capable  of  appreciating ;   a  people 



moreover,  whose  language  hath  not  the  most  remote  affinity 
to  the  Scythian  tongue. 

Camden  speaks  of  the  rivers  Wye,  Lug,  and  Mun-ow,  which 
last  he  says  rises  in  the  Hatterell  hills,  which  shooting  up 
aloft,  look  as  it  were  like  a  chair,  and  for  that  reason  are  called 
**  Mynydh  Kuder,"  on  which  Gibson  speaks  thus,  "  the 
learned  Doctor  Davies  supposes  these  hills  not  to  have  been  so 
called,  from  their  resemblance  to  a  Kadair,  or  chair,  but  be- 
cause they  have  been  either  fortified  places,  or  were  looked 
upon  as  naturally  impregnable,  by  such  as  first  imposed  those 
names  on  them,  for  the  British  Kader,  as  well  as  the  Irish 
Kathair,  signifying  anciently  a  "fort,  or  bulwark,"  whence 
probably  the  modern  word  Kaer,  of  the  same  signification, 
might  be  corrupted." 

Let  me  now  give  you  the  signification  of  the  names  of  all 
these  places  in  the  language  of  those  by  whom  they  were  im- 
posed, first  noticing  that  Gwy,  or  Wye,  is  British  for  a  river. 



Mynydh  Kader 

Lugha,  "  the  lesser,"  that  is  the  lesser 
water  in  comparison  with  the  Wye 
and  Minwye 

Min-wye,  "  the  smooth  gentle  river," 
from  Min,  Iberian  for  smooth,  &c. 
and  Wye,  British  for  river 

Ei4;ralt,  "  the  wilderness  of  heights" 

Min-wye  Ceidard,  "  the  high  mountain 
on  whose  summit  is  a  plain,  near 
Min-wye."  It  was  not  to  the  mass  of 
mountains  of  this  wilderness  that  this 
name  was  attached,  but  to  a  particular 
height.  You  have  heard  the  supposi- 
tion of  the  learned  Doctor  Davies, 
and  the  probable  conjecture  of  Doctor 
Gibson,  but  neither  is  correct ;  Cei- 
dard and  Cathair  are  as  different  as 
two  things  can  be,  the  former  being 
the  word  in  the  Iberian  tongue  for 
that  particular  elevation,  the  summit 



whereof  is  flat,  distinguished  from 
Binn,  MuUach,  and  such  like ;  the 
latter,  as  before  explained,  implying 
the  place  of  abode  of  the  chief,  with- 
out reference  to  a  fort,  or  being  im- 
pregnable, of  which  the  British  Caer 
is  a  contraction,  agreeing  precisely 
with  the  Iberian  pronunciation  of  the 
word  Cathair. 
In  this  district  Camden  mentions  Castle- 
hean,  Al  terynis,  the  river  Dore,  Lhan- 
lieni,  Credun,  and  Kenchester;  of 
these  in  order 

Castle-hean  Ceis-lean-Sean,  "  old  castle ;"  so  saith 


Alt-er-ynis  Alt-air-inis,  "  the  stately  edifice  on  the 

island,"  of  which  Camden  says,  "  sur- 
rounded with  water,  as  it  were  an  is- 
land in  a  river,  a  famous  seat  in  for- 
mer ages" 
Duor,  "  the  water" 

Lann-olain,  "  a  store  for  wool,"  the  wool 
of  which  neighbourhood,  saith  Cam- 
den, is  by  all  Europe  accounted  the 
best,  excepting  that  of  Apuleia  and 
Credann,  "  a  hill  within  which  is  ore'* 
Cean  Chester,  "  the  head  camp,"  com- 
pounded  of  the   Iberian    Cean,    and 
Chester,  a  corruption  of  the  Roman 
Castrum,  a  camp. 
From  Hereford,  on  passing  to  Brecknock,  we  find  mention 

made  of  the  following  places,  Cantre  Bychan,  Kader  Arthur, 

Talgarth,  and  Lyn  Savadhan. 

Bry-chein-og  Bri-cine-ag,     "  the   occupation,   of   the 

tribe  of  the  hills" 



Ken  Chester 



Cantre  Bychan 
Kader  Arthur 

Lhyn  Savadhan 

From  hence  let 
days  was  called 

Ceantur  Beagan,  •'  the  very  little  head 

Cathair  Arthur,  "  Arthur's  chair,"  so 
Gerald  Barry  translates  the  word.  If 
so,  it  would  be  Cathair,  of  which  the 
British  corruption  is  Caer  ;  but  if  the 
mountain  is  Kedar,  the  British  cor- 
ruption of  the  Iberian  Ceidard,  it 
would  not  signify  a  chair,  but  a  high 
hill,  with  a  flat  summit;  and  that  this 
is  the  most  correct,  would  appear 
from  Barry's  description,  that  "  a 
fountain  springs  on  the  very  top  of 
this  hill,  affording  trout,  though  no 
water  runs  out  of  it."  Yet  Barry 
hath  rendered  the  word  chair,  ig- 
norantly  confounding  Ceidard  with 

Tullac-ard,  "  a  country  abounding  witn 

Linn  Sabh-ad-aman,  pron.  Savadaun. 
This  is  a  very  curious  term,  not  easily 
translated,  the  meaning  of  it  is,  that 
the  Linn,  or  pool,  was  a  distinct  water, 
barred  and  shut  in  as  it  were,  and  it 
seems  from  the  following  words  ot 
Camden,  that  from  this  idea  the  lake 
had  its  name  :  "  Lheweni,  a  small 
river,  having  entered  this  lake,  still 
retains  its  own  colour,  and  as  it  were, 
disdaining  a  mixture,  is  thought  to 
carry  out  no  more,  nor  other  water 
than  what  it  brought  in." 
us  proceed  to  Radnor,  which  in  ancient 



the  plain  of  plenty' 


Maes-y-ved-hean,        Magh-biad-sean,     "  the    old    plain    of 

Old  Radnor  plenty" 

Pen-craig  Binn  Craig,  "  the  rocky  summit." 

Having  explained  the  signification  of  these  names  of  places 
on  the  lands  of  the  Sul-ur-eis,  by  their  own  language,  before 
we  visit  the  country  of  the  Bri-gan-tcs,  let  me  pay  a  tribute 
of  respect  to  the  illustrious  chief  of  the  Sul-ur-eis,  who  would 
have  saved  his  nation  from  the  degradation  and  misery  of  a 
foreign  yoke,  if  valour  alone  could  have  achieved  it.  Hail 

Caractacus  Cath-reacteac-eis,  "  the  leader  and  direc- 

tor of  the  host  in  battle."  His  name 
will  endure  thousands  of  ages  after 
any  trace  of  millions  of  tyrants  and 
myriads  of  slaves  shall  be  recognized, 
save  in  the  havoc  they  have  made, 
during  their  pernicious  abode  on  the 
surface  of  the  earth.  Illustrious  chief, 
thou  wilt  be  immortal. 
Now  to  the  Brigantes,  whom  I  cannot  introduce  more  aptly 
than  by  the  words  of  Camden,  who  says, 

"  When  Florianus  del  Campo,  out  of  a  piece  of  vanity, 
carried  the  Bri-gan-tes  out  of  Spain  into  Ireland,  and  from 
thence  into  Bri-tain,  without  any  manner  of  grounds,  but  that 
he  found  the  city  Bri-gan-tia  in  Spain,  1  am  afraid  he  carried 
himself  from  the  truth  ;  for  if  it  may  not  be  allowed  that  our 
Bri-gan-tes,  and  those  in  Ireland,  had  the  same  name  on  the 
same  account,  I  had  rather  with  my  learned  friend  Mr.  Thos. 
Savil,  conjecture  that  some  of  our  Bri-gan-tes,  with  others  of 
the  British  nations,  retired  into  Ireland,  upon  the  coming  over 
of  the  Romans." 

To  which  I  reply,  that  Florianus  del  Campo,  Savil,  and 
Camden,  were  uttering  but  mere  conjectures,  and  though  cor- 
rect in  connecting  this  tribe  with  the  Clandha  Breo-ccean  in 
Eri,  who  were  the  brethren  of  these  Brigantes,  they  were 
altogether  ignorant  of  the  only  means,  whereby  to  demonstrate 


the  small  particle  of  truth  that  they  perchance  advanced.  But 
I  who  can  oppose  actual  knowledge  to  their  suppositions,  will 
in  a  few  words  disclose  to  you  the  origin  and  etymology  of 
the  specific  denomination  of  this  tribe. 

Bri-gan-tes  Breo  ccean-teis,  pron.  Bro-gan-tes,  "  the 

tribe   of    Breo-ccean,"    which    Breo- 
ccean  were  the  head  lands  of  Gaelag, 
before  explained ;  they  were  that  clan 
of  the   Gaal   of  Sciot  of  Ib-er  that 
dwelled  about  Ard-Iber,   Fir-ol,  Co- 
ruuna,   Cape  Ortegal,    &c.  of  whom 
you  will   have  a  detailed  account  in 
the  chronicles  of  Gael-ag. 
When  Florianus  carried  Brigantes  odt  of  Spain  into  Ireland, 
he  did  not  carry  himself  from   the  truth,   though  lie  erred  in 
bringing  them  from  thence  into   Britain,   and  both  the  learned 
Camden,  and  his  learned  friend    Saville,   were  wrong  in  their 
conjectures  in  fancying  that   the   Brigantes  of  Britain  retired 
into  Ireland  upon  the  Roman  invasion.     The  Chronicles  of 
Eri  will  instruct  you  that  we  of  Eri  were  in  fact  Brigantes,  in 
a  confined  sense,  but  as  the  reigning  chief,  princes,  and  nobles 
emigrated  to  Eri,  they  retained  the  more  ancient,  and  compre- 
hensive name  of  Sciot  of  Iber,   or  Er,   which  distinctions  you 
have  seen  these  tribes  also  preserved  in  Britain. 

The   Chronicles  of  Eri  will  inform  you  that  this  tribe  of 
Brigantes  were  seated  on  the  rivers  Mersey  and  Irwell,  in  the 
reign  of  Fionn,   503  years  before  Christ,  how  much  earlier  is 
not  set  forth ;  and  that  these  Brigantes  were  known  to  the 
Romans  to  be  of  Scythian  origin,  and  that  they  did  discrimi- 
nate between  them  and  the  aborigines,  whom  they  called  Bri- 
tanni,  I  shall  produce  the  evidence  of  Seneca,   in  his  satire 
on  the  death  of  Claudius,  wherein  he  says, 
"  Ille  Britannos  ultra  noti  littora  ponti, 
"  Et  coeruleos  Scoto- Brigantes  dare  Romuleis." 
Let  us  now  examine  this  passage  critically,  for  which  pur- 
pose it  is  necessary  first  to  state  that  diiFerent  readings  are 
given  thereof,  some  insisting  that  it  should  run  thus : 


— —  "  Et  cceruleos,  Scuto  Brigantes." 
Others  again, 

Scuta  Brigantes. 

Now  whether  the  word  is  Scuta,  Scuto,  or  Scoto,  it  is  clear 
it  doth  not  belong  to.  Cceruleos,  and  being  an  epithet  apphed 
to  Brigantes,  even  if  it  was  Scuta,  or  Scuto,  this  fact  would 
prove  difference  of  origin  pointedly,  by  the  difference  of  the 
arms  of  the  warriors  of  the  two  nations  ;  but  as  neither  Scuta 
nor  Scuto  are  in  agreement  with  Brigantes,  it  cannot  be  ima- 
gined that  Seneca  wrote  so  ungrammatically,  neither  was  such 
an  epithet  ever  joined  to  a  nation,  whilst  it  was  usual  and  per- 
fectly correct  so  to  express  the  origin  of  a  people.  And  to 
put  the  matter  beyond  all  question,  that  Seneca  knew  the 
Britanni  and  Brigantes  were  distinct  people,  he  says,  Britta- 
nos,  et  Brigantes,  to  which  I  may  add,  if  necessary,  that  the 
epithet  Cceruleos  was  peculiarly  applicable  to  the  Scythians, 
green  being  the  colour  of  the  habit  of  their  warriors,  as  at 
this  day  in  Eri. 

The  Breo-ccean-teis,  corrupted  by  the  Romans  to  Bri-gan- 
tes,  having  according  to  the  chronicles  of  Eri,  broke  forth  of 
the  caverns  of  the  earth  from  Dun-maniac,  to  escape  from  the 
rigour  of  the  Phoenicians,  who  had  violated  the  covenant,  and 
steering  north  entered  the  waters  of  the  Mersey,  and  came  to 
the  land  at  the  precise  point  of 

Pen-sketh  Binn  Sciot,  "  the  cape  of  the  Gaal  of 

Sciot,"  the  grand  name  of  the  Scythian 
race,  as  Bort  Skeweth  the  corruption 
of  Sciot,  in  the  land  of  the  Sul-ur-eis, 
a  distinction  never  lost  sight  of,  here 
the  Breo-ccean-teis  landed  from  the 
water  of 
Mersey  Mir-se,  "  it  is  the  partition."     This  land 

divided  the  land  of  the  Brigantes,  from 
the  nations  of  the  aboriginal  Coritani 
and  Cornavii ;  it  may  be  fancied  that 
the  word  hath  reference  to  Moir,  as 
is  proved  by  its  adjunct  sey,  the  sea, 



but  it  is  not  so.  In  its  course  it  re- 
ceives the  water  of 

Ir-well  Er-Bal  "  the  place  of   Er,"  the  name 

denotes  that  on  the  banks  of  this  river 
this  tribe  of  Er  first  established  them- 
selves. It  is  of  the  same  signification 
as  the  rivers  Ib-er  in  Spain,  and  in 
Eri,  the  former  now  called  Eb-ro,  the 
latter  Cenmare,  lb  and  Bal  having 
the  same  meaning,  mention  is  made 
in  the  chronicles  of  Eri  of  this  parti- 
cular district,  as  the  land  of  the  Bri- 

Lever-pool  Lear  Beal,  "  the  mouth  of  the  haven" 

These  ancient  names  being  explained,  let  us  proceed  north- 

ward  to 

Dar-by  Dair,     "  Oak,"   by,    is     Sasson ;     this 

district  of  Lancaster  has  been  even  to 
my  time  remarkable  for  Oaks 

Du-Glass  Du-glas,     "  the    becoming,   the  seemly 

green,"  described  by  Camden,  "  a 
small  brook,  running  with  an  easy  and 
still  stream,""  which  conveys  a  good 
idea  of  the  word  Du. 
The  Du-glass  empties  itself  into  the 
Estuary,  called  by  Ptolemy, 

Bellisama  Beol-ess-aman-e,     pronounced   Violesh- 

aune,  the  literal  meaning  of  which  is, 
that  the  "  mouth  of  the  river  only  is 
for  ships,""  that  is,  that  the  rivers 
which  form  the  haven  are  not  naviga- 
North  of  this  estuary,  is  a  considerable 

water  called, 
Mar-tain  Moir,  "  a  water  like  the  sea." 

Marton  Mere 

Camden  netices, 

Binn-geint,  "  the  wedge  like  summit" 



Pen-die  Binn-dal,  "  the  summit  of  the  district" 

Ingle-burrow  Ingilt,  "  the  mountain  fit   for   grazing 

cattle,""  burrow  is  a  Saxon  addition 
Derwent  Duor,  "  the  water,"  went  is  British 

Loncaster  Lonn,  "  strong  and  fretful,*"  caster  is  a 

corruption  of  the  Roman  Castrum. 

The  place  is  called  from  the  river. 
Camden  supposes  this  place  was  the  Caer  Werid,  which  he 
translates  *'  green  city,"  in  which  he  is  mistaken  for  the  thou- 
sandth time,  Caer- Werid  being  about  Green-haugh  on  the 
Werid  or  Wier,  which  rises  in  Werid  or  Wiers-dal,  north  of 
which  is  a  rocky  place  called. 

Wulf  Craior 




Craig,  "a  rocky  rugged  place, 

I  know  not 
Cean,    "  the   head,"  this  river  is   also 
called  the  Kent  and  Kennet,  which 
last  would  be  "  the  river  at  the  head 
of  the  land,"  corruption  of  Cean-iath 
Dod-aman,    pronounced    Dudaun,    '•  a 
river  of  either  land,""  it  is  a  boundary 
between  the  tribes  of  Lancaster  and 
Cathar  Beol,  "  The  town  at  the  mouth" 
Glasdun,  "  the  green  hill ;"  This,  saith 
Gibson,  "is  seated  in  a  fertile  vale 
amongst    rich   meadows,"   of  course 
We  will  now  move  eastward  into  York,  of  the  names  of 
various  places  in  which  district  I  will  shew  the  origin,  and  first 
of  the  ancient  name  of  the  city,  and  the  river  on  which  it 

Cathair  Ib-erig,  "  the  city  of  the  Ibe- 
rians." This  city  is  of  ancient  days, 
it  is  called  by  Tacitus  Civitas  Brigan- 
tium,  and  was  strongly  garrisoned  by 
the  Romans ;  here  died  Severus,  and 
Constantius   Chlorus,  and   here  was 

Caer  Eb-rauce,  Ca- 
er Effroc,  Eofor 
ric,  I  bor,  now 


collected  the  chiefest  force  of  the 
Roman  power,  to  curb  the  brave  Bri- 
gantes,  and  to  repress  the  invasions  of 
the  Caledonians  and  the  Scots,  though 
it  was  called  by  the  Sassons  Eofor-ric 
and  York ;  the  name  of  Ebor,  a  cor- 
ruption of  Ib-er,  is  yet  not  obsolete  ; 
this  city  is  situated  on  a  river  of  many 
names,  sometimes  called  Ouse,  some- 
times Is,  and  Ure,  to  expl^n  which, 
and  put  all  in  order,  few  words  will 

Ouse  Uisge,  water 

Is  Uisge,  water,  from  which  you  are  to  un- 

derstand that  the  city  was  Ib-er,  and 
Gather  Ibeir,  that  is,  the  place  or  seat 
of  Er,  and  the  river  was  Uisg,  cor- 
rupted to  Ouse  and  Is ;  Ur  was  a 
place  on  the  river  where  was  a  holy 
fire,  as  Urat  on  Arduisg,  in  Dacia, 
and  that  Cathair  Ib-er-ig,  is  the  city 
or  chief  seat  of  the  Iber-ians,  Ib-er-ig 
being  the  Scythian,  Phoenician  and 
Iberian,  for  Iber-ians. 
The  first  place  mentioned  by  Camden  is  Humber,  a  modern 

name,  the  ancient  one  being 

Abus  Aibeis,  "  an  estuary,"  literally  it  means 

a  great  profundity  covered  with  water, 
which  is  not  river,  nor  yet  sea,  in  fine, 
an  estuary 

Tees'  Taoi,  winding 

Derwent  Duor,  water,  went,  is  British,  as  in  Lan- 


Don-Caster,      olini     Cathair  Dana,  '•'  the  city  of  the  impetu- 
Caer  Daun  ous  river,"  it  hath  the  same  significa- 

tion as  Dau-ube,  so  called  by  the 
Scythian  Goths  and  Thracians 



Caer  Conan  Cathair  Goanaman,  pron.  Gonaun,  "  the 

city  on  the  river" 

Cal-der  Cal-duor,  "  the  water  that  encloses,  shuts 

in,"  this  river  divided  the  Brigantes 
of  Lancaster  and  York 

Craven  Craoibin,  pronounced  Cravin,   *'  a  wild 

rough  land,  covered  with  low  growing 
brambles."  Camden  conjectured  the 
word  was  derived  from  Craig,  a  rock, 
his  conjectures  are  always  erroneous, 
and  he  could  but  conjecture,  being 
ignorant  of  the  ancient  language 

Wharf  Garbh,  pronounced  Gauriv,  "  rough  or 


Chevin  Ce-binn,    "  the   summit   of    the   land," 

Camden  calls  it  a  huge  craggy  clifp 

Swale  Suit,    •'jumping.''"'     Camden    says   this 

river  was  called  Swale,  from  its  leap- 
ing, and  hurry  of  waters,  but  he  was 
ignorant  of  the  origin  of  the  word 

Flamborough  head     Breo-cean,  the  Sasson  name,   almost  a 
translation    of    the    Scythian    word, 
which  is  "  flame  head." 
these  places  in  York  being  explained,  let 

The  names  of  all 
us  pass  to  Durham. 

Gabrosentum  of  the 
Romans,  Gaets- 
head,  of  the  Sas- 
sons,  Gabro.cen, 
the  ancient  name 

Dun,  a  fortress 

Dair,  oaks.  This  town  is  situated  on 
an  eminence,  nigh  unto  which  is  a 
place  called  in  Camden's  time.  Old 
Dar,  from  which  it  is  observable,  that 
all  these  names  have  reference  to  an 
elivated  situation,  and  to  oaks 

Gabair  Cean,  '*  goat's  head,"  which 
Camden  derives  from  "  Gaffr,"  British 
for  goat,  and  hen,  in  composition  for 
pen,  which  signifies  "  head,"  and  thus 
makes  Gaffr-hen  of  a  place  he  calls 


Gabro-cen,  into  such  absurdities  do 
conjectures  without  knowledge,  lead 
men,  the  letter  s  in  Gabro-sentum, 
should  be  c,  thus  Gabrocen-tum,  when 
by  cutting  off  the  Latin  neuter  termi- 
nation, you  have  the  Iberian  word 
perfect,  translated  into  the  Sasson 
gaets,  or  goat's  head. 
In  Westmoreland  I  have  but  few  places  to  notice,  as 

Aballaba,  now  Ap-    An  Bealachba,  '*  the  good  way  or  pas- 
pleby  sage.""   In  this  district  are  Pen,  Craig, 

and  Stanmor,  where  there  are  lead 
mines,  and  which  last  place  had  its 
name  from  tin  being  found  there  in 
ancient  days 

Winander  mere  Minamanduor    moir,    pronounced    Mi- 

nanndur  mer,  "  a  plain  of  waters  of 
springs  and  rivers,  as  a  sea." 
From  hence  to  Cumar,  now^  called  Cumberland. 

Cumberland  Cumar,  "  a  land  of  uneven  surface,  of 

hills  and  dales,"  of  which  Cumber  is  a 
Sasson  corruption  with  a  Danish  ter 
mination  Lond 

Loder  Laider,  strong 

Eimot  Eim,  quick 

Copeland  Ceab,   "  the  head."     Camden  says,  "  it 

had  the  name  from  its  rearing  up  its 
head  with  sharp  mountains,"  or  per- 
haps, as  Cop-per  land ! 

Esk  Uisge,  "  the  water,"  by  which  this  river 

is  called,  for  a  considerable  way  till  it 
meets  the  tide,  from  whence  it  hath 
the  name  of 

Raven-glas  Aman-glas,  pronounced  Avanglas,  *'  the 

green  river,*"  precisely  as  the  Ban-d- 
aman, that  is,  Bandann  in  Eri,  signi- 



fies  <*  the  white  river,"  or  as  Spencer 
says,  "  the  silver  river,"  which  carries 
that  name  till  it  meets  the  tide,  whence 
it  is  called  Glas-t-aman,  "  the  green 
river,"  till  it  reaches  the  harbour  or 
Cean-saile,  "  the  head  of  the  salt  sea." 
In  the  composition  of  Ravenglas,  I 
cannot  conceive  the  motive  for  intro- 
ducing the  letter  r,  which  hath  no 
meaning,  Amanglas  is  precisely  the 
same  word  as  Glas-t-aman,  but  here 
the  letter  t  is  of  value  for  Euphonia, 
to  which  our  ancestors  paid  such  at- 
tention, that  this  part  of  the  Bandon 
is  called  Glasteen,  not  Glastaun,  nor 
Hardknott  Ard-cnoc,  "  a  rugged  height."    Camden 

calls  this  a  very  steep  ragged  moun- 
Skiddaw,  Siceide-da,  "  it  is  a  double  mountain" 

Mori-camb,  Moir-cam,  "  the  crooked  sea,"   that  is, 

"  shore" 
Drumbough,  Drom,  "  the   back  of  a  hill,"  bough  is 


Pen-rith,  Binn-ruad,  "  the  red  height,"  the  earth 

and  stones  in  the  neighbourhood  are 

of  a  reddish  colour. 

These  places  noticed,  I  come  to  the  principal  city  of  this 

district,  which  I  reserved  for  last,  in  order  more  fully  to  shew 

the  distinctiveness  with  which  the  people  of  ancient  days  named 

villages  and  cities,  as  they  did   lands   and  waters ;  but  first  I 

will  set  down  the   words   of  Camden  :    "  The  Romans  and 

Britons  called  this  city  Lugu-ballum  and  Lugu-valUum,  or 

Lugu-balia;  the  Saxons,  as  Bede  witnesses,  Luel;  Ptolemy,  as 

some  think,  Leucopibia  ;  Xennius,  Caer  Lualid  ;  the  Sassons, 

in  Camden's  time,  Carlisle,  for  that  Lugubalia  and  CarUsle  are 

the  same  is  universally  agreed  upon  by  our   historians ;"   to 


which  Gibson  adds,  Caer,  in  Welsh,  signifies  a  city,  and 
Caer-luul,  Luel,  and  Lugubal,  as  it  was  anciently  writ,  are  the 
very  same  with  Caer-leil,  or  Luil,  the  present  appellation,  and 
import  as  much  as  the  town  or  city  of  Luul,  Lual,  or  Lugu- 
bal," what  but  ignorance  in  the  extreme,  and  an  idea  that  all 
the  world  were  as  ignorant  as  themselves,  could  cause  men  to 
plunge  into  such  a  depth  of  absurdity,  from  which  I  will 
rescue  this  ancient  seat  of  the  Brigantes.  Language  attests 
that  the  first  town  must  have  been  originally  Bailie,  and  was 
not  the  same  as  the  city  now  called  Carlisle,  and  that  the 
former  had  the  addition  of  Lugha,  after  the  latter  had  been 
founded,  and  had  that  addition  to  distinguish  it  therefrom, 
for  strictly  and  literally 

Lugu-ballum,  Val-     Lugha  Bailie,  "the  lessertown,"  of  which 

lum,  and  Ballia,         the  names  on  the  other  side  are  cor- 

are  ruptions,  as 

Carlisle  is  a  corrup-     Cathair   Liaal,    "  the   great   city  built 

tion  of  with  stone,"  Baile,   a  town,   was  the 

rude  work  of  the  Brigantes,  buUt  of 

mud,  Cathair  Liaal  v^'as  the  work  of 

the  Romans,  and  built  of  stone,   and 

when  built,  Lugha  was  added  to  the 

Baile  of  the  Brigantes,  Lugha  Baile, 

the  lesser  town,  to  distinguish  it  from 

Cathair  Liaal,  the  great  walled  city, 

the  former   composed   of  earth,   the 

latter  of  stone. 

If  I  have  noticed  but  a  few  places,  it  hath  been  done  for  the 

sake  of  brevity,  as  well  as  with  the  view  of  not  advancing  one 

step  in   controversy,    many  names  being  so  distorted  by  the 

Sassons,  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  prevail  on  the  world  to 

think,  that  the  restoration  of   them  to  their  ancient  state  was 

their  true  form,  besides,   it  is  to  be  hoped,   enough  hath  been 

done  to  convince  any  reasonable  mind,  that  the  people  by 

whom  these  places  were  named,  occupied  the  districts  in  ancient 

days,  it  rests  therefore  with  me  to  shew  they  were  not  of  the 

same  race  as  the  Britons,  and  that  their  language  was  the  Ian- 


guage  of  Phoenicia  and  of  the  Iberians,  in  the  northern  parts 
of  Spain,  from  whence  these  tribes  emigrated  to  the  south  of 
Britain,  and  from  thence  to  this  quarter,  wherefrom  I  now  will 
move  to  Caladun,  and  take  a  rapid  yet  correct  survey  of  that 
famous  land,  renowned  for  men  of  valour  in  ancient  and  mo- 
dern times,  and  in  the  present  days  ;  on  whom  Roman  disci- 
pline made  no  impression,  whom  Roman  arts  of  seduction 
could  ngt  influence,  against  whom,  after  the  failure  of  all  their 
attempts,  the  harnessed  Romans  had  recourse  to  the  expe- 
diency of  raising  up  a  bulwark  fortified,  to  protect  themselves 
from  these  intrepid  naked  warriors,  and  their  undaunted  allies, 
the  wily  Scots  from  Eri,  whose  names  were  not  liable  to  fear, 
save  the  terror  of  losing  their  liberties  and  independence;  but 
before  our  departure,  let  me  notice  one  female  lost,  as  many 
one  before  and  since,  by  the  all-powerful  effect  of  unbridled 
passion,  the  unfortunate  inglorious 

Cart-is- man-tua,  Cathartig-isi-mein-tuatac,      pronounced 

Cart-isi-meen-tua,  "  she  herself  is  in 
quality  of  chief  of  the  citizens,"  a  title 
she  assumed   upon   the  novel    usurp- 
ation of  the  sovereignty  by  a  woman 
Albion,  Ailb-binn,  "a  confused  heap  of  heights." 

This  name,  1  am  of  opinion,  was  applied  exclusively  to  the 
northern  parts  of  the  island,  as  Breo-tan  was  to  the  southern 
extremity  thereof,  for  the  same  reason  that  the  forefathers  of 
the  people,  who  imposed  the  name,  called  the  country  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Ib-er  beneath  Caucasus,  by  the  same  name, 
corrupted  to  Alban-ia,  as  also  the  district  in  Greece,  Alba,  and 
the  Ailpsin  Italy  ;  for  most  assuredly  none  of  these  places  de- 
rive their  name  from  the  Greek  Alphos,  nor  the  Roman  Albus, 
white,  any  farther  than  the  aptness  of  men  to  combine  the 
idea  of  snow,  with  very  high  mountains  ;  the  Phoenician  word 
Ailb  denoting  a  confused  heap,  without  reference  to  height, 
the  additional  word  Binn,  in  this  compound,  being  expressive 
of  altitude. 

Caledonia,  Cal-a-dun,     "enclosed  amongst  hills," 

the  Roman    termination    *'  ia,"    cor- 





Mull  of  Galloway 
Mull  of  Kaptyre 




rupted  from  the  primitive  ' '  iath," 
country,  being  added,  so '  Caldees  in 
Messipotamia,  Cal-aoi-soir,  vulgarly- 
called  Cajlosyria,  Kal-u-don  in  Akaia, 
and  Cal-a-don  amongst  the  Alps,  the 
people  of  which  district  have  been 
called  by  their  Germannic  neighbours 
Wal-denses,  lands,  all  called  by  the 
same  name,  by  the  same  race,  for  a 
similar  reason 

Ard-gael,  "  the  high  lands  of  the  Gaal," 
which  Gaal  were  the  Sciot 

Dal  rig-fada,  "  the  portion  of  the  long 
armed,"  which  long  armed  was  Eocaid 
Cairbre,  called  Rigfada,  the  leader  of 
the  first  colony  from  Eri  to  Ailb-binn, 
or  rather  to  Ard-gael  in  Ailb-binn ; 
Ardgael  being  Dalrigfada 

Gael-adh-beadh,  pron.  Gual-a-via,  the 
land,  appointed  for  the  sustenance  of 
the  Gaal  of  Sciot,  led  by  Feargus,  the 
son  of  Muin-ram-har 

MuUac  Gael-adh-biadh,  "  the  head  land 
of  Galloway." 

Mullac  cinn-tir.  "  the  summit  of  the 
head  land." 

1  Coraig,  "  a  rock." 

3  Craig,  "  rocky." 

Cluid,  "  a  corner." 

Athol,  "  the  great  ford." 
Breid  Ailb-binn,    "  the    ridge  of  Ailb^ 

Glas-ce,  "  the  green  or  verdant  land" 

Loc  Lo-aman,  "  A  lake,  the  water  of 
which  is  the  expansion  of  a  river;"  the 
same  name  as  Loc  Leman,  the  lacus 
Lemanus  of  the  Romans,  now  the  lake 


of  Geneva,  and  Loc-Leiman  in  Cier- 
rige  in  Eri,  now  called  the  lake  of 
Kilarney,  all  named  by  the  same  race 
for  the  same  reason 
Ebrides  I-buid-eis,  "  the  isles  of  a  mixed  multi- 

tude,"   a   name    that  seems  to   have 
been  imposed    after   the  invasion    of 
them  by  Norwegians. 
That  all  the  names  of  places  in  the  western  parts  of  Ailb- 
binn  are  in  the  Scythian   language,  you  will  say  is  easily  ac- 
counted for,  from  the  unquestionable  fact  of  that  part  of  the 
country  being  occupied  by  the  Iberian  Scythians  of  Eri,   since 
258  since  Christ,  from   the  Mull  of  Galloway,  at  least  as  far 
north  as, 

Ard-na-Murchen         Aid-na-moir-ceann,    "  the  height  of  the 
head  land  on  the  sea."" 
On  the  eastern  shore  I  sliall  now  set  down  the  names  of  some 
few  remarkable  places. 

The  head  of  the  wall  of  Antonius,  was,  according  to  Bede, 
called  by  the  Picti, 

Pean-vahel,  by  the      Cean-ail,  "  the  head  of  the  wall."  Here 
Welsh  Pen-gaaul  you  have  the  British,  Pictish,  Scythian 

and  Germannic  languages. 
In  the  Frith  of  Forth  is  an  island,  presenting  itself  as  a  shield 
against  the  rude  strokes  of  the  eastern  wind,  called 
Inch-keth,  Inis-scaith  "  the  island  that  shields." 

On  which  was  a  town  in  ancient  times,  called 
Caer-Guide  Cathair  Gaota,    "the  windy  city,"  cor- 

rupted to  Caer  Guidi. 
Farther  north  is  the  river 
Tay  Taoi,     "  winding."  So   meandering   are 

these  waters,  the  stream  is  redundantly 
called  by  those  who  do  not  understand 
the  meaning  of  the  name,  "  The 
winding  Tay."  The  river  Theyss  or 
Tobiske,  the  western  limit  of  the 
Daci,  is  of  the  same  name,  as  in  the 


Taw  or  Taj  us  in  Portugal,  and  many- 
rivers  on  the  lands  of  the  Sul-ur-eis, 
and  the  Tees  of  the  Brigantes,  all 
named  by  the  same  race  from  the 
same  cause 
Dun-dee  Dun-taoi,  "  tlie  fortress  of  the  Tay" 

Ben-nevis  Binncamhise,  "  his  head  is  in  the  clouds 

or  rather  the  heavens." 
Let  us  now  return  to  the  soutli,  and  visit  Edinborough,  but 
previously  to  my  explaining  the  ancient  name  of  this  city,  I 
shall  transcribe  so  much  from  the  learned  Sasson  antiquary 
Camden,  as  will  suffice  to  shew  how  very  little  he,  or  the  ancients 
knew  of  the  name  thereof,  and  the  whimsical  error  into  which 
they  have  fallen,  by  reason  of  their  ignorance. 

"  Something  lower,  near  the  Scottish  Frith  stands  Edin- 
borough, called  by  the  Irish-Scots  Dun-eaden,  that  is  Eaden 
town,  which  without  doubt  is  the  same  that  Ptolemy  calls 
Stratopedon-pteroton,  that  is,  Castrum  alatum,  "  the  winged 
castle,"  for  Edin-borough,  signifies  the  same  as  Winged  Castle, 
Adain  in  the  British  denoting  a  wing,  and  Eden-borough  from 
a  word  compounded  of  the  British  and  Saxon  tongue,  is  nothing 
else  but  the  winged  borough  ;  from  wings  therefore  we  are  to 
derive  its  name,  which  if  you  think  good,  may  be  done  either 
from  those  squadrons  of  horse  which  are  called  wings,  or  else 
from  those  wings,  which  the  Greek  architects  call  Pteromata, 
that  is  as  Vitruvius  tells  us,  two  walls  so  rising  up  in  height, 
that  they  bear  a  resemblance  of  wings. 

Now  permit  me  to  explain  the  name  of  this  place  by  its 
native  tongue, 

Eden- Borough  Dun  Eaden,  ^'  the  front  of  the  fortress." 

Two  Scythian  words  descriptive  of  the 
hill  on  which  now  stands  the  castle, 
wherefrom  the  city  took  its  name, 
changed  by  the  Sassons  to  Eden- 
boiough.  The  Scythian  Dun  being  the 
German  town,  ton,  or  borough,  the 
Sassons  then  have  left  Eden  almost  in 
its  original  form,  and  translated  the 


Scythian  Dun  into  their  borough.  But 
you  have  observed,  Camden,  not  con- 
jecturing according  to  his  usual  man- 
ner, pronounces  with  certainty  that 
the  name  is  not  Dun-Eaden,  though 
he  has  set  it  down  as  so  called  by  the 
Irish-Scots,  but  Dun  Adain,  from 
Adain,  which  he  says  is  British  for  a 
wing,  and  therefore  will  have  the 
name  derived  from  thence,  on  the 
propriety  of  which  he  hath  descanted 
in  terms  conformable  to  his  deficiency 
of  information  on  the  subject,  but  he 
had  Ptolemy  for  his  guide,  and 
Ptolemy  was  an  ancient,  and  wrote 
Greek,  which  were  quite  sufficient  for 
an  English  writer  of  the  l5th  century 
to  build  upon,  and  Ptolemy  has  ren- 
dered the  name  Stratopedon  Pteroton, 
latinized  into  Castrum  Alatum,  Sasso- 
nized  into  winged  castle,  an  error  into 
which  a  man  at  a  great  distance,  and 
unacquainted  with  the  original  lan- 
guage might  have,  and  hath  fallen, 
explauied  by  the  fact  that  Eitean  is 
Iberian,  for  a  wing  expanded,  and 
thus  by  mistaking  Eitean  for  Eaden, 
a  frontlet  hath  been  converted  into  a 
wing,  and  a  name  critically  applicable 
to  the  place  forced  to  signify  a  term 
of  absolute  nonsense,  and  one  (most 
unfortunately  for  conjecture,)  that 
can  by  no  possibility  be  brought  to 
bear  on  the  subject,  the  Eaden  or 
frontlet  of  the  Dun  not  being  of  suffi- 
cient extent  and  capacity  to  admit  of 
wings  in  Camden's  military,  architect- 
ural or  any  sense ;  the  conceit  savours 


too   much   of  the   ridiculous,  to   set 
about  offering  any  farther  confutation. 
I  shall  therefore  confine  myself  to  the 
positive  assertion  that  the  most  ancient 
name  known  of  this  famous  place  is 
Dun  Eaden,  the  true  and  only  significa- 
tion of  which   is,  "  the   front   of  the 
fortress,"  and  that  the  name  is  com- 
pounded of  two  genuine  original  Scy- 
thian, Phoenician,  or  Iberian  words, 
as  explained. 
Before  I  conclude  with  Caladun,  I  beg  leave  to  quote  a  few 
more  words  from  Camden,  which  will  tend  to  prove  the  value 
of  the  Phoenician  and  Iberian  dialect  of  the   Scythian  tongue, 
and  to  shew  that  no  man,  but  one   acquainted  therewith,  can 
explain   the   most  ancient  names   of  places  in  a  great  part  of 
Breo-tan  and  Ailb-binn,  as  Luyhd  has  declared. 

Camden  says,  "  Here  I  must  not  pass  by  in  silence  this  in- 



G  Lusius 






"  Who  this  Apollo  Grannus  was,  and  whence  he  had  this 

denomination,  no  one  antiquary,  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge, 

has  ever  yet  told   us,  but   if  I  that   am   of  the   lowest  form, 

may  give   my  sentiments,   1  should   say  that  Apollo  Grannus, 

amongst  the   Romans,  was  the  same  as  tlie  Grecians  Apollon 

Akersekomes,  that  is,  "  having  long  locks,"  for  Isidore  calleth 

the  long  hair  of  the  Goths,   Granni,   but  this  may  be  looked 

upon  as  foreign  to  my  business." 

The  language  whereby  only,  he  or  any  man  could  explain 
this  inscription,  was  foreign  to  Camden,  therefore  to  his  busi- 



ness.  I  cannot  suppose  he  ever  enquired  of  any  of  the  Gaal 
of  Sciot  in  Ailb-binn,  for  the  meaning  of  the  word  Granno ; 
had  he  taken  that  precaution,  instead  of  consulting  Isidore,  1 
make  no  doubt  of  his  having  had  a  satisfactory  solution  there- 
of, which  is  to  be  found  in  the  following  explanation  : 

Apollo  was  by  the  Romans  (no  matter  whether  correctly  or 
not)  held  in  veneration  for  the  Sun,  which  grand  luminary 
was  by  the  Phoenicians,  and  Ib-er-ians,  called  Grian,  the 
God  of  their  w^orship.  Lusius  was  a  Roman,  and  in  fulfiUing 
a  vow  he  had  made  to  this  God,  named  Apollo,  according  to 
the  rite  of  his  own  religion,  to  which  he  added  Grian,  the 
name  of  the  same  deity,  in  the  language  of  the  people  of  the 
land,  whereon  he  erected  his  memorial. 

Apolloni  Grian  would  have  been  the  correct  mode  of  inscri- 
bing both  words  according  to  the  orthography  of  Rome,  as  to 
Apollo,  and  of  Ailb-binn,  as  to  Grian,  but  that  would  be  a 
favor  not  to  be  expected  from  the  barbarous  and  desolating 
Romans,  who  subjected  every  thing  whereon  they  could  set 
their  foot,  lay  their  hand,  fix  their  tooth,  or  turn  their  tongue, 
and  in  this  instance  Grian  hath  been  forced  to  assume  a  Roman 
form  in  obedience  to  Apolloni,  and  to  appear  on  the  marble  of 
G.  Lusius  Sabinia,  in  the  foreign  shape  of  Granno. 

The  undoubted  ignorance  of  the  topographer  Camden,  and 
of  all  his  authorities  being  manifested,  the  analysis,  and  lite- 
ral translation  into  the  Sasson  tongue,  of  as  many  of  the  most 
ancient  names  of  places  in  Breo-tan,  and  Ailb-binn,  as  suffice 
for  every  purpose,  being  set  before  you,  with  the  exception  of 
the  words  Kumero  and  Kimraeg,  reserved  for  the  conclusion 
of  this  section,  it  becomes  necessary  to  refer  to  the  evidence  of 
Edward  Luhyd,  before  stated,  which  I  shall  now  abridge,  in 
order  to  place  his  scheme,  and  my  observations  thereon,  closer 
to  each  other,  that  you  may  have  both  more  immediately  in 

You  have  heard  him  deliver  his  opinion,  "  That  a  colony 
he  hath  been  piea-ed  to  called  Guydhelians,  emigrated  to  Bri- 
tain from  Gaul ; 

"  That  they  were  the  earliest  possessors  of  Britain,   which 


they  inhabited  for  some  time,  till  another  colony  IVoni  Gaul 
also,  arrived  in  this  island,  and  drove  them  westward  to  Le- 
land  ; 

"  That  besides  this  colony  of  British-Irish,  alias  Guydhe- 
lians,  so  driven  by  the  ancestors  of  the  present  ancient  Britons 
or  Welsh,  to  Ireland,  another  colony  called  Scots,  emigrated 
from  Spain  to  Ireland,  which  island  was  co-inhabited  by  these 
two  nations,  to  wit,  Guydhelians  from  Gaul,  and.  Scots  from 

For  which  idea  he  ingenuously  acknowledges  he  hath  no 
written  authority,  but  founds  his  opinion  on  two  facts. 

1st.  That  a  very  great  part  of  the  British  language,  that 
is  the  Welsh,  its  genius  and  nature  are  agreeable  to  the  Irish 
language,  and  that,  as  by  collating  the  languages,  he  found 
one  part  of  the  Irish  reconcileable  to  the  Welsh,  so  by  a 
diligent  perusal  of  the  New  Testament,  and  manuscript  papers 
written  in  the  language  of  the  Cantabrians,  he  had  satisfactory 
knowledge  as  to  the  affinity  of  the  other  part  of  the  Irish  witli 
the  old  Spanish.  So  far  therefore  as  the  Irish  language  agrees 
either  with  the  Welsh,  or  the  other  Britons,  the  words  are 
GuydheUan,  and  for  the  rest,  they  must  be  also  either  Guyd- 
helian  lost  to  the  ancestors  of  the  Welsh,  or  else  ancient  Scot- 

2dly.  That  the  names  of  places,  mountains,  and  rivers 
throughout  Britain,  can  be  explained  only  by  the  Irish  lan- 
guage, which  names,  and  very  many  terms  in  ordinary  use 
amongst  the  Welsh,  are  of  Irish,  not  Welsh  origin,  which 
leaves  no  room  to  doubt  but  the  Irish  must  have  been  the  in- 
habitants of  England  and  Wales  when  those  names  were  im- 
posed, though  none  of  the  Irish  themselves,  amongst  all  the 
writings  they  have  published  about  the  history  and  origin  of 
their  nation,  maintain  they  were  possessed  of  the  country." 

Such  in  few  words  being  the  substance  of  the  scheme  of 
Edward  Lhuyd,  let  us  enquire  who  our  author  was,  and  the 
circumstances  that  led  to  his  intimate  acquaintance  with  the 
Irish  language. 

Edward   Lhuyd    was   an    ancient  Briton,    keeper  of  the 


museum  at  Oxford,  at  the  commencement  of  the  last  century, 
and  being  well  versed  in  the  primitive  language  of  his  race, 
he  was  requested  to  leave  to  posterity  a  legacy  from  the  store 
of  his  acquirements,  to  comply  wherewith,  he  apphed  his 
mind  to  the  study  of  the  history  of  his  country,  from  the 
most  early  times,  the  knowledge  of  which  he  was  sensible 
could  be  attained  by  means  of  the  ancient  language  only* 
wherein  were  expressed  the  most  ancient  names  of  places,  &c' 
which  language  he  naturally  imagined  was  that  wherein  he,  an 
ancient  Briton,  was  eminently  skilled.  But  he  had  not  pro- 
ceeded far  in  his  undertaking,  when  he  discovered  that  the 
most  ancient  names  of  places  in  Britain  were  not  in  his  origi- 
nal tongue,  and  being  aware,  from  his  intimate  knowledge 
therein,  that  his  language  partook  of  the  genius,  and  was  cast 
in  the  mould  of  the  language  of  Eri,  he  repaired  thither,  and 
there  he  satisfied  himself,  that  the  ancient  names  he  sought 
for  were  in  the  language  of  the  people  of  that  land,  and  then 
set  about  the  framing  a  scheme  for  the  purpose  of  accounting 
for  the  fact,  which  he  published  as  a  preface  to  a  Glossary, 
which  he  called  Archeologia  Britannica,  addressed  to  his 
country  people,  the  legacy  which  he  hath  bequeathed  unto 
mankind;  which  scheme  shall  now^be  examined  with  that 
tenderness  and  delicacy  which  modesty  such  as  Lhuyd's  should 
never  fail  to  inspire,  yet  with  the  strictness  that  respect  for 
truth  requires,  nay  demands. 

Before  I  reply  critically  to  these  suppositions,  I  beg  of  you 
not  to  lose  sight  of  two  important  circumstances,  the  one  ap- 
plicable to  the  universe,  the  other  to  the  individual ;  that  no 
human  being  hath  any  sort  of  knowledge,  even  traditionary, 
of  any  emigration  from  Britain  to  Eri,  antecedently  to  the  in- 
troduction of  Normans,  by  the  false  traitor,  Diarmuid  Caba- 
nagh  M'Murrogh,  in  the  year  since  Christ  1169 ;  on  the  con- 
trary that  we  of  Eri  deny  such  a  fact,  and  that  Edward  Lhuyd 
ingenuously  avows  he  hath  no  written  authority,  for  what  he 
candidly  calls  the  novelties  he  hath  uttered,  which  term 
novelty^  you  will  please  to  note,  doth  apply  not  to  what  he 
hath  dehvered  concerning  the  most  ancient  names  of  places  in 


Bri-tain,  being  in  the  Irish  language,  on  which  there  can  be 
no  error,  but  to  his  manner  of  accounting  for  that  fact,  in  whicli 
that  he  hatli  failed  altogether,  will  be  manifested  by  the  few 
following  observations, 

Lhuyd  fancied  that  Ireland  was  co-inhabited  by  two  distinct 
nations,  (for  one  of  whom  he  hath  coined  the  name  of  Guyd- 
heUans,)  immediately  from  Britain,  originally  from  Gaul;  the 
other  Scots  from  Spain,  and  that  it  was  the  Guydhelians,  who, 
during  their  occupation  of  Britain,  imposed  the  most  ancient 
names  on  places  in  that  country,  and  afterwards  were  driven  to 
Ireland  by  another  colony  of  Guydhelians,  who  had  emigrated 
from  Gaul  also  ;  yet  that  these  most  ancient  names  of  places 
in  Britain  were  not  in  the  British,  that  is  Welch,  that  is  the 
the  latter  Guydhelians,  but  in  the  first  Guydhelians  language, 
which  was  the  language  used  in  Ireland,  when  he  visited  that 
country  not  more  than  130  years  ago. 

Now  I  ask  any  man  endowed  but  moderately  with  the  ^ft 
of  discrimination,  if  this  first  fancied  Guydhelian  colony  had 
existence,  would  the  posterity  of  the  second  colony  who  ex- 
pelled their  brethren,  have  a  difficulty  in  solving  the  significa- 
tion of  those  names  imposed  by  a  nation  of  their  own  race  ? 
would  Lhuyd  have  been  under  the  necessity  of  journeying  to 
Ireland,  in  quest  of  the  language  whereby  he  hoped  to  explain 
these  names,  and  in  which  he  did  find  all  the  words  for  which 
he  had  been  at  a  loss  ?  would  not  all  the  names  have  been  in 
his  own  vernacular  tongue  ? 

But  (quoth  he)  these  words  were  lost  to  the  ancestors  of  the 
Welch,  so  then  following  that  fantasy,  we  are  to  believe,  that 
the  people  who  remained  on  the  soil,  lost  the  language,  in 
which  all  the  most  ancient  names  of  remarkable  places  in  their 
proper  country  were  denoted,  and  yet  that  it  was  retained  even 
to  the  days  of  Lhuyd,  by  another  colony  of  the  same  race, 
who  had  no  connexion  with  the  land  for  thousands  of  years  ! 
Eri,  Eri,  to  what  unheard  of  uses  are  thy  language  and  thy 
people  converted !  doth  any  one  fabled  miracle  of  the  church 
militant  here  on  earth  exceed  this  !  !  ! 

Now  prithee  call  to  mind  even  so  much  of  the  ancient  his- 


tory  of  Britain  as  I  have  disclosed  to  you,  do  you  not  find 
therein  a  solution  of  the  facts  in  which  Lhuyd  first  bewildered, 
then  lost  himself,  driven  to  the  necessity  of  fancying  novelties, 
for  which  he  had  no  foundation.  Therein  you  see  clearly  that 
the  language  by  which  and  which  only  the  very  ancient  names 
of  places  in  Britain  can  be  explained,  is  not  a  fictitious  Guyd- 
helian,  but  the  real  Scythian  or  Scottish  language  of  Eri, 
commonly  called  Gaelleag ;  the  language  I  have  proved  iden- 
tic with  the  Persian,  Phoenician,  Hebrew,  Ardmenian,  Gothic 
Grecian  and  Roman ;  this  is  the  language  by  which  all  the 
most  ancient  names  of  places  in  that  part  of  Britain,  colonized 
by  the  Phcenicians  and  Iberians,  must  be  explained,  Llmyd 
was  surprised  that  notwithstanding  the  fact  of  these  names 
being  in  a  language  spoken  in  his  own  days  in  Ireland,  the 
Irish  never  advanced  any  pretension  to  their  having  occupied 
Britain  at  any  time ;  we  never  did,  because  we  never  had  any 
ground  for  the  pretension  ;  but  doth  it  follow,  because  we  of 
Eri  never  possessed  any  part  of  Britain,  that  therefore  no 
people  of  our  race  and  language  did  colonize  districl's  thereof? 
I  hope  I  have  no  occasion  to  use  any  farther  argiunent  to  con- 
vince you,  that  the  tribes  of  Dunmianac,  the  Silures,  and  the 
Brigantes,  were  of  Phoenician  and  Iberian  origin,  and  that 
the  Ib-er-ians  came  to  Britain  from  that  part  of  present  Spain, 
called  Gallicia  and  Biscay;  and  when  I  come  to  Eri,  I  will 
prove  that  from  that  same  Gallacia,  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Iber 
emigrated  to  Eri,  about  31  years  after  Dunmianac  had  been 
discovered  by  the  Phoenicians,  and  colonized  by  the  brethren 
of  those  Iberians  who  colonized  Eri,  the  solution  of  the  fact 
that  the  most  ancient  names  in  a  great  part  of  Britain,  are  in 
the  language  of  Eri ;  and  now  for  the  key  that  closes  the 
arch,  now  for  the  demonstration  that  it  is  by  this  Scythian, 
Scottish,  Gaelleag,  Irish,  and  Erse  language,  not  by  a  whim- 
sical Guydhelian  that  all  these  places  are  denoted ;  a  tribe  of  these 
Sciot,  Scoti  or  Scots,  were  invited  into  the  service  of  the  chief 
and  people  of  Caladun,  and  had  the  district  of  Ardgael,  which 
is  Dalrlgfada,  granted  to  them,  and  there  we  find  the  names 
of  places  expressed  in  the  same  language  as  all   the   most 


ancient  places  from  the  Land's  End  of  Cornwall,  to  Solway 
Firth,  whereby  is  distinctly  manifested  the  connexion  between 
the  Iberian  tribes  of  Britain,  of  Eri,  and  of  Ailbin,  who 
used  a  distinct  language  in  the  time  of  Bcde  from  the  British, 
Pictish  and  L'nglish,  and  as  he  supposed  from  the  Latin,  from 
his  being  unacquainted  with  the  Iberian  diaiect  thereof. 

Lhuyd  supposed  that  the  fact  of  all  the  most  ancient  names 
of  places  in  Britain,  being  in  the  Irish  language,  indicated  a 
former  occupation  of  that  country  by  the  Irish  people ;  what 
would  be  thought  of  a  man  of  hypothesis  who  should  at  some 
future  time,  argue  that  the  people  of  the  republic  of  North 
America  possessed  Botany  Bay,  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 
and  Canada,  and  Nova  Scotia,  from  the  fact  of  the  English 
language  being  spoken  in  these  parts,  surely  it  would  not  be 
proof  of  possession,  though  conclusive  that  ail  the  people  who 
spoke  the  English  language  were  of  one  common  origin. 

In  fine  Lhuyd  is  perfectly  correct  in  saying,  that  all  the 
most  ancient  names  of  places  in  Britain  are  in  the  Irish  lan- 
guage, but  is  erroneous  in  fancying  it  to  be  Guydhelian,  of 
which  word  I  can  but  guess  at  the  meaning,  and  suppose  it  to 
be  a  kind  of  English  translation  of  the  bard's  monstrous  dis- 
tortion of  Gaal,  of  which  they  made  Gaoidhiol,  for  the  sake 
of  their  rhymes,  if  this  be  the  word,  the  misconception  of 
Lhuyd  is  complete  in  every  case,  his  Guydhelian  being  the 
common  or  ordinary  name  of  the  Iberian  and  Scottish  dialect 
of  the  Scythian  tongue,  signifying  neither  more  or  less  than 
the  language  of  the  Gaal,  that  is,  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Iber, 
heretofore  fully  explained. 

As  these  observations  furnish  a  sufficient  answer  to  all 
writers  of  all  times,  who  have  imposed  their  ignorance  on  the 
ignorance  pand  credulity  of  their  readers,  I  have  no  occasion 
to  notice  their  lucubrations  more  particularly,  and  shall  dismiss 
this  part  of  the  subject  with  the  observation,  that  in  all  those 
instances  where  British  or  English  writers  use  the  word 
British,  as  forming  a  part  of  the  ancient  names  I  have  enu- 
merated, you  should  substitute  Irish  therefor. 

And  now  let  me  fulfil  the  other  parts  of  my  undertaking, 


and  first  as  to  the  Druidic  religion,  on  which  many  mistakes 
have  prevailed  amongst  moderns  ;  all  which  let  the  following 
few  words  correct. 

It  was  first  introduced  into  Dunmianac  by  the  Phoenicians, 
and  from  thence  found  its  way  to  Bri-taign  in  Gaul,  and  that 
it  originated  in  this  island  is  clearly  proved  by  the  facts,  that 
the  Phoenicians  had  no  intercourse  with  Air-moir-ce,  and  that 
Julius  Cgesar,  whom  I  must  consider  good  authority,  expressly 
says,  "  it  is  thought  this  discipline  was  first  instituted  in 
Britain,  and  from  thence  transferred  to  Gaul ;  for  even  at  this 
day,  those  who  desire  to  be  perfect  masters  of  their  art,  take 
a  yoyage  thither  to  learn  it ;"  nor  does  it  appear  to  have  ex- 
tended farther  than  to  some  small  part  of  this  island,  and  to 
the  middle  third  of  Gaul,  most  assuredly  to  Ireland  it  never 
found  its  way ;  and  if  my  own  judgment  be  of  avail,  I  am 
of  opinion  that  part  of  Gaul  called  Air-moir-ce  or  Britaigne, 
was  more  indebted  for  population  to  the  island  of  Britain,  than 
Britain  to  it. 

As  to  the  nation  of  Caledonia,  vulgarly  and  most  erroneously 
called  Picti  by  the  Romans,  Sassonized  to  Picts,  being  of  Bri- 
tish origin,  for  the  reasons  Camden  gives,  I  consider  his  con- 
jectures as  altogether  false  or  insufficient,  false  because  there 
is  no  instance  in  their  history  of  their  submitting  to  be  go- 
verned by  a  woman,  which  the  pedant  mistook  from  their  cus- 
tom of  the  male  chief  succeeding  by  the  female,  not  the  male 
line  ;  insufficient,  because  though  they  did  in  the  Roman  times 
even  paint  their  bodies,  it  does  nut  appear  to  have  been  an 
original  custom,  if  which  had  been  the  case,  the  chronicles  of 
Eri  would  certainly  have  noticed  it ;  and  it  must  be  presumed 
was  adopted  by  them  in  after  times,  an  improvement  on  the 
British  fashion  of  smearing  with  woad ;  because  though  one 
or  two  of  their  chiefs  were  named  Brudi,  (if  this  whimsical 
conceit  of  the  identity  of  Brudi  and  Brith,  pi'oceeding  from 
the  fancy  of  a  man  wholly  ignorant  of  the  language  of  which 
these  are  words,)  is  to  be  seriously  noticed  and  replied  to,  I  ask 
if  Brudi  or  Brith  means  painted,  why  call  the  people  Picti, 
which  signifies  painted  also  ?  and  as  to  the  assertion  of  Cam- 


den,  that  the  Romans  called  them  Britanni,  from  which  he 
concludes  that  the  Plcti  were  real  Britons,  I  answer,  though 
some  of  the  Roman  writers  did  call  them  Britanni,  merely  be- 
cause they  inhabited  Britannia,  being  ignorant  or  indifferent  of 
their  origin,  and  when  they  speak  generally  of  the  Britanni, 
but  why  call  them  Picti  in  the  same  sentence  wherein  they 
named  them  Britanni,  why  say  Picti,  Scoti,  atque  Britanni?  and 
inorcover  let  the  evidence  of  language  be  referred  to,  doth  not 
Bede  tell  of  five  different  languages  in  his  time  in  Britain ; 
British,  Pictish,  Roman,  Scottish,  and  English  ?  and  though  he 
iloth  mark  a  distinction  between  the  Pictish  and  English,  be 
it  considered,  the  Pici  moved  from  the  Euxine  into  Scandi- 
navia, and  that  Angli  were  in  the  other  extremity  of  the  land 
at  an  immense  distance,  which  might  have  caused,  and  it 
seems  did  cause  so  great  a  diversity  in  the  dialects,  that  an 
Anglus  in  730  since  Christ,  did  not  recognize  the  relationship, 
which  no  doubt  length  of  time,  distance  of  place,  and  various 
circumstances,  had  r.early  worn  out,  and  the  aborigines,  whom 
they  called  Britanni. 

It  now  remains  that  1  fulfil  my  promise,  to  shew  that  the  word 
Kumero  hath  no  affinity  to  Cimmerii,  Cimbri,  or  Goraerii, 
for  the  proof  of  which,  very  few  words  will  suffice ;  the 
word  Cimmerii  hath  been  already  explained  to  be  derived 
from  Geimar,  which  signifies  winter,  a  term  applied  to  the 
part  of  Europe  invaded  by  the  Gothl.  Now  the  Irish  Cumar, 
of  which  Kumero  and  Kimreag  are  corruptions,  is  descriptive 
of  the  natural  quahty  of  the  country  west  of  the  Severn,  as 
well  as  of  the  district  called  Cumar,  now  Cumberland,  the 
meaning  of  which  is  merely  "  a  country  of  uneven  surface,  a 
land  of  vales  and  mountains,  hills  and  dales,"  search  all  the 
store  of  antiquity,  you  will  not  find  such  a  name  as  Kumero  or 
Cymri,  by  which  any  nation  or  tribe  throughout  Breo-tan  or 
Ailb-binn  had  been  denominated. 

We  hear  of  Regni,  Dobuni,  Catheuchlani,  Trinobantes, 
Iceni,  Coritani,  Cornavii,  and  Ottadini,  in  England,  and  of 
the  Dimeta2  and  Ordevices  in  the  country,  now  called  Wales, 
but  no  such  people  as  Kumeri   or  Cymri ;   both   Cumar  and 


Gaal  are  Scythian  words,  the  latter  as  before  mentioned,  ap- 
plied by  the  Iberians  to  their  own  tribe,  and  tribes  not  of  their 
race  in  their  neighbourhood,  for  which  reason  the  people  of 
Cumar  are  called  by  the  Gauls  of  Armorica  at  this  day  Gailes, 
converted  by  the  Sassons  into  Wales ;  as  the  Germanni 
changed  Gaaldunseis  to  Waldenseis,  after  their  fashion.  No- 
thing can  be  more  absurd  than  to  fancy  that  the  Sassons  called 
the  native  people  of  Breo-tan  Wealch,  as  strangers,  the  true 
designation  of  the  tribes  of  Cumar  would  be  the  Gaal  of  Cumar, 
and  speaking  of  the  people,  it  would  be  Cumarig ;  besides,  how 
could  the  name  be  attached  to  the  people  west  of  Severn,  and 
in  Cumar  south  of  Solvvay,  as  though  they  were  Cimmerii, 
Cirabri,  Gomari,  seeing  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  former, 
and  all  the  latter  district,  was  entirely  occupied  by  Iberians, 
who  were  Scythians ;  and  what  confirms  the  absurdity  of  de- 
ducing any  of  the  nations  of  Britain,  save  the  Peucini  and 
Belgae,  from  the  Cimmerii,  Ciiiibri,  is  the  difference  of  the  lan- 
guage spoken  by  the  Sassons  who  were  Cimmerii,  and  the 
Britons  of  Cumar  proved  to  be  distinct  in  ancient  days,  if  the 
evidence  of  Tacitus,  Caesar,  Bede,  and  Lhuyd,  are  of  any 
value,  and  as  is  evident  to  even  a  superficial  observer  at  this 
day,  who  can  ktiow  if  he  can  hear,  that  the  Belga,-  on  the  con- 
tinent of  Europe  speak  the  same  language  as  the  Sassons  in 
England,  and  the  Germans,  and  that  the  people  of  Bretagne 
use  the  same  speech  as  the  people  called  Welsh  by  the  Sazons, 
and  Gailes  by  the  Armoricans,  The  truth  is,  the  name  of 
Wales  was  imposed  by  the  Sassons,  about  the  same  era  that 
the  Aborigines  and  the  Iberians,  west  of  Severne,  assumed 
the  specific  denomination  of  the  Gaal  of  Cumar  or  Cumarig, 
which  was  afterwards  caught  at  by  the  sticklers  for  the  infal- 
libility of  the  traditions  of  the  Hebrews,  as  liaving  some  faint 
resemblance  to  Cimmerii,  and  that  to  Gomeri,  to  derive  them 
from  Ardmenia,  as  the  progeny  of  a  man  Gomer,  the  son  of 
Japheth,  of  fictitious  existence. 

And  now  having,  I  trust,  laid  a  foundation  on  sure  grounds, 
for  the  very  ancient  history  of  this  island,  and  deduced  the 
various  notions  thereon  from  their  true  original,  I  will  take  my 

DEMON  STllATiON.  CCCxlvii 

leave,  and  steer  from  my  poor  Eri ;  but  previously  to  my  final 
departure,  let  me  give  an  unerring  proof  of  the  total  difference 
of  the  three  primitive  languages  at  this  present  moment  in  use 
in  the  island  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  their  fundamental 
originality,  as  also  the  certain  criterion  whereby  to  distinguish 
each.  The  proof  is  to  be  found  in  the  existence  of  the  British, 
Celtic  or  Cumareag,  and  Scythian,  Scottish,  or  Gaelag,  and 
tlieir  rejection  to  amalgamate  with  the  Cimmerian,  or  Germannic, 
or  Sasson,  and  keep  distinct  from  eacli  other  up  to  this  hour, 
though  every  nerve  has  been  strained  by  the  Sassons,  whose 
power  yet  predominates,  to  obliterate  the  two  former ;  and  the 
distinguishing  critereon  is,  that  the  common  terms  in  the 
English  tongue,  such  as  a  rude  people  would  use,  are  Cim- 
merian, and  all  the  terms  of  arts  and  sciences,  civilization  and 
refinement  are  formed  on  a  barbarous  latin,  first  Gallicized 
and  then  Anglicized,  to  suit  the  genius  of  the  original  speech, 
but  all  foreign  thereto.  That  all  British  words  that  have  no 
relation  to  Greek  or  Roman  in  their  refined  form,  are  originals, 
whilst  the  others  have  been  adopted  from  the  Scythians  of 
Dun-mianac,  tJie  Sul-ur-eis,  Breo-ceant-eis,  and  the  tribes 
of  Aillvbinn,  as  heretofore  explained  as  Edward  Lhyud  hath 
testified,  and  wisdom  confirms.  And  that  the  Iberian,  Scot- 
tish, Erse,  or  Gaelleag,  is  the  ancient  Scythian  in  its  uncouth 
state,  of  which  the  Greek  and  Roman  languages  are  dialects, 
as  hath  been  shewn  ;  to  which  let  m  e  add  as  proof  direct  and 
positive  of  the  affinity  of  the  Peucini  and  Belga?,  with  the 
Jutes,  the  Sassons,  and  Angles,  and  with  each  other;  that  the 
dialects  of  all  these  have  become  so  completely  blended  that  no 
diff*erence  exists,  save  in  some  few  very  ancient  words  still  re- 
tained by  the  Caledonians,  and  in  a  more  primitive  pronuncia- 
tion of  the  language  owing  to  their  more  northern  situation. 
These  important  truths  I  impart  to  the  people  of  Great  Britain 
with  sincere  good  will  and  affection,  which  is  as  strong  for 
them,  as  is  my  hatred  and  detestation  for  that  oligarchy,  which, 
by  the  power  they  have  acquired  from  a  variety  of  causes, 
have  prostrated  Ireland,  are  trampling  on  Britain,  and  have 
carried  by  means  of  a  mockery  of  representation,  a  complete 


victory  over  the  king  whom  they  have  stripped  off  all  his  rights 
and  prerogatives,  and  over  the  people  whose  ancient  laws  and 
liberties  they  have  nearly  extinguished,  provoking  the  horrors  of 
anarchy  and  civil  war,  for  the  suppression  of  which  they  place 
their  hope  on  the  submission  to  their  will  of  the  portion  of  the 
people  they  have  armed,  to  be  arrayed  against  their  brethren, 
whom  they  have  disarmed,  and  yet  insultingly  call  a  free 
people !  ! ! 


Note.  Of  those  to  whom  this  idea  may  seem  inexplicable,  I  beg  to  ask, 
what  are  comets  ?  are  they  not  at  times  visible  to  us  of  this  earth,  mem- 
bers of  this  our  solar  system  ?  do  they  not  stray  thereout  ?  consequently 
doth  it  not  follow  that  neither  the  eye  of  man,  nor  yet  those  appliances 
the  cunning  animal  hath  invented  in  aid  of  natural  vision,  can  penetrate  the 
illimitable  expanse  of  air?  that  there  are  an  infinite  number  of  etherial 
systems,  and  that  a  member  of  one  of  these  systems  existing  from  eternity, 
(time  being  as  boundless  as  space,)  might  and  hath  become  a  member  of 
some  other  of  these  systems  ;  or  may  not  the  wanderer  regain  his  former 
system  from  causes  (for  which  man  though  he  never  falleth  to  conjecture,) 
cannot  account.  I  wish  that  women  would  attend  to  the  cultivation  of 
their  minds,  and  write  down  thtir  sentiments,  to  counteract  the  ignorance 
and  hypocrisy  of  the  politic  artful  iiend  man. 



XIAVING  attended  the  different  colonics  of  the  Scythian 
race  in  theii*  migrations  througli  Europe,  of  whom  the  Og-eag- 
eis,  Goths,  and  Iberians  were  Noe-maid-eis  from  Magh  Og, 
the  others  directly  or  indirectly  from  the  land  of  Canaan,  save 
the  Cretans,  Phrygians,  Lydians,  and  Phocians,  I  come  now 
to  speak  more  particularly  of  the  tribe  known  by  the  specific 
denomination  of  Gaal  Sciot  Ib-eir,  who  emigrated  from  Iber, 
by  the  way  of  Sidon  and  the  Mediterranean  to  the  north 
western  quarter  of  Spain,  to  which  they  gave  the  name  of 
Gaelag,  where  having  abided  for  the  space  of  120  years,  Eolus 
the  then  chief  journeyed  to  Sidon,  where  he  learned  the  use 
of  letters,  whither  he  shortly  afterwards  sent  nine  of  the  wisest 
of  the  people  to  be  instructed  in  that  science. 

Being  thus  enabled  to  record  past  events  in  characters 
durable,  Eolus  compiled  the  traditions  of  his  nation,  from  the 
most  distant  note  of  time  down  to  his  own  days,  which  com- 
pilation forms  the  first  six  chapters  of  the  chronicles  you  are 
on  the  eve  of  i-eading.  The  nine  men  having  returned  to 
Gaelag  stored  with  the  knowledge  of  letters,  an  order  called 
01am,  (teachers  or  wise  men,)  was  instituted  by  Eolus,  of 
which  one  was  elected  Ard  or  chief  O  lam  by  his  brethern,  the 
principal  duty  of  whose  office  was,  to  commit  to  writing:  the 
annals  of  the  Gaal  during  his  days,  therein  following  the  ex- 
ample of  their  race  in  Phoenicia,  to  whom  they  were  indebted 
for  the  means,  of  whom  Josephus,  says,  "  so  great  was  their 
(the  Phoenicians)  care  that  the  memorial  of  past  transactions 
should  not  be  lost,  that  their  wisest  men  continually  preserved 
them  in  public  records  sacredly,"  which  memorials  of  this  Gaal 
so  preserved  from  the  time  of  Eolus,  by  each  Ard  01am  suc- 
cessively, are  now  presented  to  you. 


From  which  pure  uncontaminated  source  you  will  derive  the 

That  when  this  tribe  had  sojourned  250  years  in  Gaelag,  a 
colony  of  them  led  by  Eocaid,  the  brother  of  Cean-ard,  the 
ruling  chief,  crossed  th6  Pyrenees,  and  seating  themselves  on 
the  far  side  of  those  mountains,  called  the  land  Eocaid-tan, 
from  whence  went  forth  a  colony  eastward  amongst  the 
mountains,  who  called  themselves  Gaaklun-seis. 

That  when  this  tribe  had  dwelled  453  years  in  Gaelag, 
Sidonians  passed  the  Breo-ccean  of  Gaelag,  and  discovered  the 
island  to  which  they  gave  the  name  of  Breo-tan,  the  present 

That  when  this  tribe  had  abided  484  years  in  Gaelag,  Se- 
sostris  having  moved  from  Egyjit,  invaded  Spain,  which  he 
over-ran,  and  established  idolatry  therein,  whereupon  the  chief, 
princes,  nobles,  olam,  and  as  many  of  the  Gaal  as  had  means 
of  emigration,  quitted  Gaelag  rather  than  live  m  subjection  to 
a  foreign  yoke,  and  steered  their  course  westward  of  Breo-tain, 
to  an  island  that  had  first  been  called  Fodhla,  at  that  time 
Dan-ba,  to  which  they  gave  the  name  of  Eri,  their  departure 
having  been  accelerated  by  an  uncommon  drought,  famine  and 
plague,  the  fidelity  of  these  chronicles  being  corroborated  by 
the  relations  of  other  nations  bearing  testimony  to  these  events, 
whilst  the  fact  of  the  total  ignorance  of  our  forefathers,  of 
idolatry,  is  proof  positive  of  their  having  abondoned  the  penin- 
sula at  a  time  anterior  to  the  introduction  of  image  worship  in 
Spain,  by  Sesostris,  and  ascertains  his  age,  as  well  as  our  emi- 
gration, fixing  both  to  1006  years  before  Christ,  antecedently 
to  which  time  by  thirty  years,  multitudes  of  the  Iberians  from 
Buas-ce  and  Gaelag,  were  conducted  by  the  Pha-nicians  to 
Bintain,  divers  portions  of  which,  they  colonized  as  heretofore 

The  Gaal  Sciot  Ib-eir  having  established  themselves  in  throe 
quarters  of  Eri, 

Their  chronicles  will  inform  you,  that  the  genuine  feodal 
system  was  in  perfect  operation. 


Government  executed  by  a  single  chief  elected, 

An  armed  people, 

Public  assemblies, 

Possession  of  lands  not  individual,  but  tribal, 

Dwelling  in  tents ; 

That  the  people  were  fire  worshippers,  and  paid  adoration 
to  the  sun,  by  the  name  of  Baal,  to  the  moon,  which  they 
called  Re,  and  to  the  stars,  all  characteristic  of  the  Scythian 
race,  to  which  religion  they  adhered  till  the  introduction  of 
the  eastern  discipline  of  the  Christian  church,  nor  are  the  ves- 
tiges of  veneration  for  fire  even  yet  woni  out,  from  which  pri- 
mitive institutions  they  never  dechned,  till  the  invasion  of  the 
Cimmerian  Normans  and  Sassons,  from  which  lamentable  day, 
our  ancient  manners  and  customs,  institutions  and  laws,  have 
been  destroyed  aftd  the  name  of  Eri  hath  been  blotted  out 
from  amongst  the  nations  of  the  earth,  the  place  she  had  so 
long,  so  famously  held,  engrossed  by  that  of  Britain. 

These  Chronicles  will  instruct  you,  that  at  the  time  of  the 
arrival  of  our  forefathers  from  Gaelag  in  this  island,  they 
found,  nor  had  they  heard  of,  but  two  races  of  mankind,  one 
the  aborigines,  whom  they  called  Ce-gail  or  Fir-gneat,  and 
preceding  invaders,  who  called  themselves  Danan,  and  that 
Partholanus,  Nemidius,  African  giants  and  pirates,  and  Dam- 
nonian  necromancers,  are  children  of  fable,  fictions  of  the 
fancy  of  the  bards. 

They  shew  that  the  Sidonians,  so  far  from  havinir  any  in- 
tercourse with  this  island,  as  some  superficial  schemers  have 
fancied,  never  approached  the  shores  save  once,  and  then 
were  not  suffered  to  come  to  land  ; 

And  that  the  Gaal  Sciot  Ib-eir  abided  altogether  within 
Eri,  for  seven  hundred  years,  without  communication  with 
any  other  people,  till  a  tribe  of  Basternae,  of  the  specific  deno- 
mination of  Peucini,.  according  to  the  Romans,  by  us  called 
Gaal  of  Feotar,  arrived  in  this  island,  from  whence  they 
shaped  their  course  to  Ailb-binn,  between  whom  and  us,  these 
records  prove  the  connexion. 

These   Chronicles,    and  this   Demonstration,   will  be  the 


means  of  enabling  all  who  are  endued  with  understanding,  to 
comprehend  the  reason  of  Cyrus,  the  Elamite  or  Persian  Scy- 
thian, (whose  mother  was  Mandane,  the  daughter  of  Asty- 
ages,  the  Median  Assyrian)  being  called  a  Mule,  to  appre- 
ciate truly  the  portion  of  Hebrew  story  ascribed  to  Daniel, 
his  capability  to  fix  the  termination  even  to  one  night,  of  the 
Assyrian  empire  in  Babylon,  his  treason  to  Bels-assur,  the 
Assyrian,  his  adherence  to  Cyrus  the  Scythian,  the  tale  of 
Daniel  and  the  Lions,  the  favor  of  that  prince  towards  him, 
and  the  decree  authorizing  the  Hebrew  Scythians  captivated 
by  the  Gentile  Assyrians  to  return  to  their  own  land,  and  re- 
build their  Temple. 

This  will  explain  the  cause  of  the  course  pursued  by  Og- 
Eisceann,  on  his  invasion  of  western  Asia,  why  he  fastened 
on  Media,  did  not  spare  the  children  of  Israel,  and  meditated 
a  descent  on  Egypt,  clearly  demonstrative  of  the  difference  of 
origin  of  the  Scythians,  Assyrians,  and  Egyptians,  and  of 
the  disrespect  of  the  genuine  Scythians  for  the  Hebrew  branch 
of  that  vast  family,  in  consequence  of  their  separation  from 
the  children  of  their  race. 

These  Chronicles  will  point  out  to  you  the  perfect  similarity 
in  the  mode  of  public  assemblies  in  Greece  and  Italy,  and  in 
Eri,  the  former  at  the  Prytaneium  Demoi,  the  latter  at  the 
Briteini  Duine,  the  fire  hill  close  to  Asti,  as  well  as  in  those 
multitudinous  customs  peculiar  to  the  Scythian  race,  men- 
tioned in  the  Demonstration. 

These  particulars,  and  many  more,  confirmative  of  the 
Scythian  origin  of  the  Sciot  of  Eri,  these  Chronicles  point 
out,  therefore  little  more  now  remains  than  to  speak  of  the 
language  in  which  these  records  are  delineated,  of  the  perfect 
identity  of  which,  with  that  of  the  Persians,  Phoenicians, 
Hebrews,  Greeks,  Romans,  and  Cantabrians,  though  you 
must  long  ere  this  time  have  been  convinced,  I  shall  make  a 
few  observations  that  will  produce  the  effect  of  putting  to 
silence  for  ever  more  the  senseless  political  fictions  of  Sasson 
scribblers,  hired  by  their  oligarchy,  who  up  to  this  day,  the  last 
of  their  imposture  on  this  head,  have  impressed  the  minds  of 


their  country  people,  and  abused  the  ear  of  Christendom  with 
the  idea,  that  the  Scots  of  Eri  had  no  letters  till  instructed 
therein  by  a  priest  called  Patrick,  dignified  with  the  title  of 
Saint,  an  assertion  copied  up  to  this  hour  from  the  inventor 
whoever  he  was,  by  every  succeeding  man  of  the  pen,  and 
assented  to  on  their  accumulated  authority,  by  those  who  do 
not  allow  themselves  time  to  reflect,  and  give  credence  to  men 
falsely  styled  learned,  because  they  had  the  reputation  of 
reading  much.  Let  which  assertion  in  future  be  collated  with 
these  Chronicles,  and  the  few  words  that  follow. 

The  language  in  which  these  Chronicles  are  written,  is  at 
this  day  called  Bearla-Feine,  the  signification  of  which  is,  the 
Phcenician  language,  from  the  very  circumstance  of  our  an- 
cestors having  been  instructed  by  the  Phoenicians  in  the  know- 
ledge of  the  characters  by  which  it  was  denoted,  as  the  Greelcs 
did,  as  we  learn  from  Herodotus,  call  them  the  Phoenician  or 
Cadmean  letters,  the  Iberian  dialect  being  called  Gneat  Bearla, 
the  meaning  of  which  is,  "  the  unwritten  Vernacular  or  native 
tongue  r  and  also  Gael-ag,  that  is  the  language  of  the  gaa.  > 
tribe,  or  kindred ;  these  letters  taught  to  Eolus,  and  the  01am 
in  Sidon,  were  16,  A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  G,  I,  L,  M,  N,  O,  R, 
S,  T,  U,  the  figure  of  which  is  described  in  the  fac  similes 
annexed.  Now  if  our  ancestors  had  been  ignorant  of  letters, 
till  instructed  by  this  St.  Patrick,  let  me  ask,  is  it  not  said 
that  this  man  came  from  Rome?  was  not  the  Roman  the  lan- 
guage with  which  he  was  himself  acquainted  ?  were  not  the 
Roman  characters  those,  which  he  would  have  imparted  to 
our  fathers,  for  the  purpose  of  converting  them  to,  and  keep- 
ing them  steadfeast  in  the  Roman  doctrines  he  came,  as  said, 
to  promulgate  ?  How  then  did  it  come  to  pass,  that  the  let- 
ters that  ever  were,  and  still  are,  in  use  in  Eri,  are  not  the 
three  and  twenty  Roman,  but  the  sixteen  Phoenician  letters, 
between  which  there  is  little  or  no  resemblance.  Seeing  then 
that  the  Roman  and  Irish  characters  have  no  correspondence 
either  in  number  or  figure,  I  leave  the  world  to  judge  of  the 
degree  of  credit  in  future  to  be  attached  to  men,  who  with 
that  confidence   that  never  fails  to  accompany  ignorance  and 


deceit,  have  ventured  to  transcribe  the  fiction.  But  when  it 
is  farther  taken  to  account,  that  the  existence  of  this  Irish 
church  militant  is  much  more  than  doubtful,  that  his  paren- 
tage, country,  yea  his  name,  are  matter  of  mere  conjecture, 
that  the  feats  of  his  legerdemain,  the  least  miraculous  of  them, 
a  mortal  wound  to  the  veracity  of  every  tale  related  of  him, 
fill  volumes,  1  repeat,  what  credence  is  to  be  given  to  this 

I  marvel  that  no  attempt  had  been  made  in  the  l5th  cen- 
tury, the  procreant  season  of  rank  forgery,  by  the  ignorant 
pretenders  to  learning  in  Britain,  to  prove  that  this  wonder- 
working Saint  taught  us  to  speak,  which  would  be  nothing 
more  stupendous  than  an  infinity  of  exhibitions  ascribed  to 
him,  and  would  be  as  greedily  swallowed,  aye,  and  would  be 
digested  by  thousands,  and  tens  of  thousands,  as  all  the  others 
have  been,  such  an  unaccountable  brute  is  man.  And  now,  to 
give  a  quietus  to  Patrick,  and  to  this,  and  every  other  tale, 
whereof  he  is  the  champion,  I  undertake  to  demonstrate  that 
no  such  individual  did  eveV  figure  on  the  stage  of  Eri. 

It  is  said  on  no  certain  authority,  that  Celestine  Pope  of 
Rome  sent  a  missionary,  on  whom  the  title  of  Patricius  was 
conferred,  who  was  in  due  time  elevated  to  the  sainthood,  and 
that  by  this  Patrician  Saint  from  Rome,  vulgarly  called  Saint 
Patrick,  the  Irish  fire  worshippers  were  converted  to  the  doc- 
trine and  ceremonies  of  the  Roman  or  western  church. 

It  is  an  historical  fact,  that  when  Eugenius  the  third  Pope  of 
the  same  Rome,  did  send  four  palls,  as  a  proof  of  his  tender  love 
for  the  Irish,  as  he  said,  but  really  to  prove  the  acceptance  as 
a  badge  and  token  of  their  subjection  to  his  semi-divine  king- 
dom, he  with  them  sent  one  John  Paparo,  in  order  to  prevail 
on  these  same  Irish  to  conform  to  the  Roman  rites  and  cere- 
monies, and  particulaily  as  to  the  celebration  of  the  Paschal 
festival,  which  our  ancestors  observed  not  according  to  the 
discipline  of  the  Roman  or  Western,  but  of  die  Eastern 
Church  ;  and  it  is  also  matter  of  fact,  that  when  in  one  hun- 
dred years  afterwards,  Robert  Breakspear,  an  Englishman, 
Pope  of  the  same  Rome,  by  the  name  of  Hadrian  the  Fourth, 


took  the  liberty,  as  vice-gcient  of  God,  to  bestow  our  Eri  on 
his  countryman  Henry  the  Second  of  England,  one  of  the 
conditions  of  the  deed  of  bargain  and  sale  between  this  tem- 
poral and  spiritual  thief  was,  that  the  said  Henry  should  con- 
vert our  ancestors  to  the  Christian  faith,  and  that  deed  is  the 
origin  of  the  title  of  a  foreigner,  a  Cinniicrian,  to  the  seat  of 
the  elected  chief  of  Eri,  the  title  confirmed  mit  by  the  prowess 
nor  beneficent  rule  of  the  intruder,  but  our  disunion,  sense- 
less pride,  jealousy,  and  contention,  which  by  culpable  apa- 
thy his  successors  have  y.iffered  to  be  usurped  by  a  base, 
ignoble  oligarchy. 

I  say,  one  of  the  conditions  to  be  fulfilled  by  Henry,  was 
to  convert  the  Irish  to  Christianity.  Now  I  ask  any  man, 
even  the  most  sophisticated  benighted  Papist,  if  Patrick,  a 
Roman  western  missionary,  had  converted  the  Irish  to  Chris- 
tianity in  the  space  of  time  between  5S0  and  580,  would  they 
be  found  in  1050,  not  in  communion  with  tlie  Roman  or  West- 
ern church,  in  the  most  solcnm  of  all  their  ceremonies,  the 
celebration  of  Easter,  but  with  the  eastern  church?  And 
again,  would  it  have  been  necessary  for  Breakspear,  in  1160, 
to  have  made  it  one  of  the  conditions  of  the  bargain  and  sale 
between  him  and  Henry  the  Second  of  I'^ngland,  to  convert 
us  Irish  to  Christianity,  the  eastern  logic  being  considered  bv 
the  western  or  Roman  in  as  evil  a  light  as  Paganism  itself.? 

The  proofs  heretofore  submitted  to  you  are  irrefragable  of 
the  identity  of  the  Scottish  language,  or  Gaeleag  as  now  called, 
with  the  Phoenician,  the  fact  hath  been  demonstrated  in  Bri- 
tain, where  you  have  proof  direct  and  positive,  that  the  tribes 
from  Cantabria  who  colonized  Dun-mianac,  the  land  of  the 
Sul-ur-es,  and  of  the  Breo-cceann-t-eis,  spoke  the  same  lan- 
guage as  the  tribe  that  colonized  Eri  from  the  same  quarter  ; 
a  fact  which  accounts  for  the  most  ancient  names  of  places  in 
Britain,  being  at  this  day  explain  ed  by  the  language  now  in  use 
in  Eri,  not  a  fanciful  Guydhelian,  but  the  actual  Scythian 
Bearla  Feine,  Scottish,  Gaelleag,  Erse,  introduced  into  Ard- 
gael,  by  the  colony  conducted  to  Dalrigfada,  by  Eocaid  Cairbre,. 
and  to  Craig,  by  Feargus,   the  son  of  Muin-rarnar,  in  which 


same  language  all  the  names  of  places  on  the  western  coast, 
and  in  the  western  islands  of  Scotland  are  expressed  ;  and 
though  our  language  is  the  greatest  curiosity  to  be  found  in 
Eri,  our  actual  political  state  excepted,  as  it  hath  sur- 
vived, it  is  not  to  be  wondered  that  it  preserved  its  original 
purity  down  to  the  era  of  the  Norman  invasion,  when  it  is 
considered  that  we  dwelled  apart  from  stranger  people  during 
our  abode  of  484  years  in  the  north  west  corner  of  Spain ; 
and  all  the  time  of  our  existence  in  Eri,  under  circumstances 
that  sufficiently  explain  the  cause  of  its  exemption  from  cor- 
ruption, without  the  aid  of  the  observation  of  Plato  in  his 
Cratylus,  "  that  the  original  names  of  things,  long  since  obso- 
lete and  out  of  use,  are  preserved  in  barbarous  tongues,  be- 
cause the  most  ancient ;"  when  I  apply  the  term  original 
purity  to  the  Scythian  language  of  Eri,  I  mean  not  to  say  it 
is  a  refined  language  ;  no,  its  refinement  Avas  obstructed  by  the 
Saxons,  ignorant  of  its  worth,  though  they  are  indebted  to  it  for 
the  letters  first  in  use  with  them ;  its  great  value  consists  in  its 
having  retained  its  radical  structure,  for  certainly  national  pride 
and  prejudice  cannot  be  carried  to  a  greater  extent  than  in  the 
manner  wherein  the  people  of  Eri  contend  for  the  beauty, 
graces,  all  perfective  truly,  of  their  language ;  whereas  it  can 
be  considered  only  as  a  rare  curiosity,  venerable  for  its  anti- 
quity, and  the  preservation  of  its  antique  form,  which  it  would 
not  have  retained,  had  we  been  in  communication  with  other 
nations  of  the  earth.  At  the  same  time  be  it  remembered  that 
this  language  hath  long  since  been  confined  to  the  mouths  of 
the  poor  and  ignorant,  no  longer  spoken  and  written  by  the 
kings,  princes,  nobles,  and  olam  of  the  land. 

And  now  pray  letme  ask  who  are "  the  people  with  whom 
have  originated  the  aspersions  and  calumnies  on  our  na- 
tion and  our  language,  are  they  not  the  Sassons,  and 
are  they  qualified  to  give  even  an  opinion  on  this  sub- 
ject, ignorant  as  they  are  of  the  only  means  whereby 
truth  can  be  investigated  ;  a  people  who  with  a  devour- 
ing tongue  have  made  rude  and  wanton  havoc  in  all  the 
delicacies  of  antiquity,  who  with  a  licentious  and  destroying 


hand,  have  not  only  lopped  the  branches,  marred  the  trunk, 
but  torn  up  by  the  very  root,  the  tree  of  knowledge  of  the 
antique  world,  and  violated  fair  science  in  her  most  venerable 
sanctuary  ;  insomuch,  that  etymology,  by  means  whereof  alone 
the  genuine  origin  of  nations  of  very  remote  antiquity,  can  be 
explored  with  exactitude,  hath  in  England  become  a  subject 
of  derision,  from  the  difficulties  with  which  it  is  embarrassed 
by  the  arbitrary  spirit  and  practice  of  the  people,  whose  ver- 
nacular tongue,  not  allied  in  the  most  distant  degree  to  the 
language  of  Eri,  hath  adopted  for  the  denotement  of  all  arts 
and  sciences,  and  of  nearly  all  ideas,  save  those  conceived  in 
the  rudest  state  of  society,  and  for  the  expression  of  wants 
most  circumscribed,  the  terms  of  Greece  and  Rome  to  more 
than  a  moiety  of  their  nomenclature,  forced  to  the  harsh  dis- 
cipline of  their  rough  tongue,  between  which  foreign  auxilia- 
ries and  other  dialects  of  the  same  family,  they  cannot  discover 
the  affinity,  proof  incontrovertible  of  the  difference  of  origin 
between  the  Scythian  and  Cimmerian,  bar  insurmountable  to  the 
Sassons  of  England  to  any  effectual  research  into  the  depths  of 
antiquity,  insomuch,  that  though  some  have  candidly  acknow- 
ledged ignorance,  others,  and  by  far  the  greater  proportion  of 
their  writers,  have  disingenuously  endeavoured  to  cast  into  ridi- 
culej  and  contempt  the  very  remote  history  of  nations,  and 
have  commenced  (as  Camden,  par  example,)  at  the  point  suited 
to  their  want  of  ability,  sacrificing  thereto  all  respect  for  litera- 
ture and  truth. 

To  bring  this  part  of  our  subject  to  an  end,  I  will  deliver  as 
very  truth,  that  the  original  language  of  Britain  is  that  called 
by  the  ancients  the  Celtic,  spoken  by  the  aboriginal  people  of 
Britain,  whose  forefathers  were  generated  by  the  elements 
thereof,  as  ancient  as  the  globe  itself. 

That  the  English  language  is  the  Germannic,  enriched  by 
the  ornaments  of  Greece  and  Home,  wherewith  it  is  so  be- 
decked as  to  hide  its  original  cumbrous  shape,  and  wherefrom 
it  hath  been  moulded  into  a  fine  form,  and  acquired  much 
majesty  of  expression  and  grace. 

And  that  the  language  of  Eri,  or  Gneat  Bearla,  is  that 


spoken  by  the  Scytho-Iberian,  Naol-Maid-eis,  Ogeageis,  im- 
proved to  the  Bearla  Fcine,  or  Phcenician  language,  by  the 
aid  of  letters,  a  dialect  of  the  Persian,  Hebrew,  Greek, 
Roman,  and  Gothic,  as  written  in  Gaelag  1365  years  before 
Christ,  in  which  are  delineated  these  chronicles  of  the  Gaa. 
Sciot  Ib-cr,  in  Gaelag,  and  in  Eri;  the  language  called 
Scottish,  Gaelag,  Irish,  Er-se,  as  in  use  at  this  hour,  alive, 
but  languishing  on  a  declining  bed  with  the  children  of  the 
land,  the  tongue  and  lips  pale,  meagre,  and  woe  begone. 

O  that  I  could  restore  them  to  their  pristine  vigour,  to  the 
utterance  of  their  dulcet  tones  again  :  Sons  and  daughters  of 
Eri,  shake  oiF  your  stupor.  Andah  !  if  ye  cannot  feast  each  others 
ears  with  tales  of  joy,  let  not  your  sighs  be  articulated  in  lan- 
guage foreign  to  your  lips,  as  those  who  speak  therein  are  to 
our  hearts.  Maidens  and  matrons,  young  men  and  old,  as 
squatted  on  the  damp  floor  of  your  filthy  sties,  by  the  dim 
light  of  your  own  wretchedness,  your'forms  bent,  your  spirits 
yet  unbroken,  after  a  weary  day  toiled  in  slavery,  on  lands  that 
vrere  once  your  sires,  the  transfer  written  in  their  blood,  you 
tell  of  other  times,  oh  let  the  notes  be  chaunted,  though  not 
in  the  gay  and  sportive  style,  yet  in  the  language  of  the  olden 
days,  though  plaintively. 

In  order  to  render  these  chronicles  perfectly  inteUigible  to 
you,  and  to  correct  the  misrepresentations  of  Sasson  writers,  I 
think  proper  to  explain  the  laws  of  Eri. 

These,  says  Sasson  writers,  were  of  two  kinds,  which  they 
call  the  Brehon  law,  and  the  law  of  Thanistry,  on  which  they 
descant  in  terms  conformable  to  their  ignorance,  falsely  and  in- 
explicably, whereas  nothing  is  more  clear  than  the  truth. 

You  will  see  the  roll  of  the  laws,  and  the  manner  of  their 
enactment,  700  years  before  the  Christian  era,  whereby  you 
will  be  informed,  that  life  was  not  forfeited  for  any  offence  but 
murder  with  evil  mind,  adhering  therein  to  the  social  regulation 
in  the  time  of  Noe,  "  Whosoever  sheddeth  man's  blood,  by 
man  shall  his  blood  be  shed."  In  all  other  cases,  retribution, 
lex  talionis,  was  the  rule. 

To  call  the  law  of  Eri,  Brehon  law,  is  precisely  the  same  as  if 


I  was  to  call  the  law  of  England  "  the  Judge's  law,'*  which  by 
the  way  is  the  very  best  definition  of  the  present  law  of  En- 
gland, which  is  to  be  found,  not  in  enactments,  but  in  un- 
authorized books,  professing  to  contain  reports  of  the  opinions 
of  judges  from  time  to  time,  as  well  as  from  the  latitude 
allowed  to  the  discretion  of  these  lawyers,  which  may  be  exer- 
cised according  to  their  humour,  will,  and  pleasure,  whereby 
on  the  pronunciation  of  the  word  guilty,  one  of  these  indivi- 
duals can  doom  the  oiFender  to  a  prison  for  an  hour,  or  for 
years,  or  permit  him  to  return  to  the  bosom  of  his  family  ; 
may  decree  him  to  lose  the  smallest  coin,  or  a  large  sum  of 
money ;  stamping  thereby  on  law  which  should  be  precise, 
and  equal,  the  character  of  vacillation  and  partiality,  a  calumny 
which  cannot  be  attached  without  manifest  injustice  to  the  law 
of  Eri,  xvhich  was  fixed  as  the  rock,  over  which  the  organ  of 
the  judgments  had  no  controul,  whose  duty  was  to  preside,  to 
preserve  order,  to  observe  that  silence  himself  enjoined  to  all 
the  assembly,  (all  of  whom  were  the  arbiters,)  till  the  award 
of  the  hearers,  then  to  spread  out  the  roll,  and  read  therefrom 
the  words  of  the  judgments,  as  the  name  of  the  office  imports, 
which  IS  not  a  judge,  but  the  pronouncer  of  judgment.  He 
had  no  right  to  express  his  judgment,  it  was  the  judgment  of 
the  law,  he  declared  that  our  forefathers  had  no  conception  of  a 
practice  so  frightful,  as  the  intrusion  of  the  private  opinion  of 
the  man,  who  was  to  hold  the  scales  of  justice  with  an  even  hand 
between  an  accuser  and  the  accused,  nor  would  they  have 
endured  it.  And  when  it  is  considered  that  Sassons  have  been 
the  men  to  draw  a  hideous  picture  of  our  ancient  jurispru- 
dence, doth  it  not  verify  the  old  saying,  that  men  can  discern 
a  mole  in  the  eye  of  another,  though  he  feeleth  not  a  beam  in 
his  own  eye  ;  men  who  defame  the  beautiful  simplicity  of  an- 
cient times,  and  are  charmed  with  the  crooked  complexity  of 
his  own  days. 

Tanaistact,  translated  by  the  Enghsh  "  the  law  of  Thanis- 
try,"  regarded  dignity,  sucdessions,  and  landed  tenures.  Ac- 
cording to  this  law,  every  office  in  the  community,  from  the 
chief  to  the  most  subordinate  station,  was  elective ;  by  this 


law  elections  were  regulated,  lands  were  portioned  amongst 
the  tribes,  of  the  fair  proportion  of  which  no  adult  could  he 
deprived,  not  descendable  to  children,  as  belonging  to  the  in- 
dividual, but  to  the  tribe,  founded  on  the  principle  expressed. 

"  Eri  is  the  inheritance  of  all  the  children  of  the  land,  ac- 
'  cording  to  their  due  share  thereof." 

If  I  have  taken  pains  to  demonstrate  that  the  European 
Cimmerii,  Cimbri,  or  Germanni,  are  not  of  the  same  race  as 
the  Asiatic  Scytho-Iberians,  have  I  done  so  from  the  thought 
that  the  latter  is  the  more  noble  origin,  the  idea  of  nobility 
proceeding  from  the  character  and  actions  of  the  two  people  ? 
No,  truly,  in  that  case  I  am  inclined  to  think  I  should  give  the 
preference  to  the  former,  from  the  proofs  afforded  by  their 
enemies  of  their  valour,  their  respect  for  justice,  their  devotion 
to  liberty,  and  from  the  fact  of  their  having  maintained  their 
independence  to  the  last  against  all  invaders. 

Have  I  shewn  that  the  European  Celtee,  ancient  Britons,  or 
Welsh,  have  a  totally  different  origin  from  the  Scytho-Ibe- 
rians, have  I  been  induced  thereto,  because  1  fancied  the 
former  people  were  inferior  to  the  latter  ?  By  no  means,  when 
I  look  upon  the  earliest  detailed  record  of  this  race,  and  there 
see  the  memorial  of  their  prowess  in  the  hand-writing  of  the 
unprovoked  invader  of  their  liberties,  their  title  to  renown  of 
the  highest  order  is  apparent ;  wherefrom,  notwithstanding  his 
false  relations,  and  the  exaggerated  fulsome  panegyrics  of 
lying  poets'"  laureat,  designed  to  perpetuate  the  transcendant 
fame  of  Romans,  but  in  my  mind  are  calculated  to  immortalize 
the  glory  of  the  ancient  Britons,  (tribes  of  whom  it  was  that 
he  attacked,)  and  will  be  so  considered,  by  all  who  abhor  un 
provoked  violence,  unjust  oppression,  and  have  respect  for 
noble  efforts  in  defence  of  national  and  personal  independence, 
the  choicest  blessing  under  the  sun  ;  when  I  review  these  me- 
morials, I  cannot  give  the  Scythians  precedence  of  them, 
though  they  did  yield  to  the  Cimmerii ;  but  then  be  it  consi- 
dered, that  they  had  been  rendered  effeminate  and  enslaved  by 
Romans,  who  taught  them  to  frequent  the  porticoes  and  the 
baths,  considered  by  them  as  proof  of  good  breeding,   but  by 


the  Romans  as  badges  of  servitude,  amongst  the  instrumenta 
regni  of  tliat  treacherous  people,  what  motive  then  bath  ac- 
tuated me  ?  Truth,  and  truth  only,  in  the  positive  conviction 
that  I  cannot  err. 

Whether  I  have  performed  the  promise  I  gave  on  our 
setting  out  on  tliis  long  voyage,  that  I  would  demonstrate 
the  difference  of  the  origin  of  Asiatic  Scythians  and  their 
adoration  of  Baal,  and  veneration  for  fire,  from  Eui-opean 
Cimmerii,  and  their  worship  of  Mannus  and  Earthum,  and 
from  European  Celtje,  and  their  Druidism,  you  can  now  de- 
termine, and  that  you  will  determine  in  the  good  spirit  of 
wisdom,  not  the  evil  spirit  of  prejudice,  let  me  be  permitted 
tu  express  my  hope. 

And  now  having  completed  the  elevation  of  this  gigantic 
arch,  of  which  one  base  rests  on  the  banks  of  the  Indus,  the 
other  on  tiie  flinty  margin  of  the  waves  that  wash  the  feet  of 
my  beloved  Eri,  from  whose  every  pore  do  issue  streams  of 
blood,  painted  on  the  front  thereof  the  representation  of  the 
manners,  customs  and  institutions  of  the  Scythian  nations, 
shewing  the  relation  of  the  various  tribes,  however  remotely 
separated,  and  least  the  description  should  have  been  deemed 
too  hieroglyphical,  surmounted  the  structure  with  characters 
.egible,  not  to  be  mistaken,  demonstrating  to  all  who  can 
see  and  understand,  speaking  to  all  who  can  hear,  bringing 
conviction  home  to  all  endued  with  ordinary  sense,  of  the  Scy- 
thian origin,  and  the  migrations  of  this  tribe  from  Magh- 
Seanar,  by  Euphrates,  to  the  Araxes,  and  Iberia  in  Magh-Og, 
from  thence  to  Gaelag,  by  the  way  of  Sidon  and  the  Mediter- 
ranean, and  ultimately  to  this  Eri. 

The  seat  of  the  glory  of  our  forefathers, — of  our  disgrace. 

Of  their  pride, — of  our  debasement. 

The  land  of  their  native  sovereignty  and  independence, — of 
our  subjection  to  a  foreign  yoke  and  servitude. 

The  scene  of  their  joy  and  gladness,— of  our  heartfelt  grief 
and  agony. 

Once  the  soil,  every  being  who  breathed  the  air  whereof, 
had  his  fair  proportion,  his  inheritance  from  nature, — the  land 


appropriated  to  the  pampering  a  foreign  brood,  her  own  chil- 
dren woepined,  prostrated  on  her  exhausted  bosom  in  a  state 
of  misery  and  very  wretchedness. 

Where  our  forefathers  had  abundance,  and  over  and  above 
for  the  exercise  of  the  duties  of  hospitality  and  benevolence. 
— Where  we  are  aliens  and  outlaws,  though  our  native  place. 

A  land  where  devotion  to  country  zaas  a  virtue.  A  land 
where  patriotism  is  a  vice  of  the  blackest  dye,  visited  by  endless 
persecution,  calumny  and  spoliation. 

Such  toas  Eri  of  our  forefathers. 
Such  is  Eri  because  it  is  not  their  sons. 

What  it  was  the  chronicles  of  the  land  do  testify  : 

What  it  is,  hear  from  the  lips  of  one  of  her  sons,  as  sweet 
a  bard  as  any  of  ancient  or  modern  days. — 

"  Alas  for  my  country,  her  pride  is  gone  by, 

"  And  that  spirit  is  broken  which  never  would  bend  ; 
*'  O'er  the  ruin  in  secret  her  children  may  sigh, 

*<  For  'tis  treason  to  love  her,  and  death  to  defend. 
**  Unprizd  are  her  sons,  till  they  learn  to  betray, 

"  Undistinguish'd  they  live,  if  they  shame  not  their  sires ; 
"  For  the  torch  that  would  light  to  pre-heminence  way, 
"  Must  be  caught  from  the  pile  where  their  country  expires.'" 


T^ote.  I  ask  pardon  of  the  bard  for  the  liberty  I  have  taken  of  altering 
one  word  of  his  ;  though  tyrants  may  raise  traitors  to  Pre-eminence,  it  is 
not  in  their  power  to  dignify  them,  dignity  is  intrinsic.  Pre-eminence  is  a 
pageant,  dignity  implies  worthiness;  Pre-eminence  station;  and  whom  do 
we  now  behold  in  place  pre-eminent,  but  the  most  vile  and  worthless. 


Recollectino  to  have  read  a  passage  in  Josephus's  Anti- 
quities, corroborative  of  the  many  proofs  of  the  Greeks  and 
Hebrews  being  derived  from  the  same  stock,  of  which  1  ne- 
glected to  take  a  note ;  on  referring  to  Wliistmis  translation, 
for  the  purpose  of  stating  it  in  the  proper  place,  it  chanced 
that  the  page  in  which  it  was  had  not  been  cut  open,  and 
thus  escajied  me ;  having  this  moment  happened  to  light  on 
the  passage,  I  beg  leave  to  insert  it  here  : 
"  Aritis,  king  of  the  Lacedemonians,  to  Onias,  sendeth  greeting  :" 

*'  We  have  met  with  a  certain  writing,  v/hereby  we  have 
"  discovered  that  both  the  Jews  and  the  Lacedemonians  are 
"  of  one  stock,  and  are  derived  from  the  VJmdvcdo^  Abraham. 
*'  It  is  but  just  therefore,  that  you  who  are  our  biethren, 
"  should  send  to  us  about  any  of  your  concerns  as  you 
"  please;  we  will  also  do  tlie  same  thing,  and  esteem  your 
"  concerns  as  our  own  ;  and  will  look  on  our  concerns  as  in 
**  common  with  yours.  Demoteles,  who  brings  you  this 
"  letter,  will  bring  your  answer  back  to  us.  This  letter  is 
"  four  square,  and  the  seal  is  an  eagle,  with  a  dragon  in  its 
«'  claws."-  Vol.  11.  Book  12.  Chap.  6. 

On  which  Whiston  hath  the  following  long  note  : 

"  Whence  it  comes  that  these  Lacedemonians  declai'e 
themselves  here  to  be  of  kin  to  the  Jews,  as  derived  from 
the  same  ancestor  Abraham,  I  cannot  tell,  unless,  as  Grotius 
supposes,  they  were  derived  from  the  Dores  that  came  of 
the  Pelasgoi ;  these  are  by  Herodotus  called  barbarians,  and 
perhaps  were  derived  from  the  Syrians,  and  Arabians,  the 
posterity  of  Ah-aham  by  Keturah  ;  wt  may  further  observe, 
from  the  recognitions  of  Clement,  that  EUezer  of  Damascus, 
the  servant  of  Abraham,  was  of  old  by  some  taken  for  his 
son,  so  that  if  the  Lacedemonians  were  sprung  from  him, 
they  might  think  themselves  to  be  of  the  posterity  of  Abra- 


ham,  as  well  as  the  Jews  who  were  sprung  from  Isaac ;  and 
perhaps  tliis  Eliezer  of  Damascus,  is  that  very  Damascus 
whom  Trogiis  Pompeius,  as  abridged  by  Justin,  makes  the 
founder  of  the  Jewish  nation  itself,  though  he  afterwards 
blunders,  and  makes  Azelus,  Adores,  Abraham,  and  Israel, 
kings  of  Judea,  and  successors  to  this  Damascus." 

I  trust  you  are  now  better  informed,  and  know  how  to  ap- 
preciate the  conjectures  of  IVTiiston,  Grotius,  Clement,  Tra- 
gus Pompeius  and  Justin ;  the  relationship  between  the 
Lacedemonians  and  the  Hebrews  did  not  proceed  from  Abra- 
ham, nor  Eliezer,  but  from  the  tribe  of  Garchad,  who  were 
Scythians  of  Canaan,  and  fled  from  that  land  to  Egypt  on 
the  invasion  of  Joshua,  the  robber,  as  he  is  called,  and  from 
Egypt  emigrated  to  Greece,  where  they  were  called  Pelasgoi : 
and  here  let  me  make  an  observation,  not  having,  I  fear,  been 
sufficiently  explanatory  in  the  body  of  this  Demonstration  ; 
That  the  first  Scythian  invaders  of  Lacedemon  were  Pelasgoi, 
but  when  the  Heraclides  returned  to  Peloponnesus,  they 
effected  their  restoration  by  the  aid  of  the  Dorians,  of  the 
Ogygean  Ellenes,  who  became  blended  with  the  Pelasgoi, 
and  being  now  more  powerful  gave  their  nam*^;  to  the  whole, 
though  Areui  the  chief  was  a  Pelasgian ;  facts,  the  know- 
ledge of  which  tend  to  relieve  from  confusion  the  lustory  of 
the  origin  of  these  several  tribes  of  Greece,  and  canr-ot  he 
too  minutely  attended  to. 

Men  of  literature,  is  it  not  high  time,  on  your  own  ac- 
count, and  for  the  sake  of  the  youth  committed  to  your  care, 
that  you  set  your  faces  against  the  entire  catalogue  of  per- 
haps's,  probabilities,  Hkelihoods,  and  may  he's,  and  the  prac- 
tice of  quoting  the  writings  of  men  of  modern  times,  who 
cannot  now  produce  any  new  fact,  and  whose  argumentations 
upon  the  memorials  of  ancient  days  are  alwa^'s  founded  on 
conjecture,  and  analogies  of  events  for  the  most  part  sup- 
positions, for  the  authenticity  whereof  they  have  no  voucher. 

€f)t  aeartttng  of  ISoItt^< 


CHAP.  I, 

Eolus  was  Chitf  qf  Gael-ag  from  the  year  1368  to 
1335  before  Christ.  He  gives  the  traditionary 
history  of  the  Scythians  from  the  earliest  point  of 
time  marked  to  his  own  days.  This  chapter  con- 
tains an  account  qf  the  mighty  revolution,  that  put 
an  end  to  the  Scythian  dominion  in  Asia — and  the 
foundation  of  the  Assyrian  empire  on  the  ruins 
thereof;  being  a  space  of  time  noted  o/'  3144 
rings  or  years. 

O  WISDOM,  thou  art  to  be  preferred  to  all  things, 
to  impart  wisdom  is  the  duty  of  all  men.  He  who 
possesseth  wisdom,  and  neglecteth  to  instruct  others, 
hoardeth  what  should  be  shared ;  it  is  a  treasure  that 
may  be  lavishly  bestowed,  without  injury  to  the 
donor ;  yea  the  donor  enricheth  himself  by  the  gift. 

Wisdom  is  the  knowledge  of  truth  direct  without 

Hearken,  my  son,  to  the  words  of  our  great  fathers ; 
from  them  our  fathers  heard  the  lessons  of  wisdom 
in  the  words  of  truth,  passed  by  them  to  us  that 
now  be,  and  from  us  to  be  delivered  to  those  who 
are  to  come  ;  so,  till  time  of  this  earth  shall  be  no 

VOL.  I.  B 


more,  which  will  not  be,  till  Baal  shall  withdraw 
the  light  of  his  countenance,  the  fire  of  his  spirit 
from  the  children  of  this  world. 

Many  are  the  truths  still  hidden  from  man  ;  who 
can  declare  at  what  time  the  waters  were  rolled 
from  off  this  earth  ? — none — (a.)  Who  hath  in- 
formed man  how  he  was  made  ? how  long  his 

dwelling  was  in  the  bosom  of  the  vast  deep how 

or  when  he  ceased  to  breathe  in  that  element  ? — 
none,  (b) 

Who  hath  disclosed  the  first  dimensions  of  all 
things  ?  Who  hath  noted  the  degrees  of  their  de- 
crease 1  Who  can  tell — by  what  means  can  man 
now  discover  the  causes  of  the  production  of  all 
things  ?     (c) 

It  is  said  Baal  formed  every  thing  from  the  earth, 
the  water,  and  the  air,  and  into  man  alone  breathed 
the  spirit  of  fire,  pure  essence  of  himself,  the  effect 
whereof  is  reason. 

Thus  is  it  said,  who  knoweth  how  truly?  with 
whom  did  Baal  hold  talk  ? — at  what  time  did  he 
draw  nigh  unto  the  children  of  men  ?  which  one  of 
the  sons  of  man  did  ever  approach  Baal]  who  is  he 
that  ever  heard  the  sound  of  the  voice  of  Baal,  that 
he  could  distinguish  the  words  of  his  breath  ?  doth 
Baal  speak  aloud  to  make  man  affear'd  ?  who  can 
tell  his  words  ? — none. 

.  Man  imagineth — Are  the  thoughts  which  he  di- ' 
vulgeth  to  his  fellow  just  ? 

For  myself  I  ask,  and  none  can  tell,  how  came 
Baal  himself?  is  he  not  composed  of  materials  the 
same  as  all  other  living  beings,  his  huge  dimensions. 

OF   EOLUS.  3 

his  might  and  power,  effects  of  combinations  un- 
known to  man  ? 

Many  are  the  things  beyond  the  reason  which 
man  possesseth :  he  may  fancy— what  availeth  fancy  ? 
it  is  of  no  avail ;  reason  and  wisdom  reject  such,  as 
misconceptions  of  vanity. 

Man  would  be  thought  to  know  all  things,  even 
of  the  air,  and  for  lack  of  wisdom  flyeth  to  deceit- 
ful fancy,  the  vain,  the  ignorant,  the  credulous  is 
one, — wisdom,  truth,  and  reason  is  one  other. 

My  Son, — Do  thy  utmost  to  attain  to  the  certain 
knowledge  of  things  of  this  world  within  the  scope 
of  thy  understanding.  List  not  to  idle  dreams  of  airy 
fantasy ;  contemplate  ever  so  deeply  on  things  thy 
senses  cannot  reach,  all  thy  contemplations  will  come 
round  to  the'  point  whereat  they  commence; — 
Where? — They  commenced  in  fancy — in  fancy 
they  will  end. 

Are  there  not  things  in  abundance  level  with  thy 
comprehension  worthy  of  all  thy  care  ? — Hast  thou 
not  parents — the  father  who  begat — the  mother  who 
bared  and  suckled,  tenderly  reared  thee  up,  anxiously 
watched  over  thy  helpless  state — Hast  thou  none  of 
thy  mother's  w  omb— no  partner  of  thy  secret  thoughts, 
—hast  thou  no  children — are  no  friends  thine  ? — 

Hast  thou  not  a  name  to  be  spoken  of  now,— to 
be  remembered  in  after  times  ?— how  great  the  joy 
to  hear  the  voice  of  praise  raised  in  memory  of  our 
forefathers— what  glory  to  the  race— what  an  exalta- 
tion to  all  those  descended  from  their  loins ! 

Hard  hath  been  the  lot  of  him,  whose  spirit  hath 
taken  its  flight  to  mingle  with  its  kindred  eliments, 
no  mention  made  of  him  in  times  to  come— \mtoward 


hath  been  the  mind  of  him,  who  hath  not  left  a  trace 
of  his  existence  amongst  men — or  to  be  remembered 
by  reason  only  of  his  evil  deeds. 

How  glorious  to  gain  immortality,  by  having  in- 
fused a  portion  of  his  spirit  into  the  children  of 
man,  to  abide  on  the  earth  for  ever. 

My  Son, — Pursue  not  phantoms  of  imagination, 
study  thyself— call  to  mind  continually  the  materials 
of  which  thou  art  composed — if  much  of  them  is 
prone  to  the  sluggishness  of  earth,  the  instability  of 
water,  the  inconstancy  of  nimble  air,  remember  the 
jfire  ol  thy  spirit  hath  power  to  controul  and  direct, 
if  thou  wilt  keep  it  pure. 

Oh !  that  man  should  suffer  his  passions  to  sub- 
due his  reason,  the  fire  of  his  spirit  smothered,  all 
but  extinguished, — are  earth,  air,  and  water,  more 
powerful  than  fire  ? — is  matter  more  potent  than 
spirit  ? 

Why  delighteth  man  to  do  what  he  condemneth 
in  another  ? — Why  doth  he  unto  his  fellow,  what  he 
would  not  that  his  fellow  should  do  unto  him  ? 

The  heart  of  man  is  proud — he  coveteth  power 
and  pre-eminence ;  he  will  gain  them  by  deeds  of 
evil,  without  reflection  ;  he  listeneth  to  the  voice  of 
the  seducer,  the  false  flattering  tongue  that  betray- 
eth— unruled  passions  hurry  him  on—folly  taketh 
dominion  of  such  an  one ;  reason  hath  departed 
from  him,  his  spirit  was  weak. 

My  Son,™ Let  all  thy  actions  be  such,  that  when 
thy  iuilk  shall  be  inanimate,  thy  spirit  shall  live  for 
ever  in  the  hearts  of  men. 

My  Son, — Hear  the  tale  of  times  of  old ;  hear  of 
our  race  the  renowned  of  the  earth.     What  time 


our  fathers  marked  not,  is  as  the  cloud  that  hath 
passed  away,  no  note  taken — no  memorial  preserved : 

Let  us  speak  of  times  measured  by  Baal  in  his 
circuit,  as  he  moveth  in  his  course  to  animate  his 

How  glorious  is  Baal,  how  good,  how  provident ; 
doth  he  not  produce  the  fruits  that  sustain  the  life 
of  man  ? — doth  he  not  feed,  and  warm  every  living 
being  ? 

Doth  he  not  give  light  by  day,  and  impart  a  por- 
tion of  his  splendour  to  his  dwelling  place  to  illu- 
mine the  night,  and  mark  the  seasons  ? 

How  terrible  is  Baal  in  his  anger,  when  he  send- 
eth  forth  his  messengers  in  fire,  air,  and  water,  and 
maketh  the  earth  to  tremble.  All  elements  are  his 

Hear  of  times  marked — 1  have  the  rings  of  our 
fathers  ;  they  have  noted  the  rings  of  their  times  :  I 
will  mark  the  rings  of  my  days.  Thou  wilt  mark 
those  of  thy  days — so  shall  signs  and  seasons  be 

Attend  now,  my  Son, — Our  great  fathers  dwelt 
on  the  left  side  of  the  sun's  rising,  beyond  the  sources 
of  the  great  waters.  Of  days  marked  whilst  Baal 
performed  one  thousand  and  eleven  circuits  in  his 

Then  did  they  spread  themselves  from  the  flood  of 
Sgeind  even  to  the  banks  pf  Tcth-gris, 

And  when  one  thousand  three  hundred  and  four 
rings  were  completed,  then  did  our  fathers  of  these 
days  pass  to  this  side  of  Teth-gris,  and  moving 
towards  the  sun's  going,  reach  to  the  Affrekig-eis, 
and  they  became  lords  of  all  the  lands  on  this  side; 


and  on  that,  they  outstretched  their  arms  over  all 
nations,  with  mercy. 

And  Ahsal,  he  it  was  who  went  out  before  the 
host,  from  the  land  of  the  elements  of  which  our 
great  fathers  were  formed. 

And  Daire  was  he,  who  conducted  the  children 
of  the  land  to  this  side  Affreidg-e'is — and  t.he  race 
of  Daire  were  chiefs  of  the  earth.  (J) 

Attend  again,  my  Son, — When  twice  nine  hundred 
rings,  and  thrice  three  rings  were  marked  on  the 
banks  of  Affreidg-eis,  a  multitude  from  the  sun's 
rising,  beneath  the  land  of  the  first  abode  of  our  great 
fathers,  poured  ia  upon  the  land  of  our  fathers  that 
then  lived,  like  unto  a  swarm  of  locusts,  or  clouds  of 
burning  sands,  yea  even  as  a  torrent  of  mighty  waters, 
that  overwhelmeth  all  things. 

And  the  multitudes  for  numbers  not  to  be  counted, 
as  the  sands  of  the  sea,  as  the  stars  of  the  heavens, — 
speaking  with  a  thousand  tongues  diverse  one  from 
another — fierce  and  cruel,  came  over  our  fathers. 

And  many  of  the  Gaal  were  made  captives — and 
many  lay  in  death,  whose  state  was  happier  than 
that  of  his  fellow. 

And  Ardfear,  chief  of  the  race,  and  all  the  heads 
of  the  people  who  stood  in  the  presence  of  the  chief, 
dwelling  round  about  the  tents  of  Ard-fear,  escaped 
from  the  edge  of  the  sword  of  Eis  Soir.    (g) 

And  A  r  elf  ear  floated  on  the  bosom  of  Blessed 
Affreidg-eis,  and  the  waters  bare  up  his  little  skiff, 
till  he  lighted  on  the  plain  of  Ard-miojiu. 

And  all  that  wentforth  from  Macs-h-seau-ar dwcW^d 


in  Ard-mionu,  and  Ardfear  x\\\Qdi  that  land  as  afore- 
time— but  in  person. 


And  the  foemen  of  the  east  sheathed  not  the  sword 
for  one  entire  ring ;  and  when  one  ring  was  complete 
there  was  peace. 

And  Eis  Soir  made  the  earth  to  groan  for  the 
weight  which  they  laid  on  the  places  where  thereto- 
fore had  stood  the  tents  of  Ardfear,  and  the  heads 
of  the  Gcml.  {li) 

Did  they  not  raise  up  dwellings  durable,  and  walls 
round  about,  and  a  watch  tower  to  look  over  the 
land  on  every  side  ?  {%) 

And  multitudes  of  the  Gaal  flocked  to  the  tents 
of  Ard-fear  in  Ard-mionu,  and  they  encreased  ex- 

And  when  A^d-fear  had  ruled  for  the  course  of 
one  score  and  eleven  rings  in  Ard-mionu,  then  and 
there  he  died. 

And  all  the  children  of  the  land  aforetime,  and  of 
the  Gaal,  gathered  themselves  together,  and  they 
placed  the  bulk  of  Ard-fear  in  the  boat,  in  which  he 
was  borne  from  Magh-sean-ar  even  unto  Ard-mionu 
on  the  waters  of  the  Blessed  Affreidg-eis. 

And  they  set  the  boat  on  the  spot  where  it  had 
rested,  when  Ard-fear  came  therefrom  unto  the  land. 

And  they  raised  the  boat  charged  with  the  weight 
of  the  chief  from  the  water,  and  it  was  conveyed  on 
the  shoulders  of  the  nobles  for  the  space  of  nine 
hundred  paces,  from  the  margin  of  the  water,  to- 
wards the  sun's  going. 

And  there  was  the  boat  in  which  lay  the  form  of 
Ardfear  set  down,  and  there  was  his  heap  raised — 
a  memorial  for  ever. 

And  all  the  people  moaned  inwardly,  and  they 
poured  forth  lamentations  loudly,  invoking  the  spirit 


of  Ardrfear,  calling  him  Naoi,  the  chosen  of  Baal, 
for  the  preservation  of  the  race  of  Absal  and  the 
Gaal-Nasi,  whom  the  streams  of  Blessed  Affreidg- 
eis  did  bear  in  safety  to  Ard-mionn.  {k) 


(a)  Eolus  here  gives  the  tradition  of  his  nation  concerning  the 
origin  of  this  world, — from  which  it  appears  their  idea  was  that  this 
Earth  always  existing,  became  a  member  of  this  solar  system  by 
the  rolling  of  the  waters  from  off  its  surface. 

That  such  was  the  opinion  of  the  Eastern  nations,  we  learn  from 
Tragus  Pompeius,  in  his  relation  of  the  controversy  of  the  iScy- 
lhia7is  and  Egyptians  for  antiquity,  and  that  such  was  the  opinion  of 
the  Hebrews  the  only  people  known  to  us,  to  have  given  a  circum- 
stantial detail  of  a  creation,  is  apparent  from  the  first  Chapter  of 
Genesis,  where  we  find, 

V.  I.  "  In  the  beginning  God  created  the  heaven  and  the  earth. 

2.  And  the  earth  was  without  form,  and  void,  and  darkness  was 
upon  the  face  of  the  deep — and  the  spirit  of  God  moved  upon  the 
face  of  the  waters. 

3.  And  God  said,  let  there  be  light,  and  there  rvas  hght. 

g.  And  God  said,  let  the  waters  under  the  heavens  be  gathered 
together  into  one  place — And  let  the  dry  land  appear. 

10.  And  God  called  the  dry  land  Earth,  and  the  gathering  to- 
gether of  the  waters  called  he  Seas." 

From  which  it  is  evident,  that  the  Hebrews  supposed  the  heaven, 
and  the  earth,  the  waters  and  the  air  existed  antecedently  to  the 
work  of  the  six  days. — These  had  been  created yrow  the  beginmng. 

Light  was  the  production  of  the  first  day. 

A  firmament,  and  the  separation  of  waters  theretofore  in  being, 
were  the  work  of  the  second  day. 

And  the  operation  of  the  third  day,  was  the  gathering  together 
into  one  place,  the  portion  of  the  waters  under  the  firmament,  when 
God  said  "  Let  the  dry  land  appear" — and  it  was  so. — And  God 
called  the  dry  land  Earth,  and  the  gathering  together  of  waters 
called  he  Seas  ;  God  did  now  but  give  names  to  the  land,  and  to 
the  waters,  upon  the  face  of  which  (previously  to  the  appearance  of 
the  dry  land,)  the  air  (beautifully  expressed  by  the  spirit  of  God) 
did  move. 

OF   EOLVS.  9 

These  authorities  are,  in  my  judgment,  conclusive,  as  to  the  ideat 
of  all  nations  of  antiquity,  that  this  earth  had  been  originally  sub- 
mersed in  the  waters — a  much'  more  rational  opinion  than  the 
•whimsical  theories  of  any  of  those  modern  systemizers,  who  have 
taken  such  a  world  of  words  on  a  subject  that  admits  not  of  proof, 
nor  any  thing  approaching  thereunto. 

(6)  It  seems  from  this  expression  that  the  Scyihiant  fancied  that 
man  and  all  animals  had  originally  been  inhabitants  of  the  waters- 
it  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  the  Hebrew  names  for  Jdam  and  Eve 
are  I$ch  and  Ischa,  which  in  the  language  of  £ri,  at  this  day,  means  a 
male  and  female  fish — that  the  Hebrerv  language  is  a  dialect  of  the 
Scythian— -oi  which  the  language  of  Eri  is  also  a  dialect,  hath  been 
sufBciently  shewn  by  the  dissertation~and  by  the  Glossary  annexed 
to  this  work. 

(c)  Here  £ofos  gives  the  ideas  of  his  nation  concerning  the  produc- 
tion of  man,  which  they  attributed  to  the  influence  of  the  Sun,  on 
the  combination  of  all  the  other  elements — the  mass  they  conceived 
to  be  composed  of  earth,  air,  and  water,  brought  into  animation 
and  perception,  by  the  operation  of  fire,  breathed  into  it  by  Baal,  of 
whose  majesty  and  power  the  Sun  was  the  emblem. 

They  imagined  that  the  human  species  and  all  things  were  the 
production  of  every  climate,  so  long  as  the  elements  were  sufficiently 
powerful  for  that  purpose. 

In  this  idea  we  learn  divers  people  of  old  agreed,  by  their  con- 
tending for  a  never-ceasing  occupation  of  their  lands  by  their 
progenitors — for  their  being  indigenous  of  that  soil,  having  no 
tradition  ever  so  remote  of  the  emigration  of  their  forefathers  from 
any  other  place. 

The  Hebrews  are  the  only  people  whose  traditions  have  come 
down  to  us,  who  take  upon  them  to  speak  positively  on  the  subject.— 
They  personify  the  first  cause,  and  assert  the  creation  of  one  male, 
and  one  female  only  of  the  human  race,  in  the  land  of  Eden  in 
Mesopotamia,  from  whom  have  sprung  mankind,  in  which  notion, 
and  which  alone  do  they  differ  from  other  nations  of  remote  anti- 
quity— as  is  evident  by  looking  on  the  2d  Chapter  of  Genesis. 

V.  6.  But  there  went  up  a  mist  from  the  earth,  and  watered  the 
whole  face  of  the  ground. 

7.  And  the  Lord^  God  formed  man  of  the  dust  of  the  ground, 
and  breathed  into  his  nostrils  the  breath  of  life,  and  he  became  a 
living  soul. 

10  thf;  writing 

Words  so  clear  as  to  leave  no  room  to  doubt  of  their  notionj  on 
this  subject. 

The  animal  formed  of  the  dust  of  the  ground,  watered  by  the 
mist,  (impregnated  with  air  it  must  have  been)  received  the  spirit 
of  fire  from  the  lips  of  the  Creator,  most  eloquently  expressed  by 
the  breath  of  life — and  thus  man  became  a  living  soul. 

(d)  For  this  rare  curiosity  of  the  antique  world,  I  beg  leave  to 
refer  you  to  the  plate  annexed  of  Bael-ainn. 

(e)  From  Herodotus,  Clio  c.  4,  "  we  learn  that  the  Persians  es- 
teemed Asia,  with  all  its  various  and  barbaric  nations,  as  their  own 
peculiar  possessions;"  and  Calliope,  c,  116,  "  the  Persians  consider 
all  Asia  their  own." 

(/)  Here  is  a  difference  of  fifty-three  years  between  the  tradi- 
tionary accounts  of  Eolus  and  the  Hebrews — the  former  declaring 
Jiat  the  ascendancy  of  the  Scythians  over  what  is  indefinitely  called 
Asia,  endured  for  the  course  of  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
nine  years— the  latter  counting  from  their  creation,  which  I  take 
to  be  the  commencement  of  the  Scythian  power  on  the  banks  of 
Euphrates,  to  the  overthrow  of  their  nation  in  the  days  of  Noah, 
by  Nimrod  or  Bel,  and  the  building  of  Ba-Bel,  have  computed 
the  time  at  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  fifty-six  years. 

(^)  In  these  few  words  is  to  be  found  the  brief  account  of  the 
Assyrian  invasion  of  Mesopotamia,  by  Bel,  Belus,  Nimrod,  when 
Ardfear,  the  Noe  of  the  Hebrews,  called  also  Naoi,  by  Eolus,  was 
chief  of  the  Scythian  race,  his  tents  standing  on  Magh-sean-ar, 
the  land  of  Shinar,  of  the  Hebrews,  and  of  the  flight  of  Noe  to 

By  turning  to  the  few  notices  that  have  escaped  the  devastation 
of  war  in  all  its  various  shapes,  we  learn  that  at  the  precise  time 
mentioned  by  Eolus,  writers  of  ancient  days  have  placed  this  event. 
They  say  that  Asia  had  been  subject  to  the  Scythians  for  the  space 
of  fifteen  hundred  years,  which  time  obtained  the  name  of  the 
Scythian  age  of  the  world ;  and  that  they  were  succeeded  by  the 
Assyrians,  who  built  Bu'Bel,  which  became  the  metropolis  of  the 
Assyrian  empire. 

And  now  if  we  examine  the  traditions  of  the  Hebrews,  recorded 
in  the  7th,  8th,  and  11th  chapters  of  Genesis,  an  account  will  be 
found  of  this  very  revolution,  described  under  the  metaphors  of  a 
deluge,  and  a  raven,  a  dove,  and  olive  brunch. 

After  giving  the  picture  of  the  horrors  of  the  deluge,  in  the  7th 

OF  EOLUS.  11 

chapter,  it  proceeds  in  the  8th  chapter  to  relate  the  operations  of 
Noe,  after  the  resting  of  the  ark  on  the  mountains  of  Ararat. 

V.  C).  And  it  came  to  pass  at  the  end  of  forty  days,  that  Nue 
opened  the  window  of  the  ark. 

7.  And  he  sent  forth  a  raven,  which  went  to  and  fro,  until  the 
waters  were  dried  up  from  off  the  earth. 

S.  Also  he  sent  forth  a  dove  from  him,  to  see  if  the  waters  were 
abated  from  off  the  face  of  the  ground. 

9.  But  the  dove  found  no  rest  for  the  sole  of  her  foot,  and  she 
returned  imto  him  into  the  ark,  for  the  waters  were  on  the  face  of 
the  whole  earth ;  then  he  put  forth  his  hand,  and  took  her,  and 
pulled  her  in  unto  him  into  the  ark, 

10.  And  he  stayed  yet  other  seven  days,  and  again  he  sent  forth 
the  dove  out  of  the  ark. 

11.  And  the  rfoi'e  came  into  him  in  the  evening,  and  lo  in  her 
mouth  was  an  olive  leaf  plucked  off. 

12.  And  he  stayed  yet  other  seven  days,  and  sent  forth  the  dove, 
which  returned  not  again  unto  him  any  more. 

It  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  Hebrervs,  and  all  people  of  the 
East,  in  giving  a  description  of  interesting  events,  were  used  to 
express  themselves  in  figures,  metaphor,  and  allegory.  The  style 
is  delightful,  and  affords  a  wide  scope  for  the  indulgence  of  fancy, 
and  a  display  of  all  the  powers  of  oratory. 

If  in  this  our  climate  of  the  North,  except  in  proving  mathema- 
tical problems,  or  coldly  uttering  the  dry,  and  frozen  language  of 
artificial  laws,  we  cannot  refrain  from  embellishing  relations  of  the 
most  solemn  facts,  by  the  appliance  of  these  captivating  auxiliaries, 
is  it  to  be  wondered  at,  that  the  Hebrervs  indulged  in  the  practice 
to  excess  ?  Such  was  the  case,  insomuch  they  seldom  expressed 
themselves  in  any  other  manner,  as  their  writings  testify ;  every 
occurrence  was  so  decked  in  figured  drapery,  that  the  subject  was 
scarcely  discernable.  When  the  author  of  Genesis,  be  he  who  he 
may,  was  recounting  an  event  that  shook  a  vast  portion  of  Asia,  by 
what  more  apt  metaphor  could  he  describe  a  stupendous  invasion 
and  revolution,  that  operated  so  great  a  change  in  an  order  of  things 
of  1800  years  establishment,  as  an  overwhelming  ^oorf  ? — What 
figure  so  just,  whereby  to  represent  the  horror,  carnage,  and  deso- 
lation of  war,  as  the  raven,  the  usual  type  of  blood  ?  So  in  Aste- 
risms  of  Chiron,  wherein  was  delineated  the  expedition  of  the 
Argonauts,  we  see  Medea's  cup,  and  a  raven  upon  its  carcase,  the 


symbol  of  death.  How  could  the  messenger  of  peace  be  more  fitly 
pourtrayed,  than  by  the  image  of  the  dove  ? — What  so  appropriate 
emblem  of  peace  itself  as  the  olive  branch  ? — Is  it  not  evident  that 
the  deluge  is  meant  to  represent  this  mighty  revolution  ?  the  raven 
the  carnage  of  war — the  dove  the  messenger — the  olive  leaf  the 
amity,  of  peace.  Let  this  Hebrew  tale  be  stripped  of  its  figurative 
decorations,  who  that  doth  not  recognize  in  it  all  the  features  of  the 
Assyrian  invasion  of  Mesopotamia,  and  the  establishment  of  the 
dominion  of  the  Assyrian,  in  the  place  of  the  Scythian,  which  had 
by  the  testimony  of  all  antiquity,  endured  for  more  than  1500 
years  antecedently  to  this  precise  time,  that  the  Assyrian  is  recorded 
to  have  commenced — aU  account*-,  synchronizing  with  much  greater 
exactitude,  than  any  other  event  of  so  remote  antiquity — all  agree- 
ing in  persons,  places,  and  circumstances,  so  as  to  leave  no  room 
to  doubt  of  their  perfect  identity — varying  in  little  else  than  the 
manner  of  relating  the  facts. 

If  we  turn  to  the  8th  chapter  of  Isaiah,  where  he  speaks  of  the 
evils  with  which  Samaria  is  to  be  afflicted  by  the  Assyrian  also,  do 
we  not  hear  him  expressing  himself  after  the  same  manner .'' 

V,  6.  Inasmuch  as  this  people  refuseth  the  waters  of  Shiloah  that 
go  softly. 

7.  Now  therefore  behold  the  Lord  bringeth  upon  them  the  waters 
of  the  river,  strong,  and  many,  even  the  king  of  Assyria,  and  all 
his  glory,  and  he  shall  come  up  over  all  his  channels,  and  go  over 
all  his  banks. 

8.  And  he  shall  pass  thro'  Judah ;  he  shall  overflow,  and  go  over, 
he  shall  reach  even  unto  the  neck,  and  the  stretching  out  of  his 
wings,  shall  fill  the  breath  of  thy  land,  O  Emanuel. 

I  beg  you  now  to  cast  your  eye  on  the  38th  chapter  of  the  Book 
of  Job,  that  curious  eastern  tale,  wherein  the  Creator  is  introduced 
holding  converse  with  Job,  proposing  questions  to  him,  in  order  to 
convince  him  of  the  ignorance  and  presumption  of  man,  in  vainly 
attempting  to  account  for  events,  beyond  the  limits  of  his  under- 

4.  Where  wast  thou  when  I  laid  the  foundations  of  the  earth  ? 
Declare,  if  thou  hast  understanding. 

8.  Or  who  shut  up  the  sea  with  doors^  when  it  brake  forth,  as 
if  it  had  issued  out  of  the  v;omb  ? 

9.  When  I  made  the  cloud  the  garment  thereof,  and  thick  dark- 
ness a  swaddling  band  for  it. 

OF   EOLUS.  13 

10.  And  break  it  up  for  my  decreed  dwelling  place,  and  set 
bars  and  doors. 

11.  And  said  hitherto  sliall  tliou  come,  but  no  further,  and  here 
shall  thy  proud  waves  be  stayed. 

And  now  pray  look  at  Psalm. 
V.  1.  Bless  the  Lord,  O  my  soul. 

5.  Who  laid  the  foundation  of  tne  earth,  that  it  should  not  be 
removed  for  ever. 

6.  Thou  coveredst  it  with  the  deep,  as  with  a  garment,  tne 
waters  stood  above  the  mountains. 

7.  At  thy  rebuke  they  fled,  at  the  voice  of  thy  thunder  they 
hasted  away. 

8.  They  go  up  by  the  mountains,  they  go  down  by  the  vallies, 
unto  the  place  which  thou  hast  founded  for  them. 

9-  Thou  hast  set  a  bound,  that  they  may  not  pass  over,  that  they 
turn  not  again  to  cover  the  earth. 

Here  both  Job  and  the  Psalmist  are  speaking  of  the  wondrous 
works  of  the  creation,  with  which  an  actual  flood  of  waters  subse- 
quently cannot  be  reconciled ;  on  the  contrary,  it  is  clear  that  the 
Hebrews  of  these  days  knew  not  of  such  an  event.  If  Job  had 
heard  of  such,  and  gave  credit  to  it,  how  could  he  hold  the  lan- 
guage he  doth  ? — "  and  set  bars  and  bolts,  saying  hitherto  shall 
thou  come,  but  no  further,  and  here  shall  thy  proud  waves  be 

If  the  Psalmist  believed  it,  is  it  possible  "that  he  could  use  the 
expression,  "  that  they  turn  not  again  to  cover  the  earth." 

Traditionary  details  are  very  different  from  the  memory  of  a 
surprizing  fact.  Though  there  may  be  eiTor  as  to  time  and  circum- 
stances, the  bare  naked  event  may  be  true  to  a  certain  extent. 

It  hath  been  shewn,  that  all  nations  of  antiquity  were  possessed 
of  the  idea  that  this  globe  had  originally  been  submersed  in  water— 
and  in  my  opinion  it  is  a  much  more  satisfactory  solution,  for  the 
strata  of  marine  productions  found  beneath  the  present  surface  of 
the  land,  at  considerable  distances  from  the  mearings  of  the  proud 
waves  of  the  sea,  and  on  the  summits  of  the  highest  mountains, 
than  the  whimsical  conceit  of  an  universal  deluge — a  conceit  ren- 
dered altogether  incredible,  by  reason  of  the  mqtive  assigned  to  a 
spirit  of  good-  incompatible  with  the  ideas  the  mind  forms  of  a 
being  of  infinite  power,  justice,  and  mercy. 

(h)  Eohts  says  nothing  more  of  Eis-soir  (that  is  the  Assyrians) 


than  that  they  raised  up  buildings  durable,  on  the  places  where  the 
tents  of  Ardfear,  and  the  chiefs  of  the  Scythians  had  stood.  Here 
again  I  must  request  your  attention  to  the  Book  of  Genesis,  where 
mention  is  made  of  this  event — of  building  the  city  and  tower  of 
Ba-bel,  which  affords  ample  proof  of  the  true  character  of  Hebrew 
tales,  wherein  we  have  a  striking  instance  of  the  truth  of  an  occur- 
rence, with  a  perversion  of  all  the  facts. 

From  my  respect  even  to  the  prejudices  of  men,  I  will  forbear 
from  speaking  of  the  language  in  which  the  author  of  Genesis  hath 
delivered  himself,  and  shall  content  myself  with  relating  briefly 
the  historical  fact. 

I  take  the  person  called  by  Eolus,  Ardfear,  and  Naoi,  Noe  of 
the  Hebrews,  to  have  been  chief  of  the  Scythians,  at  the  time  of 
the  invasion  of  Mesopotamia  by  Eis-Soir,  whose  chief  was  Bel  or 
Nimrod,  who  put  Noe  to  flight  to  Ardmenia,  established  the  Assy- 
rian empire,  builded  Ba-Bel,  and  put  an  end  to  the  tribute  under 
which  Asia  had  been  to  the  Scythians  for  1 500  years  preceding,  as 
is  fully  shewn  in  the  dissertation. 

If  you  will  look  on  the  11th  chapter  of  Genesis,  you  must  per- 
ceive that  the  few  words  recording  the  event  of  a  permanent  build- 
ing, (a  novel  sight  to  the  Scythians,  who  had  always  dwelled  in 
tents)  were  not  meant  for  any  thing  more  than  to  perpetuate  the 
the  memory  of  that,  to  them,  surprizing  work.  If  you  examine 
the  Hebrew  account  with  an  historic  eye,  you  see  nothing  but  con- 
fusion, and  untruths.  According  to  it,  an  hundred  years  had 
elapsed  from  what  is  called  a  deluge,  til!  the  foundation  of  B:-Bel; 
according  to  it,  Noe  and  all  his  family  were  journeying  J'rom  the 
east,  when  they  found  a  plain  in  the  land  of  Shinar — no  mention 
made  in  all  that  time,  of  his  having  quitted  Ardmenia  in  the  north- 
west ;  according  to  it,  Noe  and  all  his  family,  who  were  Scythians, 
were  the  founders  of  Ba-Bel,  and  not  the  Assyrians,  who,  by  the 
concurrent  testimony  of  all  the  world,  were  the  people  who  invaded 
the  Scythians,  overthrew  them,  put  an  end  to  the  tribute  of  Asia, 
and  established  their  empire  on  the  plains  of  Shinar,  where  they 
builded  the  tower  and  city  of  Ba-Bel ;  but  which,  according  to  the 
Hebrew  account,  they  left  otF  from  building— which  is  not  the  fact ; 
according  to  it,  the  supreme  Being,  displeased  at  their  presump- 
tion, miraculously  confounded  the  language  of  all  those  concerned  in 
this  work,  so  that  they  could  not  understand  one  another's  speech, 
which  literally,  or  figuratively,  could  not  have  been.     The  plain  and 

OP  EOLUS.  15 

naked  fact  being,  that  Bel,  chief  of  an  eastern  people,  was  a 
mighty  warrior,  and  having  subdued  one  nation  after  another, 
made  use  of  the  vanquished,  after  the  manner  of  all  conquerors, 
as  instruments  for  further  conquest ;  and  with  this  multitudinous 
host,  composed  of  divers  people,  distinct  one  from  another,  in 
those  days  when  communities  were  small,  living  under  separate 
jurisdictions,  speaking  languages  differing  one  from  another,  did 
invade  and  overthrow  the  Sct/ihians,  and  did  actually  build  the 
city  and  tower  of  Ba-Bef,  in  the  prosecution  of  which  work  there 
must  have  been  considerable  confusion,  and  no  small  difficulty,  by 
reason  of  the  various  languages  of- the  artificers  employed  therein. 
In  fine. 

You  will  please  to  remark,  that  even  supposing  Moses  was  the 
author  of  Genesis,  he  wrote  not  more  than  four  score  years  before 
Eolus,  and  seven  hundred  years  aftep  this  supposed  event  of  a 
deluge — that  both  were  Scijlhians — and  as  both  accounts  are  now 
before  you,  it  is  for  you  to  examine  them,  and  to  decide. 

(e)  These  obtained  the  name  of  Nomades,  as  explained  in  the  dis- 

{j)  This  people  had  a  peculiar  respect  for  the  number  9. 

(A)  Naoi  is  the  Scyihic  word  for  a  ship,  by  which  name  we  call 
Ard-fear,  because  of  his  escape  to  Ard-mionn  by  means  of  a  boat, 
called  by  the  translators  of  the  Bible  an  ark. 


From  the  Death  of  Ardfear  to  the  Commencement 
of  the  reign  of  Glass  in  Ib-er,  a  space  of  263 

The  Reign  of  IAT-FOTH. 

And  Macaar  the  son  of  Ardfear  was  chosen  in 
the  place  of  his  father,  and  he  was  called  latfoth^ 
the  first  of  the  race  of  Ahsal  chosen  to  rule  in  Ard- 
mionn — the  foundation  of  the  children  of  Ardfear 
in  that  land,  (a) 


And  lat-foth  died,  having  ruled  two  score  rings 
and  one. 

The  Reign  of  OG. 

Now  all  the  sons  of  lat-foth  casted  lots  amongst 
themselves,  to  know  who  should  sit  in  the  place  of 
his  father,  and  the  lot  was  to  the  eldest. 

But  when  the  heads  of  the  people  heard  what  the 
sons  of  lat-foth  had  done,  they  cryed  out  with  one 
voice,  we  will  choose  from  amongst  the  race  of  Ard- 
feaVi  him  who  shall  rule. 

And  all  the  sons  of  lat-foth,  five  sons,  and  all  the 
heads  of  the  Gaal  were  gathered  together  on  the 
mount,  even  the  heap  beneath  which  lieth  A  rdfear 
the  son  of  Am-laoc,  of  the  race  of  Absail; 

And  they  choose  Og  the  youngest  of  all  the  sons 
of  latfoth  to  rule  the  land.  (6) 

And  the  eldest  said  unto  Og  in  the  hearing  of 
their  brethren,  and  of  the  children  of  the  land, 

"  Let  me  depart,  T  pray  thee,  from  Ard-mionn,  and 
take  with  me  a  company,  such  as  may  be  willing  to 
go  also — the  land  is  too  narrow  for  the  multitude." 

And  the  words  were  pleasing  in  the  ear  of  Og,  and 
when  all  things  were  prepared,  Og  made  a  great 
feast  for  his  brother,  and  his  companions. 

And  every  one  presented  gifts  unto  them,  arms 
and  clothes  in  abundance — no  damsels  took  they,  for 
they  said,  we  will  join  ourselves  unto  the  maidens  of 
the  land,  whither  we  may  go.  (c) 

And  they  took  their  departure,  lat-ban — and  Og- 
eag-eis,  from  Ard-mionn,  moving  westward,  what 
time  Baal  had  entered  the  threshold  of  his  house 
Tion-scnad  Qg — having  ruled  two  rings,  (d) 

OF    EOLUS.  17 

And  Og  assembled  the  warriors,  and  he  went  out 
before  them,  and  he  returned  with  victory,  extend- 
ing his  limits  on  every  side ; 

And  Og  pierced  towards  the  fingers  of  BaaL 
even  unto  Gahacasan,  and  he  drave  the  Gaol  of 
these  lands  over  the  mountains  that'ran  iron  red  hot, 
and  that  Gaal  trod  upon  burning  coals,  from  before 
the  face  of  Og  and  the  Nomades  of  Ard-mionn.   {e) 

And  Og  became  famous,  a  man  of  renown,  and 
nations  are  called  by  his  name,  {f) 

And  he  died  having  his  rings  marked,  one  score 
and  seven  rings. 

And  the  marks  from  Og-into  Dorcasite  nine  score 
and  eleven  rings. 


In  the  days  of  Dorca  the  Nomaden  filled  all  the 
land,  between  Eis-amhan,  and  Eri-cean. 

And  when  he  had  ruled  four  rings  he  placed  Glas 
his  brother  over  the  land  of  Tu-bhal,  calling  it 
Iber.  (g) 

In  these  days  multitudes  of  the  Gaal,  passed  over 
the  summits  of  Gaba-Casan.  On  the  far  side  whereof 
they  did  raise  up  their  tents,  and  abided  thereon, 
calling  the  lands  of  their  dwelling  lath-sciot  in 
memory  of  our  race,  (h) 


(c)  This  'person  is  incontestably  Japhelh  of  the  Hebrews,  the 
son  of  Noe,  as  explained  in  the  dissertation. 

{b)  Og  means  young. 

(c)  Jat-ban  is  the  Javan  of  the  Hebrews,  and  means  the  "  emi- 
grator  ;"  and  Og-ca^-eis  means  "  the  diminution  of  the  multitude  of 

VOL  I.  C 


Og  •"  the  term,  and  every  thing  appertaining  thereunto,  is  fully 
elucidated  in  the  dissertation. 

(rf)  See  the  ring  of  Baal. 

(c)  The  event  here  related  by  Eolut,  proves  the  fidelity  of  the 
traditions  preserved  by  this  people,  and  shews  the  cause  of  the 
name  of  the  vast  mountains  of  Gaba-Casan.  Edus  says,  Og  drove 
the  Gaal  of  these  lands  over  the  mountains,  that  ran  iron  red  hot, 
an  expression  which,  without  explanation,  wears  an  appearance  of 
the  marvellous,  and  of  ridiculous  bombast,  and  must  have  for  ever 
remained  liable  to  the  charge,  but  for  the  testimony  of  an  eye  wit- 
ness within  a  century  past,  of  a  curious  ceremony  performed  by 
the  Ceann,  and  chiefs  of  two  tribes  of  Mungalian  Tartars,  described 
as  follows : — 

"  The  original  founders  of  the  Tartarian  Mungalian  Scythians, 
"  called  Cajan  and  Docos,  got  embarrassed  amongst  these  moun- 
"  tains,  then  uninhabited ;  after  a  sojourn  there  of  450  years,  be- 
"  come  so  numerous,  as  to  require  other  settlements,  they  were  at 
'•  a  loss  to  find  a  passage  thro'  the  mountains,  when  a  smith  point- 
"  ing  out  to  them  a  place,  very  rich  in  iron  ore,  advised  them  to 
"  make  great  fires  there,  by  which  means  the  ore  melted,  and  a 
"  broad  passage  was  opened  for  them.  In  commemoration  of  which 
"  famous  inarch,  the  Mongiib  to  this  day  celebrate  an  annual  feast, 
"  and  observe  the  ceremony  of  heating  a  piece  of  iron  red  hot,  on 
"  which  the  Ceann  strikes  one  blow  with  a  hammer,  and  all  the  per- 
"  sons  of  quality  do  the  same  after  him." 

This  narration  marks  the  date  of  the  emigration  of  the  Mungal 
Tartar  tribes  of  Cejan  and  Docos,  to  the  north  of  Caticasus,  and 
stamps  sterling  value  on  our  language,  which  gives  the.  name  of 
Gaba  Casan  to  these  mountains,  the  literal  meaning  of  which  is, 
the  "  Smith's  path,"  in  allusion  to  this  very  circumstance  of  the 
passage  being  effected  by  means  of  a  smith,  the  memory  of  which, 
as  appears  from  this  author,  is  still  preserved  by  the  posterity  of 
these  two  tribes. 

In  one  instance  the  author  has  committed  an  error ;  the  Tartars 
are  no  more  Scythians,  than  the  Fins  are  Japanese. 

(/)  This  celebrated  chief  is  the  person  erroneously  called  by  the 
translators  of  the  Bible,  Gog.  This  son  of  lat-foth,  whose  true 
name  was  Og,  was  a  conqueror,  who,  as  Eolus  saith,  made  himself 
famous,  nations  being  called  by  his  name,  which  name  was  Mag-og, 
pronounced  Mnh-og—the  plains  of  Og,  which  the  Romans  (adding 

OF    EOLUS.  19 

ia,  their  emendation  according  to  their  taste  of  the  original  Scythian 
word  tat,  which  signifies  a  region  or  country)  called  the  land  Mag 
Og-ia,  in  which  were  originally  included  all  the  nations  from  St/ria 
to  Caucasus,  and  between  the  Euxine  and  Hpcanian  seas. 

If  you  look  at  the  38th  chapter  of  Ezehiel,  you  will  see  that  he 
was  perfectly  acquainted  with  the  true  name  of  this  prince,  and  the 
country  bearing  his  name,  and  that  the  error  hath  been  in  the 

V.  2.  In  denouncing  the  vengeance  of  his  God  on  the  children 
of  Meshech,  and  of  Tubal,  which  is  Iber,  he  says.  Son  of  Man 
set  thy  face  against  Gog,  the  land  of  Magog,  the  chief  prince  of 
Meshech  and  Tubal,  and  prophesy  against  him,  which  should  be 
thus  rendered,  "  Set  thy  face  against  Og  of  Mag-og ;"  so  all  thro 
this  chapter. 

And  it  is  evident  that  Ezekiel  knew  the  distinction  between  the 
man  and  the  country. 

6.  And  I  will  send  a  fire  on  Mag-og,  and  amongst  them  that 
dwell  carelessly  in  the  isles. 

11.  And  it  shall  come  to  pass  in  that  day,  that  I  will  give  unto 
Gog  a  place  there  of  graves  in  Israel,  the  valley  of  the  passengers, 
on  the  east  of  the  sea,  and  it  shall  stop  the  noses  of  the  passengers, 
and  there  shall  they  bury  Gog,  and  all  his  multitude,  and  they 
shall  call  it  the  valley  of  "  Hamon  Gog,"  which  in  the  Hebrew  lan- 
guage means  the  multitude  of  Gog ;  and  the  words  Amaon-Og 
hath  precisely  the  same  signification  in  the  language  of  Eri. 

(g)  The  children  of  Israel  adhered  always  to  its  more  ancient 
name,  which  had  been  the  land  of  Tubhal,  till  our  tribe  occupied 
it,  and  called  it  Ib-er,  the  Ib-er-ia  of  the  Romans,  from  which  our 
tribe  is  invariably  called  the  Goal  of  Sciot  of  Ib'Cr. 

(h)  These  are  the  Scythians  who  assumed  the  names  of  Goths 
Getae,  Daci,  &c,,  as  fully  explained  by  the  dissertation. 

20  THE    iVRITING 


From  the  commencement  of  G-la.s,  first  Chief  of  Ib-^b., 
of  the  race  ©/"Ard-fear,  in  1950,  to  Cealgac  the 
9on  of  Daire— a  space  of  Four  hundred  two  score 
arid  eighteen  rings. 


And  Glas  was  placed  in  Ib-er  io  rule  that  land, 
and  he  sat  on  the  seat  of  the  Chief  for  the  course  of 
seventeen  rings,  and  died,  {a) 

And  File  his  son  was  chosen,  and  Dorca  died  in 
Ard-mionn,  and  Lonrac  his  son  thought  to  put  File 
and  the  children  of  Ih-er  under  tribute. 

And  File  put  words  into  the  mouth  of  the  mes- 
senger, and  these  were  the  words : 

"  The  men  of  Ib-er  will  no  tribute  pay 
"  Should  Lonrac  hither  come, 
"  The  way  is  far,  and  perhaps — " 

And  Lonrac  abided  in  Ard-mionn. 

And  File  died,  having  the  days  of  his  rings 
marked — one  score  rings  and  three. 

From  the  day  on  which  File  ceased,  till  Daire 
was  chosen,  the  time  marked  is  three  hundred  four 
score  and  sixteen  rings. 


In  these  days  the  Gaal  filled  all  the  lands  between 
Eis-amhan,  and  Eri-ceann,  and  they  excelled  all  peo- 
ple in  the  use  of  the  bow.   (h) 

And  they  extended  their  borders  behind  them, 
and  southward,  and  they  became  expert  in  working 

or  EOLUs,  21 

in  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  and  forging  of  swords,  and 
forming  vessels  of  brass,  (c) 

And  they  moved  on  the  waters  of  Eri-ceann  with 
the  works  of  their  hands,  and  their  brethren  oi  Ard- 
mionn  opened  their  arms  to  them,  and  hindered  them 
not  to  pass  through  the  land,  whither  they  listed. 

And  the  Gaal  of  Ih-er  encreased,  and  they  spread 
themselves  northward  over  the  bosoms  of  Ailb-bin — 
and  dwelt  in  that  land,  (d) 

And  Daire  died,  having  ruled  one  score  and  two 
rings  ;  not  one  of  the  chiefs  of  Ih-er  equalled  Daire 
in  comliness  of  person,  strength  of  body,  or  manner 
of  using  the  arms  of  war,  save  only  the  mighty  Og 


(a)  Glas  WHS  the  first  chief  of  Iber,  of  the  race  of  Ardfear ; 
the  history  of  Ardmionn  ends  here,  henceforward  Eolus  speaks  of 
the  Gaal  of  Ib-er  only. 

(6)  From  their  adroitness  m  the  use  of  the  bow,  this  Gaal  de- 
rived the  name  of  "  Sciol,"  our  word  for  an  arrow ;  therefore  is 
the  tribe  whose  history  is  now  under  consideration,  invariably 
called  "  Gaal  Iqf  Scioi  of  Ib-Er."  That  they  did  excel  in  the  use 
of  the  bow,  can  be  collected  from  Ezekiel,  who  speaking  of  them, 
in  howling  against  Tubal,  which  is  Ib-Er,  says, 

C.  SQ,  V.  3,  And  I  will  smite  thy  bow  out  of  thy  left  hand,  and 
will  cause  thine  arrows  to  fall  out  of  thy  right  hand. 

(c)  And  that  they  were  expert  in  forming  vessels  of  brass  curious- 
ly, may  also  be  understood  from  Ezekiel,  who  in  enumerating  the 
people  in  commerce  with  Tyre,  says  of  Tubal,  which  is  Ib-er,  one 
of  them, 

C.  27,  V.  13,  "  Javan,  Tubal,  and  Meshech,  they  were  thy  mer- 
chants, they  traded  the  persons  of  men,  and  vessels  of  brass  in  thy 

When  Eohis  saiyB  they  extended  their  borders  behind  them,  is 
meant  to  the  westward,  the  east,  or  first  appearance  of  Baal  being 
always  considered  as  before  us,  which  expression  is  still  used  by  us. 


their  children,  at  this  day.  The  land  spoken  of  is  Colg,  Colchis  of 
the  Romans,  whence  our  fathers  had  brass,  of  which  these  vessels 
spoken  of  by  Eolus,  and  by  Ezekiel,  were  manufactured,  and 
whence  they  also  procured  swords,  for  which  reason  Colg  is  the 
word  by  which  we  call  a  sword ;  and  all  the  surrounding  nations 
having  had  swords  from  the  forges  of  that  country,  it  obtained  the 
name  of  Colg  generally. 

{d)  Ailb-bin,  the  literal  signification  of  which  is  a  confused  heap 
of  heights,  so  called  from  its  appearance ;  what  proves  the  accuracy 
of  our  language  in  description,  the  posterity  of  this  same  people 
gave  the  same  name  two  thousand  six  hundred  years  afterwards,  to 
the  western  part  of  the  country  now  called  Scotland,  for  the  same 
reason.     The  country  was  called  Alban-ia  by  the  Romans. 


Froni  the  election  o/'Cealgac,  1492  before  Christ,  till 
the  arrival  of  a  Colony  of  the  Gaal  of  Sciotof 
Ib-er  in  Gael-ag,  and  the  death  of  Calma,  a  space 
of  seventeen  rings. 

JN  OW  the  heads  of  the  people  assembled  to  chuse 
him  that  should  rule  the  land  in  the  place  of  Daire ; 

And  when  they  were  together  on  the  hill  of 
Tohrad  («) — their  hearts  cleaving  to  Calma  the  son 

Did  not  Cealgac  surround  the  mount  with  chosen 
bands,  mad  with  strong  drink — seduced  to  rise  up 
against  the  chiefs  ?  and  did  not  these  proclaim 
Cealgac  with  uproar  ? 

Thus  was  Cealgac  chosen, — and  he  sought  Calma 
to  slay  him,  for  he  was  jealous  of  the  love  of  the 
people  to  him  ward. 

OF    EOLUS.  23 

And  Calma  spake  unto  his  brother,  and  he  said, 

"  Cealgac,  we  be  brethren  of  one  father,  from 
the  same  womb  came  we  into  the  presence  of  Baal, 
the  same  paps  suckled  us  twain. 

"  If  thou  wilt  promise  in  the  hearing  of  the  people 
to  rule  thy  hitherto  ungoverned  passions,  to  call 
around  thee  the  brave  and  virtuous,  and  to  turn  thy 
back  upon  the  coward,  the  vicious,  and  the  sluggard, 
and  to  respect  justice, 

"Let  C^a/gac  keep  his  seat,  Ca/»i«  will  depart  from 
Ib-er  of  his  fathers,  and  let  those  who  will  follow 
Calmay  be  with  him."  ^ 

And  the  words  were  pleasing  in  the  ear  of  Cealgac, 
and  it  was  so.  And  Calma  tarried  yet  one  ring  in 
Ib-er,  and  he  chose  out  nine  times  nine  youths,  and 
each  of  those  chose  nine,  all  of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of 
Ib-er,  and  of  every  nine,  one  took  unto  him  a  damsel 
openly,  (b) 

And  each  youth  had  his  sword  and  buckler,  his 
Crann-Tu'bail,  his  bow  and  his  quiver  full  of  arrows. 

Many  were  they  who  would  have  followed  Calma, 
but  he  stayed  them — they  listened  unto  his  voice, 
though  reluctantly. 

And  in  the  moon  Sgith,  (c)  when  Baal  had  re- 
freshed his  strength,  Calma  and  his  company  took 
their  departure  from  the  land  of  their  fathers. 

And  Calma  said,  "  We  will  go  to  the  land  of  Aoi- 
mag,  to  get  tidings  of  our  brethren,  captivated  now 
eleven  rings  passed,  and  sold  in  Sgadan  of  Aoi- 
mag,  {(T)  with  Cuir,  under  whose  eye  Calma  was 
reared  up." 

And  on  the  7th  day  at  eve,  as  they  lay  by  their 
tents  on  the  bank  of  a  clear  stream  of  a  brook,  that 


watereth  that  land,  as  they  lifted  up  their  eyes  to- 
wards Ib-er,  lo  !  a  troop  of  men  with  damsels  moved 
towards  them ; 

And  as  they  drew  nigh,  did  they  not  behold  Ro'n- 
ard  the  brother  of  Calma,  and  with  him  nine  times 
nine  youths,  all  armed,  and  with  them  nine  damsels ; 
and  the  night  was  spent  in  dancing,  and  exceeding  joy. 

And  on  the  morrow  as  Calma  was  about  to  proceed 
on  his  way, 

Rotn-ard  said  unto  him ;  "  Calma,  my  brother, 
didst  thou  think  that  Ro'n-ard  could  abide  even  in 
Ib-er  after  thee^  He  hath  hither  come  to  be  the 
partner  of  thy  afflictions,  should  thy  way  prove  ad- 
verse, or  to  be  a  joyful  witness  of  thy  prosperity — 
Ro'n-ard  will  attend  the  steps  of  Calma,  Calma  will 
not  reject  his  brother. 

"  Ron-ard  would  rather  bear  a  portion  of  the  sor- 
rows of  C«/m«  amongst  strangers, — if  sorrow  is  before 
him  than  hear  the  voiceof  the  rest  of  his  kindred  in 
Ih-er  Calma  far  away." 

And  the  words  of  Ro'n-ard  were  delightful  in  the 
ear  of  Calma,  and  the  whole  host  shouted  for  joy, 
v/hen  it  was  told  unto  them  that  they  were  not  to  be 
separated ; 

And  they  struck  their  tents,  and  moved  towards 
SgaduiL  And  there  they  made  enquiry  for  the 
children  of  their  race,  and  it  was  told  unto  them,  that 
they  had  been  taken  to  the  right  side  of  the  sea,  over 
which  looketh  Sgadan  queen  of  ships,  and  Nargal 
was  chief  of  Aoi-mag  at  that  time. 

And  Nargal  spake  kindly  unto  Calma,  howbeit 
he  meant  deceitfully,  and  thought  to  make  the  Gaal 
his  servants. 

OF  EOLUS.  25 

But  the  children  of  Ih-er  had  their  right  hands  on 
their  swords,  their  hearts  were  stout, — not  to  be 

And  Calma  agreed  with  servants  of  Nargal  for  a 
price,  to  have  him,  and  his  companions  conveyed  to 
the  land,  whither  those  of  the  Gaal  had  been  taken, 
for  Nargal  said,  "  the  men  you  seek  are  in  Eis-feine.'* 

And  when  Calma  and  Rdn-ard  heard  the  words 
of  Nargal,  suspicion  entered  into  their  minds,  that 
his  heart  was  evil  towards  them. 

And  they  said  unto  him,  "  Swear  that  thou  wilt 
not  deal  deceitfully  with  us,  we  wiH  pay  thy  people 
the  price  named, — what  covenant  is  between  our 
brethren  and  thee  we  know  not,  between  thee  and  us 
no  covenant  shall  be,  whither  soever  we  go,  we  will 
live  free,"  (  e ) 

And  Nargal  swore  by  the  sun,  moon,  and  all  the 

And  whilst  the  Gaal  tarried  in  Sgadan,  Nargal 
took  delight  in  listening  to  the  tales  of  other  times, 
from  the  lips  oi  Feitam,  the  words  of  whose  mouth 
were  sweet.  {/) 

And  fain  would  he  have  had  him  abide  in  Sgadan, 
that  he  may  be  taught  to  set  down  his  words  on  tables 
to  endure  for  ever,  {g) 

But  Feitam  would  not  be  persuaded,  howbeit  he 
promised  to  return,  if  it  so  pleased  Calma,  and  the 
way  exceeded  not  the  time  of  one  moon. 

And  Calma  and  Ro'n-ard gave,  and  received  from 
Nargal  the  hand  of  friendship,  and  kindred,  and  they 
took  their  departure  from  Sgadan. 

And  they  were  carried  towards  the  strength  of 
Baal,  (h)  and  when  they  thought  to  have  entered  that 


land,  lo !  the  ships  moved  as  the  sun  was  a  going, 
nor  changed  they  their  course,  till  they  passed 
through  the  flood  gates,  that  divide  the  world  of 
water  from  the  world  of  land,  (i) 

And  the  land  of  Eisfeiiie  was  close  on  their  right, 
after  a  while  they  changed  their  course,  steering  to- 
wards the  fingers  of  Baal,  and  on  the  ninth  day 
afterwards  at  mid-day  they  entered  this  land  by  the 
streams  of  the  great  water  thereof 

And  they  enquired  for  Cuir  and  his  companions, 
but  of  them  they  heard  not ; 

Themenof  JS^5/'^iw^,beyondZ)Martheyare^r5'n^a/, 
formed  of  the  Elements  of  that  land  at  the  first;  and 
of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  itself,  led  thither  from  time  to 
time,  paying  tribute  both  of  them  to  Nargal  \h.  the 
bowels  of  the  earth,  and  on  the  face  of  the  deep,  {h) 

And  the  Goal  of  Ib-er  were  in  streights,  and  they 
joined  their  heads  to  Calma  and  to  Ro'n-ard)  and 
they  were  all  of  one  mind  to  die,  or  live  free. 

And  when  the  servants  of  Nargal  saw  this,  they 
did  declare  unto  them  where  the  dwellings  of  their 
brethren  were  to  be  found. 

And  Calma  turned  his  face  thither-ward,  having 
the  waters  of  the  great  river  of  the  land  on  his  right. 

And  when  the  host  had  moved,  whilst  Baal  was 
passing  through  the  chambers  of  his  house  Fluicim, 
they  directed  their  steps  towards  the  fingers  of 
Baal,  till  they  reached  the  tents  of  their  race,  and 
their  chief  was  Dubar,  from  Gaoi-ata-eolac,  {I)  he 
who  conducted  the  children  of  Iber,  not  of  the  cap- 
tivity, but  those  of  the  Gaal  who  went  out  from 
Iber,  in  the  days  of  Fada,  seven  score  rings  gone 
by,  to  that  land  on  the  far  side  of  Duor  southward  ; 

OP  EOLUS.  27 

from  hence  did  Gaoi-ata-eolac  conduct  them  from 
Naoi-maid-eisiat,  and  thereon  did  they  abide,  call- 
ing their  portion  Alg-er-ha,  after  our  race.  (?«) 

From  thence  went  forth  Fiallaoc,  the  son  of 
Gaoi-ata-eolac,  and  a  company,  and  they  moved  on 
the  waters  of  the  deep  to  the  entrance  of  Iber 
thereinto,  and  therefrom  did  they  come  to  land,  and 
thereon  did  they  abide,  calling  the  land  Buaisce.  {n) 

And  Calma  and  Ro'n-ard  were  reverenced  by 
Duhar  and  the  Gaal  of  Iber  within  Buaisce^  for 
Dubar  was  not  of  the  race  of  Ardfear. 

And  Calma  and  his  companions  were  provided 
with  all  things  needful  unto  them  by  their  brethren, 
and  they  sojourned  with  them,  till  Baal  entered  his 
house  Tionnscnad. 

And  Calma  took  Min,  the  daughter  of  Dubar, 
and  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  spread  themselves  towards 
the  sun's  going,  and  here  did  they  raise  up  their 
tents;  calling  their  land  Gael-ag.  (o) 

And  Calma  ruled  over  the  Gaal  in  Gael-ag  for 
the  course- of  fifteen  rings,  and  he  died. 

And  his  heap  was  raised  nigh  unto  the  mount  of 
the  great  congregation  of  the  children  of  the  land,  {jd) 
and  all  Gael-ag  mourned,  for  that  Calma  was  no 


(a)  Tobrad  is  "  election  ;"  it  has  been  corrupted  into  "  Tarah." 
(6)  The  land  of  Ib-er  had  been  called  the  land  of  Tubal  origi- 
nally, by  which  name  the  Hebrew  writers  invariably  continued 
to  call  it.  "  Cran  Tubail"  means  "  a  sling,"  literally  "  the  staff  of 
Tubal,"  a  circumstance  that  proves  the  correctness  of  these  records, 
and  the  value  of  the  chronicles  of  the  Hebrews. 
(c)  See  the  ring  of  Baal. 


(d)  Sgaddn  means,  in  the  language  of  £r»,  the  fish  herring, 
called  by  the  translators  of  the  Bible  Zidon,  and  by  the  Romans 
Sydon,  which  letter  z,  in  the  one,  and  y  in  the  other,  shewg 
that  the  original  Phenician  word  had  a  harsh  sound,  as  Sgaddn  . 
the  reason  of  which  name  for  this  place,  was,  according  to  Tragus 
Pompeiux,  and  other  ancients,  because  of  the  immense  quantity  of 
fish  that  frequented  that  quarter,  and  the  only  kind  of  fish  that  are 
known  to  come  in  shoals  nigh  unto  the  shore,  are  herring,  pilchers, 
and  sprats. 

(e)  Here  we  find  the  people  of  Ib-er  and  of  Aoimag  using  the 
same  mode  of  adjuration,  which  shews  that  they  were  of  the  same 

(f)  And  of  the  same  language  by  this  expression,  for  how  could 
Nargal  take  delight  in  the  tales  of  Feitam,  if  he  did  not  under- 
stand his  speech  > 

(g)  By  this  is  meant  the  art  of  writing. 
(A)  The  south. 

(t)  This  people  always  spoke  of  two  worlds— one  of  water,  the 
other  of  land. 

(i)  See  the  Glossary  and  the  Dissertation. 

(Z)  This  proves  that  the  country  had  been  colonized  by  the  peo- 
ple of  Aoiinag,  and  occupied  long  before  Egyptians,  Grecians,  or 
Romans  knew  of. 

(ffi)  This  brief  notice  directs  enquiry  to  the  origin  of  those  of  the 
children  of  Ib-er,  who  emigrated  from  Ib-er  to  Afric,  and  from 
thence  to  Spain.  Here  we  find  a  tribe  in  Algerba,  and  a  tribe 
seated  on  the  river  Ib-er,  extending  their  limits  to  the  Pyrenees, 
and  the  ocean,  their  portion  called  Buas-ce,  both  acknowledged  by 
the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er,  as  brethren  of  the  same  race,  speaking 
the  same  language  with  them,  as  you  will  see  by  the  Dissertation. 

(n)  See  the  Glossary. 

(o)  See  the  Glossary. 

{p)  The  expression  in  the  original  is  "  Bri-telgneol-duine,"  fully 
explained  in  the  Dissertation. 

From  the  account  here  delivered,  it  appears  that  the  Gaal  of 
Sciot  of  Ib-er  found  a  Gaal  of  Ib-r  in  Algerba  and  Biscay,  on  their 
arrival,  who  were  part  of  a  colony  that  had  emigrated  from  Iber  to 
Afric  one  hundred  and  forty  years  before  this  time,  and  had  been 
conducted  from  Afric  to  the  peninsula  of  Europe  by  Gaoth-ata- 
€olac,  who  was  not  of  the  race  of  ruling  chiefs,  which  accounts  for 

OF    EOLUS.  29 

the  respect  in  which  the  tribe  of  Ibcr  within  Biias-ce,  held  the  chiefs 
of  the  Goal  of  Sciot,  now  settled  in  Gaelag,  all  the  circumstances 
of  which  colony  have  been  laid  before  you  in  the  prefixed  Disser- 

CHAP.  V. 

From  the  Death  of  Calma,  1475,  to  the  election  of 
Eolus,  a  space  of  107  rings. 


When  Calma  ceased,  'Duil  his  son  was  a  youth, 
and  lidn-ard  the  brother  of  Calma  was  chosen. 

And  when  Diiil  grew  to  be  a  man,  he  journeyed  to 
the  land  of  Ib-er,  and  he  took  a  damsel,  the  daughter 
of  Failh,  the  brother  of  Calma,  and  of  Ro'n-ard,  the 
name  of  the  damsel  had  been  Carma,  but  she  was 
now  called  Sciofa,  and  Dinl  and  Sciota  came  to 

And  Ro'nard died,  having  ruled  seventeen  rings. 

And  Duil,  the  son  of  Calma,  was  chosen,  and  he 
ruled  for  the  course  of  one  score  and  eleven  rings, 
when  a  great  plague  swept  off  Dull,  and  left  not 
one  of  the  race  of  Glas  alive  save  Cier,  the  son  of 
Airt,  the  son  of  Huil  in  his  first  ring. 

And  the  Gaol  made  a  cave  for  Truag  and  the 
child,  and  weeds  were  brought  from  the  sea,  and 
burnt  night  and  day  continually,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  cave,  to  keep  off  the  infection  from  Truag  and 
the  child. 


And  the  child  was  called  Enar,  for  he  was  left 
alone  of  all  his  race  in  Gael-ag. 

And  nine  of  the  heads  of  the  people  ruled  the 
land  till  Enar  came  to  the  age,  then  was  he  chosen. 

And  he  took  a  daughter  of  Bearty  chief  "of  the 
Gaol  of  Ihei'y  within  Buasce. 

And  she  bare  unto  him  eight  sons,  and  the  name 
of  the  first  born  was  Dealta. 

And  Enar  ruled  one  score  and  fifteen  rings>  and 
he  died. 


The  Reign  of  Eolus.     This  is  he  who  wrote  all  the 
foregoing  traditions  of  his  race,  and  now  speaks 
of  his  own  times,  a  space  of  one  score  and  thirteen 
rings,  from  1368  to  1335  fi^ore  Christ. 


JN  OW  Dalta,  the  first  born  of  Enar,  was  not 
chosen,  Eolus  was  placed  on  the  seat  of  his  father. 

And  Eolus,  before  he  was  chosen,  whilst  his 
father  yet  lived,  had  journeyed  to  Ih-er  of  our 
fathers,  and  to  the  land  of  Aoimag,  to  get  know- 
ledge; and  his  wish  was  to  go  even  unto  Mag-sean- 
ar,  {a)  the  abode  of  our  great  fathers,  but  the  diffi- 
culties were  greater  than  his  desire. 

And  Eolus  tarried  one  entire  ring,  and  one  Ratha 
(b)  in  Sgadan,  where  he  hath  learned  to  set  down  all 
his  thoughts  in  shapes  and  figures,  for  the  eye  of 

OF   EOLUS.  31 

I  am  that  Eohifi,  the  son  of  Enar,  the  son  of 
Airt,  of  the  race  of  Calma,  from  Ardfear,  who 
write  down  these  words,  for  the  instruction  of  those 
that  now  be,  and  of  those  who  are  yet  to  come. 

To  teach  man  to  rule  himself,  that  his  reason  may 
keep  his  passions  in  subjection  continually,  to  tell 
to  the  chiefs,  and  the  heads  of  the  Gaal,  and  to  the 
Gaal  of  their  race,  the  renowned  of  the  earth. 

And  these  words  have  I  written,  as  they  have  been 
repeated  from  mouth  to  ear,  from  generation  to 
generation,  and  these  times  have  I  noted  from  the 
marks  of  the  rings  of  Baal,  and  these  words  are 
true,  according  to  the  traditions  of  man  as  believed  ; 
but  more  correct  are  the  times,  being  according  to 
the  revolutions  of  Baal,  which  cannot  err. 

Bi^t  I,  Eolus,  have  not  set  down  the  words  said 
by  the  Priests,  to  have  been  delivered  to  the  nine 
Priests  by  Baal,  from  the  beginning,  because  my 
understanding  cannot  give  entertainment  thereunto ; 
my  senses  admit  not  the  belief,  that  Baal  hath  at 
any  time  held  talk  with  one  of  the  children  of  this 

Afore  priests  were,  have  we  not  heard  of  the 
words  spoken  by  the  fathers  to  their  children,  as 
they  listened  to  their  voice,  beneath  the  covering  of 
the  tents,  each  of  his  dwelling,  ere  the  congrega- 
tions were  gathered  together,  round  the  habitations 
of  the  priests,  {hh) 

Then  did  each  father  declare  unto  those  descended 
from  his  loins. 

Give  praise  and  thanks  to  Baal,  the  author  of 
light  and  life. 

Shed  not  the  blood  of  thy  fellow,  without  just 


Take  not  aught  belonging  unto  another  secretly. 

Keep  falsehood  from  thy  lips — falsehood  perverts 

Keep  envy  from  thy  heart — envy  corrodes  the 

Keep  flattery  from  thy  tongue — flattery  blinds 
the  judgment. 

Pay  respect  to  thy  father,  conform  thyself  unto 
his  will,  be  thou  a  sure  prop  to  his  old  age. 

Love,  honor,  and  cherish  thy  mother,  let  thy 
hand  wait  on  her  eye — thy  foot  move  in  obedience 
to  her  voice  ;  for  the  first  pain  that  you  causest  to 
her,  she  was  quit  for  the  joy  at  thy  coming  forth, 
beware  of  bringing  grief  to  thy  mother's  heart,  the 
thought  will  sting  thy  spirit  in  the  time  to  come. 

Contend  not  with  thy  brother — unity  becometh 

Be  loving  and  protecting  unto  thy  sister 

Cherish  the  widow,  nourish  the  orphan,  deprived 
of  his  father,  his  staff,  never  more  to  hear  a  tender 
mother's  voice. 

Relieve  the  poor,  the  needy,  and  distressed,  be 
kind,  and  minister  unto  the  stranger  far  from  the 
dwelling  of  his  kindred. 

Be  merciful  to  every  living  creature. 

Be  watchful  to  keep  thy  passions  in  obedience  to 
thy  reason,  in  the  first  place,  thereby  wilt  thou  avoid 
doing  unto  another,  what  thou  wouldst  not  have 
another  do  unto  thee. 

Preserve  the  glory  of  thy  race,  die,  or  live  free,  (c) 

What  have  these  things  to  do  with  feeding  fires, 
and  looking  after  portions  of  the  land. 

And  when  Eolus  had  ruled  nine  rings,  he  placed 

OP  EOLUS.  35 

Dalta  his  orother  in  his  seat,  and  he  did  go  to 
Sgadcm,  and  he  did  abide  there  for  one  ring,  and 
he  did  make  a  covenant  with  Ramah,  chief  of  th.e 
land  of  Aoimag. 

And  Ramah  did  send  Olam  to  abide  amongst 
the  Gaal  in  Gael-ag,  and  the  teachers  of  Aoimag 
did  give  knowledge  unto  the  nobles  instructing 
them  to  hold  talk  one  with  another,  from  the  land 
of  Aoimag  even  unto  Gael-ag. 

Moreover  men  of  Aoi-mag  taught  the  Gael  to 
form  ships,  wherein  to  move  on  the  face  of  the  deep. 

And  the  Gael  do  help  the  children  of  JFeine ;  in 
the  bowels  of  the  earth,  in  the  land  of  Eisfeine,  for 
the  children  of  Ib-er  were  cunning  workmen  in  the 
land  of  their  fathers,  in  searching  for  brass,  {d) 

And  Eolus  did  send  nine  of  the  sons  of  Ih-er,  even 
the  most  wise  of  the  children  of  the  land,  to  make 
addition  to  the  knowledge  they  had  aforetime. 

And  the  men  did  return  at  the  set  time  of  three 
rings,  and  Eolus  called  together  the  chiefs  of  the 
Gael,  to  the  great  congregation,  {e)  and  he  spake 
unto  them  saying, 

*'  Man  differeth  nothing  from  the  beast  of  the  field, 
save  in  reason,  but  whereto  serveth  reason,  if  it  re- 
ceiveth  not  a  right  direction  ? 

"  Hath  man  passions  in  common  with  all  other 
animals,  which  oft  consume  him,  reason  instructed 
will  controul  them. 

"  Teachers  are  now  amongst  us — what  if  a  portion, 
of  the  land  were  assigned  to  each  of  the  Olam 
in  divers  quarterKS,  that  they  may  live  free  from  care, 
save  that  of  instructing  the  youth  in  the  ways  of 



knowledge. — Gael-ag  hath  hitherto  contained  too 
few  of  the  wise  men  of  the  earth." 

And  it  was  so. — 

And  the  Olam  had  their  portions,  and  they  did 
cbuse  from  amongst  them  one ;  Tarlat  the  son  of 
Leir,  to  be  Ard-olum. 

And  Tarlat  sware  in  the  presence  of  the  congrei- 
gation  to  guard  the  writing,  which  Eolus  did  place 
within  his  hands,  to  set,  down  words  of  the  Gaal, 
to  keep  falsehood  therefrom,  and  to  preserve  them 
during  his  days. 

Now  when  Eolus  had  ruled  for  the  course  of 
eighteen  rings,  it  came  to  pass  that  Ramah,  chief  of 
the  children  of  the  land  of  A oi-mag  died,  and  Amrqm 
his  brother's  son  took  his  place.  {/) 

And  Amram  sent  letters  unto  Eolus — in  this  wise 
"  The  children  oflber  within  Eis-/ehie  have  neglected 
to  pay  their  tribute. — Doth  Eolus  desire  that  servants 
of  Amram  should  go  thither,  rather  than  that  Eolus 
send  his  servants  therewith  to  Sgadan — so  be  it." 

And  Eolus  called  together  all  the  chiefs,  and  of 
the  heads  of  the  people,  one  from  every  ninth  of  the 
tents  of  Gael. 

And  Tarlat  was  in  his  place,  and  he  read  aloud 
the  words  of  Amram,  whereupon  a  loud  murmur  ran 
through  the  congregation: 

And  when  the  air  w^as  still,  Eolus  rose  in  the  midst, 
and  he  did  put  into  the  hands  of  Tarlat,  words  for 
A?nram,  and  these  are  they : 

"  Eolus  the  son  of  Enar  from  Calma  of  the  race 
of  Ard'fear,  chief  of  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er, 
within  Gael-ag  unto  Amram,  chief  of  Aoimag, 

OF    EOLFS.  3^5= 

"  Seven  score  rings  and  one  have  been  marked 
since  Calnia  and  Ron-ard  did  hither  come  with 
children  of  the  Gael  of  Sciot  of  Iber  in  ships  of 
Fei7ie,  for  a  price  fixed,  and  paid,  from  which  time  to 
this,  we  have  lived  free,  no  mention  made  of  tribute 
all  these  days. 

Have  we  not  this  land  from  our  fathers,  and  shall 
we  not  so  leave  it  to  our  children  ? 

Gael-ag  is  not,  nor  ever  was  Eisfeine. 

When  Lonrac  thought  to  put  Ih-er  under  tribute, 
did  not  File  answer 

"  The  men  of  Ib-er  will  no  tribute  pay, 
"  Should  Lonrac  hither  come, 
"  The  way  is  far,  and  perhaps" — 

So  answereth  Eolus,  and  the  host  of  Gael-ag  now. 

And  the  words  were  good. 

And  the  servant  of  Amram,  with  the  words  of 
EoIks,  and  Morlat  a  chief  of  Gael-ag,  took  their 
departure  for  Aoi-mag. 

And  Morlat  returned  in  due  season,  with  letters 
from  Amram,  saying, 

"  Eidar,  servant  of  Amram,  hath  erred,  the  let- 
ters for  tribute  were  for  Meorl,  chief  of  the  children 
of  Ih-er  in  Buas-ce." 

Now  messengers  came  from  Meorl  unto  Eolus, 
saying,  "  Amram  of  Aoi-mag  demandeth  tribute  of 
us.  The  children  of  Feine  are  covetous,  they  are 
deceitful ;  should  we  submit  unto  them,  short  time 
will  pass,  till  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  will  be  afflicted. 

Let  the  men  of  Ib-er,  Naoimaideis,  Oigeageis,  be 
all  of  one  mind,  neither  Amram,  nor  all  the  nations 
of  the  earth,  will  be  able  to  trouble  them." 


And  Eolus  answered  and  said,  Doth  a  covenant 
stand  between  you  and  them  ? 

And  the  messenger  answered,  "  Yea,  to  help  them 
on  the  face  of  the  deep,  and  in  the  bowels  of  the 
earth  within  Eis-Feine." 

And  Eolus  said,  "  Have  ye  observed  these 
things  ?"     And  the  messenger  answered  "  Yea." 

And  Eolus  said,  "  Return  to  the  tents  of  thy 
dwellings,  and  let  all  the  children  of  all  the  Gaal  of 
Ih-e7-  be  as  one  man,  to  resist  the  oppressor,  to  live 
free,  or  perish." 

And  Amram  stirred  up  the  nations,  their  servants 
on  the  far  side  Duor  against  Gael-ag,  but  they  were 
slow  to  move. 

And  the  servants  of  Amram  sought  occasions  to 
vex  the  children  of  the  land  of  Buas-ce,  but  after  a 
while  they  ceased. 

And  the  Gaal  are  become  of  renown — they  en- 
crease  in  number,  and  in  knowledge  continually. 

Eolus  saith  unto  the  Olam,  "  nourish  the  minds 
of  the  youth,  let  the  glory  of  Eolus  be  to  leave 
his  spirit  amongst  the  children  of  the  earth,  after 
the  grossness  of  which  his  bulk  is  composed  shall 
become  part  of  other  substance — or  nought — if  so 

And  when  Eolus  had  ruled  one  score  and  thirteen 
rings,  he  felt  himself  feeble,  like  unto  the  weakness 
of  one  about  to  cease,  and  he  sent  for  his  son  Don, 
and  for  me  TarlaL 

And  unto  Don  he  said,  "  If  thou  shalt  be  chosen 
to  sit  in  the  place  of  thy  father,  be  thou,  and  in- 
struct the   Gaal  to  beware  of  the  devices  of  the 

OF  EOLUS.  37 

children  of  Feine,  they  are  covetous,  they  are  de- 
ceitful, with  their  lips  they  give  honour  to  Baal,  in 
works  they  have  respect  for  riches  only. 

My  son, — Make  use  of  thy  understanding,  learn 
to  depend  on  thy  senses — give  not  credit  to  the 
words  thy  ear  heareth,  till  thou  shalt  have  examined 
them  thoroughly,  and  be  assured  reason  hath  directed 
thy  judgment;  above  all,  that  vanity  of  thy  own 
opinion  had  no  part  therein. 

If  thou  wilt  lay  up  in  thy  heart  the  words  that 
thy  father  hath  set  down,  they  will  be  a  treasure, 
from  which  thou  wilt  draw  profit  continually,  and 
thereby  wilt  thou  experience  felicity  ii\  the  first  de- 

And  turning  unto  me,  Tarlat,  he  said,  "  Tarlat, 
nourish  the  spirit  of  the  youth,  guard  the  writings 
of  Eolus,  preserve  the  chronicles  of  thy  days,  keep 
falsehood  therefrom,  teach  the  children  of  Gael-ag 
to  practise  virtue,  and  they  will  be  happy." 

And  these  were  the  last  of  the  words  of  Eolus 
heard  by  me,  Tarlat.  Eolus,  the  wisest  of  the  sons 
of  Ib-er,  his  spirit  will  abide  for  ever  amongst  men, 
who  delight  in  good,  and  would  shun  evil. 

And  all  the  children  of  the  land  mourned  for 
Eolus,  calling  him  father,  and  instructor. 


(rt)  Look  at  the  Dissertation  and  Glossary. 

(6)  Ralha  means  an  arch,  one  quarter  of  a  ring. 

{bb)  The  word  in  the  original  is  asti,  as  explained  in  the  Dis- 

(o)  This  was  the  primitive  doctrine,  before  morality  was  disfi- 
gured by  impostures  and  superstition,   it  forcibly  inculcates  the 

38  THE    WRITINX; 

practice  of  virtue,  exhibited  in  its  native  simplicity  and  loveliness  ; 
would  to  heaven  it  had  been  suffered  to  abide. 

(d)  This  is  confirmed  by  Ezekiel,  in  fact  the  Hebrews  called  a 
miner  Ib-cr. 

(e)  Britetgneol,  in  the  original  means  the  great  congregation — 
look  at  the  Dissertation. 

(/)  Every  line  of  this  history  proves  the  intimacy  that  subsisted 
between  this  tribe  and  Sydoji.  You  will  bear  in  mind  that  the 
government  of  Sydou  always  spoke  of  Gaelag  and  Buasce  as  if  they 
belonged  to,  and  were  a  part  of  Eisfeine,  but  that  the  Gaal  of 
both  lands  would  not  admit  it. 

To  the  eighteenth  year  of  Eolus,  the  writing  was  his  work  j 
henceforward  the  history  is  the  compilation  of  the  writings  of  the 
several  Aid  Olam  of  Gaelag  and  Ullad  in  Eri. 

In  the  language  of  Eri,  Eolus  means  wi.sdom  ;  whether  he  had 
his  name  from  his  superior  understanding,  or  wisdom  hath  been 
called  Eolus  from  him,  I  cannot  tletermine ;  be  it  as  it  may,  he 
was  a  man  of  rare  endowments. 


Tlie  Reign  of  Don,  tke  son  of  Eolui,  a  space  of 
three  score  and  seven  rings,  from  1335  to  1268. 

-And  Don  was  chosen  in  the  place  of  his  father, 
and  he  had  ships  made  by  men  of  Gael^ag,  and  he 
delighted  to  go  therein  on  the  great  sea. 

And  many  of  the  Gaal  perished  in  the  ships, 
which  the  waves  of  the  waters  overbore  to  the  earth 
beneath.     Alas ! 

When  Dmi  had  ruled  for  eleven  rings,  Tarlat 
died,  and  Lotar  was  chosen  Ard-Olam. 

In  these  days  came  complaint.^  from  the  men  of 

OF    EOLU3.  39 

Gaelag,  who  wrought  in  the  mines  in  Eis-feine,  (a) 
that  they  were  captives  in  the  caverns  of  earth. 

And  Don  was  minded  to  assemble  the  warriors^ 
and  bring  them  forth  with  an  high  hand,  but  Eocaid' 
one  of  the  race,  staid  his  foot,  saying,  "  Let  the 
congregation  be  gatliered  together — ^Will  the  son  of 
Eolus  take  upon  him  such  a  matter  ?" 

And  the  congregation  was  called,  and  Engasc,  a 
chief  of  Gael-ag,  did  take  a  company  with  him,  to 
know  the  truth  ;  but  when  the  servants  of  Feme 
heard  the  cause  of  their  coming,  they  would  not 
suffer  them  to  abide  in  that  land. 

And  Don  again  assembled  the  congregation,  and 
he  told  unto  them  what  had  happened,  and  he  gave 
into  the  hands  of  Lotar  words  for  Ramah,  saying, 

"  How  the  servants  of  Ramah  have  captivated  of 
the  men  of  Gael-ag,  working  at  a  price  in  the 
bowels  of  the  earth  within  Eis-feine,  Engasc,  a 
chief  of  Gael-ag,  will  tell  unto  Ramah,  and  when 
Engasc  shall  hear  the  words  of  Ramah,  then  will 
he  declare  unto  Ramah,  words  of  Don  furthermore." 

And  Don  put  words  into  the  mouth  of  Engasc, 
for  the  ear  of  Ramah,  in  such  or  such  a  case. 

And  Engasc  took  his  departure,  and  he  gave  the 
words  of  Don,  into  the  hands  of  Ramah,  and  when 
he  read  them,  he  looked  confusedly,  after  a  while  he 
said  unto  Engasc, 

"  What,  if  Ramah  should  say  unto  thee,  the  men 
of  whom  Don  speaketh,  are  servants  of  Ramah, 
they  shall  not  go  forth ;  what  wast  thou  then  to  an- 
swer from  thy  master  ?" 

To  which  Engasc  answering,  said, 

"  From  a  master  hath  Engasc  nought  to  say,  the 


children  of  Ib-er  having  no  master ;  from  Don,  and 
the  chiefs  of  the  Gaal  of  Sclot  of  Ih-er,  then  would 
Eiigasc  say,  Let  Ramuh  look  to  himself — Ib-er  is 
his  foe — nothing  more  nor  less  was  Efigasc,  in  such 
a  case,  to  say." 

And  Ramah  called  counsellors  unto  him,  and  he 
enquired  of  Engasc,  if  he  had  power  to  make  a 

And  Engasc  answered,  "  Nay." 

And  Ramah  said,  "  Long  time  shall  not  pass,  ere 
one  having  authority  from  hence,  will  be  in  GaeUag, 
to  fix  a  covenant  for  times  to  come." 

And  E?igasc  said,  "  Till  then  send  words  by  me 
now  unto  thy  servants,  the  children  of  Ib-er  must 
not  feel  the  sting  of  servitude  ;  no,  not  while  the 
eye  winketh."  (c) 

And  the  words  were  written,  and  Engasc  returned 
with  them  to  Eisfeine. 

And  Engasc  delivered  the  words  of  Ramah,  and 
he  speak  with  the  Gael,  and  he  returned  to  his 
place ; 

And  a  covenant  was  made  certain,  that  the  Gaal 
should  have  overseers  of  Gaelag,  and  be  secure  of 
returning  to  their  own  land,  when  the  time  of  en- 
gagements should  expire. 

And  when  Don  had  ruled  one  score  and  fourteen 
rings,  Lotar  died  and  For  was  chosen. 

Now  the  minds  of  the  children  of  Ih-er  were  evil 
towards  all  the  nations  of  Eisfeine,  ui  der  the  do- 
minion of  Ramah,  and  in  these  days  strife  arose 
between  them,  and  the  men  of  Gaelag,  and  the 
Gael  had  the  worst. 

And  Don  sent  unto  the  land  of  metals  saying. 

OF  EOLUS.  41 

*'  Let  all  the  Gaal  whose  time  is  at  an  end,  return 
forthwith" — and  many  returned  to  Gaelag. 

And  when  tidings  thereof  reached  to  Aoi-mag, 
Ramah  sent  a  messenger  unto  Don  saying, 

"  Let  not  the  men  of  Ib-er  use  the  great  sea,  is  it 
not  the  inheritance  of  Ramah  ? — If  Ib-er  will  float 
his  ships  on  the  waters  of  the  deep,  let  him  pay 
tribute  to  Ramah,  and  the  chiefs  of  Aoi-maff  for 
ever."  (cT) 

And  when  the  words  were  repeated  in  the  congre- 
gations, all  the  people  cried  out  as  with  one  voice, 

"  We  will  not  pay  tribute,  let  no  man  speak  of 
such  a  thing,  is  there  not  enough  of  the  world  of 
land,  leave  we  the  world  of  waters,  to  the  JiUstim, 
and  the  Gaal  dwell  within  their  own  land,  they 
enter  not  into  Eisfeine. 

And  when  Don  had  ruled  two  score  and  fifteen 
rings, — Ard-fear  his  first  born  died — and  ere  he  was 
laid  beneath  his  heap  died  For ;  and  Min  was  chosen 
Ard-olam :  and  Min  was  very  aged,  he  set  not  down 
words  on  the  chronicles,  during  his  days  of  six 
rings,  when  he  died — and  Foirnar  was  chosen. 

In  these  days  came  messengers  from  Aoi-mag 
with  words  for  Don  saying, 

"  If  the  men  of  Ib-er  will  work  in  the  earth,  for 
wages  fixed,  under  overseers  of  their  own, — let  them 
tarry  in  the  strange  land,  or  return  to  Gael-ag  when 
they  see  good. 

"  Then  let  the  ships  of  of  Gael-ag  of  a  certain  size, 
float  on  the  face  of  the  deep,  only  they  shall  not  go 
from  the  land,  more  than  the  distance  of  one  day." 

So  vehement  was  the  desire  of  Don  for  ships,  he 
besought  the  chiefs,  and  the  heads  of  the  people  to 


let  it  so  be — and  Don  being  now  very  aged,  they 
were  consenting  unto  his  wish. 

And  the  Covenant  was  made  sure. 

And  Don  died,  having  lived  four  score  and  thirteen 
rings,  and  ruled  three  score  and  seven  thereof. 


(o)  It  is  mentioned  by  all  ancient  writers  that  Spain  abounded 
■with  metals. 

(6)  The  relation  of  this  transaction  serves  to  give  us  an  high 
opinion  of  this  tribe — it  shews  that  they  had  grand  ideas  of  true 
liberty — set  a  just  value  on  freedom,  and  possessed  dignity  of  senti- 
ment to  assert  their  claims,  at  all  hazards, 

(c)  What  a  perfect  similitude  is  to  be  found  in  the  language  of 
tyranny  in  all  times,  and  countries. 

{d)  The  mercantile  government  of  Sydon  were  perfectly  ac- 
quainted with  the  value  of  the  carrying  trade. 


The  reign  of  Lugad  a  space  of  eleven  rings  from 
1268  to  1257. 

Lug  AD  the  son  of  Ardfear,  the  son  oi  Lon,  was 
chosen  to  sit  on  the  seat  of  his  fathers. 

He  was  skilled  in  the  motions  of  the  lights  of 
heaven,  therefore  is  he  called  Re-alt-Cosgrac,  he 
spent  his  days  in  observing  the  waters  of  the  sea  and 
of  the  rivers,  and  his  nights  in  taking  note  of  the 
moon  and  the  stars —  always  in  solitude. 

When  Lugad  had  ruled  six  rings  Toirnar  died, 
and  Dol  was  chosen  Ard-olam  in  his  place. 

And  when   eleven  rings  were  complete  Lugad 

OF    EOLUS.  43 

went  to  Ruad-iat,  for  the  men  of  Gaelag  had  heard 
great  tidings  of  the  wise  men  of  that  land,  (a) 

And  he  took  three  of  the  Olam  to  be  in  his  com- 
pany, Cean-mor  his  brother,  being  placed  on  his  seat, 
till  he  should  return. 

But  neither  Lugad,  nor  one  of  the  Olam  did  again 
behold  the  hills  of  Gaelag  having  perished  by  the 
pestilence — thus  hath  all  the  wisdom  of  Re-alt- 
Cosgrac  been  lost  to  the  children  of  this  land,  (h) 

If  the  spirit  oi  Re-alt-Cosgrac  endureth,  it  abideth 
in  Ruad'iat 

"  The  days  of  his  rule  are  marked,  from  the  day 
on  which  he  was  chosen,  till  the  time  he  took  his 
departure  from  Gael-ag,  eleven  rings." 


(«)  Ritad-iut,  means  the  Red  land  or  country ;  the  land  of  Edom 
has  been  rendered  by  the  Greeks,  Eryihria,  as  well  as  Idumea,  but 
in  the  colonies  of  the  Phceniciaiis  in  Lybia,  and  Spain,  it  is  invari- 
ably called  by  the  Romans  not  Eryihria,  but  Erythia,  the  mutation 
of  the  original  Phcenician,  named  Ruad-iat,  as  in  these  Chronicles. 

{b)  You  will  perceive  from  divers  passages  that  the  idea  of  the 
Olam,  and  of  all  those  who  did  not  adhere  to  the  dogmas  of  the 
priests,  was, — that  what  they  called  the  spirit,  or  as  is  now  called 
the  soul  of  man,  was  the  portion  of  intelligence  he  possessed  and 
imparted  to  mankind. 



The  reign  of  Cean-mor,  a  space  of  seventeen  rings, 
from  1257  to  1240. 

IjUG A Dhemg  no  more,  Ceaw-mor,  his  brother, 
was  chosen,  {a) 

And  as  he  examined  the  tent  of  Lugad,  he  found 

And  Ceanmor  sent  unto  me  Dol  to  come  unto 
him,  and  I  looked  upon  the  words,  and  they  were 
concerning  the  sun,  the  moon,  and  the  stars,  the 
world  of  land,  and  the  world  of  waters. 

XnACean-mor  enquired  of  me  the  meaning  there- 
of, but  Dol  knew  not. 

And  Cean-mor  said,  what  if  three  of  the  Olam 
come  unto  thee,  and  that  ye  look  upon  the  writing 

And  Dol  called  unto  him  Gol,  Feil,  and  Monad, 
to  the  tent  of  the  chief,  and  the  writings  were 
brought  forth. 

The  words  told  of  things  on  which  Reali-Cosgrac 
had  thought,  not  on  what  his  mind  had  determined ; 
they  were  thrown  confusedly,  when  set  in  order^ 
they  did  shew  his  thoughts,  and  these  were  the 
things  that  he  did  think  upon. 

He  thought  the  earth  was  not  a  plain,  and  that 
the  world  of  land  did  not  end  at  Gael-ag  ;  if  so  it 
was,  the  waters  would  be  too  mighty,  and  could  not 
be  contained  from  spreading  over  the  earth  above. 

OF   EOLUS.  45 

"  As  I  have  stood  upon  the  land,"  saith  he,  "  and 
looked  upon  the  waters  of  the  deep,  and  seen  them 
reach  unto  a  certain  point,  and  taken  back  from 
thence  into  the  bosom  of  the  sea,  then  have  I 
thought  that  the  earth  was  not  fixed  on  a  foundation, 
but  was  gently  wafted  now  here,  then  there.  Why, 
Baal  hath  not  given  me  wisdom  enough  to  know, 
woe  is  me." 

"  Have  not  I  raised  my  tent  upon  the  margin  of 
the  land,  where  the  fresh  Duor  kisseth  Ocean's  salt 
lips ;  have  I  not  watched  their  amorous  dalliance, 
and  leave  taking,  constant  in  meeting  at  their  as- 
signed place,  save  when  the  moon,  proud  in  her 
strength,  doth  inspirit  her  favorite  son,  now  par- 
taking of  her  lustiness,  to  court  the  nimble  streams 
more  wooingly,  and  stride  a  larger  limit  within  the 
land,  as  tho'  determined  to  regain  his  empire  long 
time  lost ;  and  then  grown  pale,  her  face  half  hid- 
den from  the  sight  of  man,  do  I  not  note  how  Ocean 
lags,  as  tho'  in  coyness,  waiting  the  brisk  approach 
of  comely  Duor. 

"  These  things  do  I  observe  ;  but  Lugad  lacketh 
wisdom  to  set  down  the  cause  ;  and  doth  not  Eolus 
say — Eolus,  the  wisest  of  the  sons  of  man  ?  "  Wis- 
dom is  a  knowledge  of  the  truth" — the  truth  herein 
Lugad  cannot  tell. 

"  When  earth  doth  move,  if  move  he  doth,  where 
stoppeth  he,  till  back  he  swingeth  ?  Is  the  great 
earth  fixed  as  my  little  tent  ?"  Doth  not  Eolus  say, 
"  Many  are  the  things  beyond  the  reason  which  man 
possesseth."  And  again,  "  Many  are  the  things  hid- 
den from  man."     Lugad  is  a  son  of  Eolus,  perse- 


vere  he  must.  He  will  journey  to  the  east,  and 
hear  the  words  of  the  wise  men  of  that  land,  {b) 

And  when  we  had  set  the  words  in  order,  and  had 
pondered  on  the  value  thereof,  we  did  stand  in  the 
presence  of  Cean-mor  therewith,  and  when  he  did 
hear  them,  he  looked  amazedly  at  one  now,  then  on 
another,  at  length  he  said.  What  doth  Dol  think  ? 

And  Dol,  speaking  for  himself,  and  for  the  Olam, 
answered,  "  We  know  not  what  to  think." 

And  Don,  a  chief  of  Gael-ag,  who  stood  nigh  unto 
Cean-mor,  said,  "  What  if  the  words  were  put  into 
the  hands  of  the  priests,  they  belong  to  Baal." 

And  Cean-mor  said,  "  Nay ;"  and  he  added,  "  Let 
the  words  be  set  down  on  the  chronicles  for  times  to 
come ;"  and  he  said  moreover,  "  What  if  Dol  would 
look  upon  the  writings  of  the  priests,  to  see  if  they 
speak  aught  of  such  like." 

And  after  a  while  Dol  did  talk  with  Sborad,  called 
the  wisest  of  the  priests ;  and  Sborad  did  shew  unto 
Dol  of  the  writings  of  the  priests. 

And  when  Dol  did  look  upon  them,  he  was  in 
wonder ;  if  the  words  of  Lugad  did  declare  on  what 
he  did  think,  his  mind  always  diffident ;  not  so  the 
priests,  they  did  speak,  nothing  in  doubt,  all  the 
words  appertaining  to  Baal  and  the  priests,  and  the 
nine  laws  to  the  nine  priests  from  the  beginning, 
Baal  speaketh  only  unto  the  priests  ;  let  the  priests 
repeat  the  words  of  Baal  unto  the  people,  (c) 

And  Dol  did  tell  all  these  things  in  the  hearing  of 
Cean-mor,  and  he  said,  "  Let  all  be  set  down  for  the 
eye  of  other  times,"  and  Dol  hath  done  thereunto. 

Peace  is  with  us,  the  Olam  are  diligent  in  instruct- 

OP  EOLUS.  47 

ing  the  youth,    the    Gaal   encrease    exceedingly, 
spreading  themselves  over  the  land. 

Cean-mor  ruled  for  the  course  of  seventeen  rings, 
then  did  he  cease,  his  frame  consumed  \>y  a  burning 


(a)  Cean-mor,  means  great  head,  it  is  called  in  modern  times, 
Kenmore,  by  the  Scots. 

(6)  This  is  a  curious  narrative,  what  great  light  Lugad  might 
have  shed  on  the  sciences  of  Astronomy  and  Geography,  had  he 
had  aid  in  his  untutored  researches,  or  even  encouragement  in  the 
prosecution  of  them. 

(c)  What  an  instance  we  have  here  of  the  difference  between  the 
modest  doubts  of  wisdom,  and  the  aiTogant  presumption  of  ignor- 

CHAP.  X. 

The  Reign  of  Cean-ard  the  son  of  Lugad,  a  space 
of  one  score  rings  from  1240  to  1220. 

CeAN-ARD  the  youngest  of  the  sons  of  Lugad 
was  chosen  to  rule. 

And  Eocaid  his  brother  stirred  up  of  the  Gaal  to 
trouble  him,  and  to  vex  the  land,  saying, 

Why  is  it  that  Eocaid  hath  been  set  by,  what  hath 
been  his  transgression  in  the  sight  of  the  children  of 
the  land  ? 

But  Eocaid  waited  not  for  an  answer  to  his  words, 
he  gathered  together  .those  who  inclined  their  ears 
to  listen  to  his  voice. 


And  the  multitude  moved  towards  the  tents  of 
Cean-ard  ere  he  was  aware,  howbeit,  he  escaped  to 

And  thither  did  he  call  unto  him,  all  who  adhered 
to  the  laws  of  the  Gaol  from  generation  to  generation. 

And  a  mighty  host  stood  round  Cean-ard  the 
elected,  and  many  fell  off  from  Cogarrad. 

When  Eocaid  found  that  he  could  not  prevail,  he 
and  those  in  his  company  fled  from  the  presence  of 
Cean-ard,  and  passing  over  Bearna,  they  abided 
on  that  side  of  the  mountains — calling  the  land 

When  Cean-ard  had  ruled  for  seven  rings,  Dol 
died,  and  Gol  was  chosen  Ard-olam. 

And  when  Cean-ard  had  ruled  twelve  rings  a  sore 
famine  oppressed  Gael-ag — than  did  multitudes  of 
kine  of  all  sorts  perish,  and  in  the  ring  that  next  was 
forming  the  Gael  was  made  fewer  by  one  full  half. 

And  when  Cean-ard  had  ruled  one  score  rings 
complete,  he  sickened,  and  died 

Here  we  have  the  authentic  record  of  the  emigration  from  Galicia 
in  Spain,  of  a  colony  of  Iberian  Scythians,  to  the  far  side  of  the 
Pyrenees,  where  they  abided  between  the  ocean,  the  rivers  Garonne 
and  Rhone,  and  the  Pyrenean  mountains,  calling  their  country 
Escaidlan,  the  Aquitania  of  the  Romans. 


TJie  Reign  of  Marcah  the  son  of  Cean-ard,  a  space 
of  sixteen  rings  from  1220  to  1204. 

jVIaRCAH  the  son  of  Cean-ard  was  chosen  to 
lule  the  land,  but  the  land  is  desolate,  full  only  of 

OF   EOLUS.  49 

grief  and  lamentations,  famine  oppresseth,  sickness 
lieth  heavily  on  the  bosom  of  Gael-ag. 

Oh  how  afflicting  to  behold  the  thin  congregations, 
as  they  stand  feebly  round  the  mounts! 

Sore  was  all  the  time  of  sixteen  rings  that  Marcah 
ruled,  then  did  he  cease,  thrown  from  the  back  of 
his  horse,  as  he  was  pursuing  a  deer  on  Cean-Iber — 
his  neck  strained,  that  he  died  on  the  spot,  whereon 
he  fell.     Alas ! 


The  reign  of  Cuir  tJie  son  of  Cean-ard,  a  space  of 
one  score  rings  lacking  one  ring  from  1204  to  1185. 

CUIR  the  son  of  Cean-ard  was  chosen. 

When  he  had  ruled  sixteen  rings  Gol  died,  and 
Miirchad  was  chosen  Ard-olam. 

Cuir  gave  himself  up  to  the  chase,  and  all  manner 
of  sports,  and  he  sent  many  of  the  youth  to  the  land 
of  Aoi-mag,  to  get  knowledge  in  touching  the  strings 
of  the  harp. 

He  taketh  more  delight  in  the  sound  of  the  voice 
of  the  harp,  than  in  lessons  of  wisdom  from  the  lips 
of  the  Olam. 

After  this  manner  did  Cuir  pass  through  a  course 
of  one  score  rings  lacking  one,  when  he  died,  not  so 
much  oppressed  by  time,  as  by  a  wasteful  spending 
of  it. 



The  Reign  of  Aod,  the  son  of  Marcad,  a  space  of 
one  score  rings  and  tivo,  from  1185  to  1163. 

A.  OD,  the  son  of  Marcad,  was  chosen  to  rule  in 

The  lessons  of  the  Olam  are  held  at  nought,  the 
I)ards,  and  the  minstrels  only  are  heard ;  the  priests 
give  ear  unto  music  continually,  the  countenance  of 
the  chiefs  is  turned  away  from  the  teachers  of  wis- 
dom— nothing  is  heard  throughout  Gael-ag,  but  the 
sound  of  the  harp,  the  song,  and  tales  of  other  times, 
nought  is  seen  but  folly  and  the  dance. 

The  Olam  say  the  harp,  and  song,  and  sweet  tale 
are  precious,  yet  do  they  ask,  is  the  knowledge  of 
wisdom  to  be  neglected  ?  but  our  voice  is  not  heard, 
()  grief 

Thus  have  days  and  nights  passed  in  Gael-ag, 
during  the  course  of  one  score  rings  and  two,  that 
Aod  hath  sat  on  the  seat  of  the  chief 

Words  other  than  these  Murchad  hath  not  for  the 
time  of  A  od. 


The  Reign  of  Ib-er,  the  sou  of  Aod,  a  space  of 
four  rings,  from  1163  to  1159. 

^02>  having  ceased,  Ib-er y  his  son,  was  chosen. 

OP   EOLUS.  51 

In  twelve  days  afterwards,  Murcad  died,  and 
Molt  was  chosen  Ard-Olam. 

When  Ihei'  had  wasted  the  time  of  four  rings, 
then  he  fell  by  the  hand  of  Fnlh. 

Is  not  the  secret  love  of  Ih-er  and  Mhi  amongst 
the  songs  of  the  bards,  composed  by  Alistar,  shew- 
ing the  fall  of  Ih-er  and  the  fate  of  Min,  the  beau- 
tiful daughter  of  Talt  and  Orta,  Min  whom  Falb, 
a  chief  Gael-ag  had  taken,  {a) 


{a)  The  orders  of  Olam,  and  bard  totiilly  distinct,  never  trenched 
on  each  ether,  the  former  recorded  events  of  importance  only,  the 
latter,  composed  in  verse,  and  for  the  most  part  in  terms  of  mar- 
vellous exaggeration  for  which  they  did  not  seek  credit,  anxious 
only  for  praise  of  style  r.i::l  fancy,  yet  was  the  tale  always  founded 
on  fact. 


The  Reign  of  Maol,  a  space  of  eighteen  rings, 
from  1159  to  1141. 

JjIa  OL,  the  son  of  Aod,  was  chosen  in  the  place 
of  his  brother. 

In  these  days  the  priests  gathered  themselves  at 
Sahreid,  and  nine  of  the  priests  entered  into  the 
presence  of  Maol,  ere  they  had  been  sent  for,  and 
they  did  say  by  the  mouth  of  Brathar, 

"  O  king,  let  the  priests   of  Baal  chuse  from 



amongst  them,  one  to  be  over  his  brethren,  like 
unto  the  nations  of  Eis-Feine — yea,  like  unto  the 

And  Maol  said,  "  Let  the  chiefs,  and  the  heads 
of  the  people  be  gathered  together,  and  let  the 
words  of  Brathar  be  repeated  in  the  hearing  of  all 
the  congregations  thro'  the  land." 

And  Brathar  answered,  and  said,  "  The  priests 
of  the  most  high  Baal  desire  not  to  hear  the  voice 
of  the  chiefs,  and  the  heads  of  the  people — If  Maol 
would  speak." 

And  3Iaol  said,  "  If  the  words  of  the  priests  are 
pleasing  unto  Baal — so  be  it." 

And  Brathar  was  chosen  Ard  Cruimtear,  after 
this  manner. 

The  priests  rule  in  Gael-ag.  {a)  Have  they  not  por- 
tions of  the  land  set  out  by  themselves,  in  the  stead 
of  offerings,  as  aforetime,  and  offerings  notwith- 
standing.    O!  shame! 

When  Maol  had  been  called  chief  for  seventeen 
rings,  Molt  died,  and  Ner  was  Ard  Olam. 

And  when  one  other  ring  was  complete,  Maol 
died,  miserable  Maol,  unworthy  son  of  Eolm  the 


(a)  The  priesthood  had  been  gaining  an  ascendancy  for  a  long 
while,  till  now  in  the  reign  of  Maol  they  made  great  innovations, 
they  were  not  only  jealous  of  the  Olam,  but  it  seems  as  if  the  priests 
of  Sydon  had  commenced  somewhere  about  this  time  to  usurp  a 
greater  share  of  power  than  usual,  that  their  example  was  followed 
by  those  in  Eisfcine,  subject  to  Sydon,  and  now  imitated  by  those 
of  Gaelag.     From  all  which  it  is  evident  that  the  people  of  St/don, 

OF  EOLUS.  53 

and  the  Gael  of  Jber,  had  one  and  the  same  religion,  that  is  fire 
worship,  and  the  adoration  of  Baal,  however  they  may  differ .  in 
ceremony  and  discipline  according  to  local  circumstances. 


The  Reign  of  Ib-er,  a  space  of  one  score  and  three 
rings,  from  1141  to  1118. 

ZB-ER,  the  son  of  Maol,  was  chosen. 

Great  was  the  difficulty  I,  Ner,  had,  to  read  the 
writing  of  Eolus  on  that  day.  Did  not  all  the  priests 
say  aloud,  and  as  with  but  one  voice,  "  Let  not  the 
words  of  Eolus  be  repeated  in  the  ears  of  the  con- 
gregation ?  Hath  not  Eolus  spoken  evil  of  Baal, 
and  utterly  despised  his  priests  V 

But  the  Gaal  would  hear  the  words  of  the  wisest 
of  the  race,  and  the  priests  were  put  to  silence  in 
the  face  of  the  people,  nevertheless  the  youth  do 
not  flock  to  the  booths  of  the  Olam,  <is  aforetime. 

Thus  Ih-er  ruled  by  the  priests  for  the  course  of 
one  score  and  three  rings,  when  he  died,  his  spirit 
quite  subdued. 



The  Reign  of  Bfercad  a  space  of  one  score  and 
thirteen  rings  from  1118  to  1085. 

MaRCAD  the  son  of  IJ)er  was  chosen  in  the 
place  of  his  father.    His  days  are  spent  in  idleness. 

Do  not  the  priests  direct  all  the  steps  of  Marcad, 
save  those  of  the  chase  over  the  hills  and  through  the 
dales  of  Gael-ag  ? 

When  Marcad  had  ruled  for  the  space  of  nine 
rings  Ner  died,  and  Sulard  was  chosen  Ard-olam. 

The  Olam  lament  the  occurrences  of  all  these 
days.  They  say  unto  the  king  and  unto  the  chiefs. 
Ye  decline  from  the  wisdom  and  the  glory  of  your 

O  King,  O  Chiefs  of  the  Gaal  of  Sciot  of  Ib-er, 
will  you  not  reflect,  that  the  Olam  will  inscribe  a 
stain  on  the  leaves  of  the  annals. 

May  the  fire  of  the  spirit  of  those  that  are  yet  to 
come  be  so  pure,  that  the  memory  of  these  days  will 
be  weakened,  though  the  0/«w  must  never  blot  out 
the  words. 

What  are  the  things  that  have  happened,  and  that 
even  now  are  passing  ? 

Have  not  the  priests  abandoned  Asti  (a)  near  the 
mounts  ?  have  they  not  placed  their  servants  therein  ? 
are  not  cams  in  multitudes  heaped  up  on  places 
theretofore  unknown — are  not  offerings  taken  by 
force  from  the  Gaal — the  priests  trooping  to  the 
great  congregation  of  the  people  only — no  one  to  raise 

OF    EOLUS.  55 

a  voice  against  these  things  save  the  Olam,  but  what 
avail  the  words  of  the  Olam  ? 

After  this  manner  have  passed  all  the  days  of  one 
score  and  thirteen  rings  that  Marcad  bore  the  name 
of  Kiniir. — O  shame ! 


(fl)  To  understand  this  it  is  necessary  to  inform  you,  that  the 
priests  assuming  an  importance  unknown  to  former  times,  quitted 
Aati,  (which  were  their  dwelling,  nigli  unto  the  Bri-telnge,  or  fire 
vnounts,  here  and  there  through  the  land,  where  the  congregations 
always  assembled,)  placed  an  inferior  order  in  Asli,  and  lived  on  the 
portions  of  the  land  obtained  in  lieu  of  offerings,  which  nevertiie- 
less  their  servants  called  Carneac,  (from  their  establishing  piles  of 
small  stones  in  the  place  of  Bri,  or  mounts  of  earth,)  demanded 
and  exacted.  In  short  the  priests  neglected  the  only  duties  they 
were  ordained  to  perform,  lived  in  idleness,  and  attended  only  the 
Bri-ielgne-ol,  or  great  congregations,  where  the  chiefs  assembled  on 
great  occasions,  leaving  the  office  of  the  priesthood  to  the  Carneac, 
and  the  payment  of  them  to  the  people,  by  offerings  given  up  before 
for  the  land  which  the  priests  possessed.  You  will  perhaps  perceive 
a  resemblance  between  the  state  of  the  priesthood  of  Gaelag  at  this 
lime,  and  that  of  establishments  of  the  same  kind  in  Christendom 
now,  with  allowance  for  the  different  state  of  society :  whilst  it  is 
manifest,  that  nature,  vulgarly  so  called,  more  pi'operly  the  inveter- 
ate propensity  of  mankind  to  grasp  power,  and  as  certainly  to  make 
ill  use  of  it,  has  ever  been  the  sam©  in  all  ages,  and  in  all  countries. 


T/ie  liL'igu  of  Noid  a  space  of  nineteen  rings  from 
1085  to  1066. 

J^  OID  was  chosen  in  the  place  of  his  father,  he 


lived  nineteen  rings,  numbered  amongst  the  kings 
of  the  Gaal. 

Words  more  than  these  Sulard  hath  not  to  set 
down  concerning  Noid. — O  Grief! 


The  Reign  of  Og,  a  space    of  one  score  and  one 
rings  from  1066  to  1045. 

jyiOITi  being  no  more,  Og  his  brother,  the  youngest 
of  the  sons  Qi  Mar  cad  was  chosen. 

When  he  had  sat  during  four  rings  Sidard  died, 
and  Feilimid  was  chosen  Ard-olam. 

At  this  time  multitudes  of  the  Gaal  and  many  of 
the  heads  of  people  departed  from  Gael-ag  to  Buasce. 

And  a  small  colony  passed  over  Bearna,  led  by 
Falh  a  chief  of  Gaelag,  the  son  of  Fermor  the  son 
of  Bo7'b,  the  son  of  Mori  the  son  of  that  Falb  who 
slew  Ih-er  the  king— all  flying  from  the  oppression 
of  the  priests. 

Are  not  the  rules  of  the  priests  the  only  laws  of 
Gael-ag  1 — Is  not  the  spirit  of  knowledge  almost 
extinguished  ? 

Many  a  time  and  oft  doth  Feilimid  s^eak  in  the 
ear  of  Og,  repeating  to  him  the  words  of  Eolus. 

He  seemeth  to  listen — of  what  avail  is  seeming  to 
a  mind  in  dread  ? 

Now  when  Og,  had  ruled  during  one  score  rings 
precisely,  multitudes